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Topic: Nasal consonant

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  Nasal consonant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A nasal stop is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
When a language is claimed to lack nasal consonants altogether, as with several Niger-Congo languages, or the Pirahã language of the Amazon, nasal and non-nasal consonants usually alternate allophonically, and it is a theoretical claim on the part of the individual linguist that the nasal version is not the basic form of the consonant.
However, several of the Chimakuan, Salish, and Wakashan languages surrounding Puget Sound, such as Quileute, Lushootseed, and Makah, are truly without any nasalization at all, in consonants or vowels, except in special speech registers such as baby-talk or the archaic speech of mythological figures (and perhaps not even that in the case of Quileute).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Nasal_consonant   (706 words)

 Nasal consonant - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
Nasal consonants are sonorants, (as are laterals, approximants, and vowels), meaning they do not restrict the escape of the air.
Both stops and fricatives are known as obstruents.) Nasals are sometimes called nasal stops because the flow of air through the mouth is stopped completely, although since air escapes through the nose, the flow is air is not stopped completely.
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /nasal_consonant.htm   (370 words)

 Stop consonant article - Stop consonant Manners articulation Nasal consonant Fricative consonant Lateral - ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
A stop or plosive is a consonant sound produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract by the lips or tongue.
The obstruction in the mouth is then suddenly opened; the released airflow produces a sudden impulse in pressure causing an audible sound.
Some languages have stops made with other mechanisms too: these are called ejective, implosive, or click dependent on the mechanism.
www.what-means.com /encyclopedia/Plosive   (249 words)

 Consonant   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The word consonant comes from Latin meaning "sounding with" or "sounding together", the idea being that consonants don't sound on their own, but only occur with a nearby vowel, although this conception of consonants does not reflect a modern linguistic understanding of consonants, which defines consonants in terms of vocal tract constrictions.
There are a group of consonants called sonorants that sometimes act as vowels, occupying the peak of a syllable, and sometimes act as consonants.
The phonation method of a consonant is whether or not the vocal cords are vibrating during articulation of a consonant.
www.sciencedaily.com /encyclopedia/consonant   (573 words)

 Alveolar nasal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
It is a nasal consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose.
It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by allowing the airstream to flow over the middle of the tongue, rather than the sides.
The digraph 'ng' is usually pronounced either [ŋ] (velar nasal), as in hang, or [ŋg], as in finger.
www.sevenhills.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Alveolar_nasal   (342 words)

 ICSLP-2000 Abstract: Chen, Marilyn Y.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The present study concentrates on the nasality module that attempts to detect the presence of an underlying nasal consonant, which is almost always adjacent to a vowel.
Normally, cues from three regions in the sound indicate the presence of a nasal consonant: (1) abrupt spectral change from the vowel to the nasal murmur, (2) vowel nasalization, and (3) nasal murmur.
The nasality module that has been developed is a sonorant landmark detector that greatly reduces false landmark detection and distinguishes nasals from laterals by incorporating additional nasal manner cues.
www.isca-speech.org /archive/icslp_2000/i00_4636.html   (243 words)

 Synthetic vowel-nasal formants
The perception of a synthetic nasal consonant is affected by the formant structure of a preceding vowel.
When transitions from the vowel F2 to a target frequency (not necessarily corresponding to a nasal formant frequency) are present between vowel and nasal, the target frequency determines the perception of the nasal consonant.
The nasal percept does not depend on continuity between the formants of the vowel and nasal consonant.
www.dcs.shef.ac.uk /~sue/synthvn_formants.html   (550 words)

 Variations in Velic and Lingual Articulation
Prosodic effects are examined for both lingual and nasal articulations for the nasal consonant (in 2 separate experiments), in order to evaluate whether prosodic conditioning of articulation may be a general phenomenon in speech or is restricted to some articulatory subsystem.
Variation in nasal airflow corresponds to variation in velum height as long as the total amount of airflow going to the nose is the same and the oral constriction remains the same.
Manuel [1991] suggested that the reduction of velopharyngeal opening (therefore nasal flow) for nasal consonants in word initial positions contributes to the reduction of the sonority of the consonant.
www.essex.ac.uk /web-sls/papers/96-02/96-02.html   (4032 words)

 Taiwanese (linguistics) Information - TextSheet.com
Syllables contain an initial consonant, a vowel, and a final consonant; each of these may be nasal.
However, it is possible to have a nasal 4th or 8th tone syllable such as siaⁿh, as long as there is no final consonant other than h.
The additional necessities are the nasal symbol ⁿ (superscript n; the capital form is seldom used), and the tonal diacritics.
www.medbuster.com /encyclopedia/t/ta/taiwanese__linguistics_.html   (2740 words)

 Nasal consonant -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
A nasal consonant is produced when the (A muscular flap that closes off the nasopharynx during swallowing or speaking) velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
(Compare with oral (A consonant produced by stopping the flow of air at some point and suddenly releasing it) stop consonants, which block off the air completely, and (A continuant consonant produced by breath moving against a narrowing of the vocal tract) fricatives, which force the air through a narrow channel.
Both stops and fricatives are known as (Click link for more info and facts about obstruent) obstruents.) Nasals are sometimes called nasal stops because the flow of air through the mouth is stopped completely, although since air escapes through the nose, the flow is air is not stopped completely.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/n/na/nasal_consonant.htm   (577 words)

 Lateral consonant   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Laterals are "L"-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue.
The other variant, so-called dark [l] (found before consonants or word-finally as in bold or tell), is pronounced with the tongue assuming a spoon-like shape and its back part raised, which gives the sound an [u]-like resonance.
Rarer lateral consonants include the sound of Welsh ll, which is a voiceless lateral fricative, and the retroflex laterals as can be found in most Hindustani languages.
mywiseowl.com /articles/Lateral_consonant   (309 words)

 Words in Mawu
Thus a consonant whose place of articulation is alveolar--that is, whose constriction is made with the tip or blade of the tongue pressing against the alveolar ridge, just behind the top front teeth--can be of six different kinds, according to how the constriction is made, and what is happening elsewhere in the vocal tract.
Furthermore, it readily spreads to influence the initial consonant of a following syllable, in a systematic pattern according to which voiceless consonants become voiced; voiced stops and fricatives become prenasalized (that is, they acquire a short nasal segment at their beginning); and glides, liquids and implosives all become the corresponding nasal consonants.
CVN (where N is a nasal consonant of some sort) is almost as simple and natural a syllable structure as CV, and it is quite common for languages to allow only a such a nasal as a syllable-final element.
www.ling.upenn.edu /courses/Fall_1998/ling001/mawu/node2.html   (8641 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Nasal vowels are usually produced with the airstream escaping A. through the nasal cavity B. through unplugged nostrils C. both through the nose and through the mouth D. through the oral cavity E. through the right nostril 24.
The th in untruthfulness is A. a derivational suffix B. a circumfix C. a derivational infix D. a portmanteau E. an unproductive derivational suffix 29.
Grimm’s Law is the name given to: A) the rule of final consonant devoicing that differentiates German and English B) consonant shifts that took place between Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Germanic C) the explanation for a group of exceptions to Verner’s Law F.
www.chass.utoronto.ca /~slugs/exams/lin100s99.doc   (1129 words)

 Reconstructing the Sindarin Verb System
Consonant stems ending in -v derived from original -m (instead of original -b) would likewise have past tenses in -m, though in their case there would be no archaic forms in -mb.
Consonant stems are fond of -i- as their connecting vowel, and we would expect a verb like, say, cab- "leap" from a stem KAP to have the primitive participle *kap-i-lâ "leaping".
The consonant of the ending -en is what remains of -nâ after the loss of final vowels, whereas the vowel of -en is the vowel all past tense forms formerly ended in (in Quenya, all preterites still end in -e).
www.uib.no /People/hnohf/sverb-rec.htm   (18831 words)

When obstruent and nasal consonants would occur in preconsonantal position as the result of vowel deletion, as in (c) and (d), the obstruent/nasal and the liquid metathesize and the obstruent/nasal consonants surface in prevocalic position (Heine 1976, Oomen 1981, Sim 1981).
Acoustic and Auditory Similarity(Hume 1997, 1998): The contiguity of a consonant to a vowel with similar perceptual cues are a motivating factor of Rendille metathesis.
Nasals, on the other hand, are characterized by formants as well as antiformants, the latter having the effect, among other things, of lowering the amplitude of all higher formants (Fant 1960, Johnson 1996).
www.ling.ohio-state.edu /~ehume/metathesis/Rendille.html   (836 words)

 Institute of Phonetic Sciences,
This is relatively natural: under nasalization, a glide is still a glide, and a vowel is still a vowel, so that their main perceptual specifications are honoured in the output.
Analogously to the situation in most other languages, where nasality can be seen as superposed on an oral string and implemented with a [lowered velum] gesture, these harmony systems may consider orality (in half of their morphemes) as being superposed on a nasal string and implemented with a [raised velum] gesture, i.e.
In the Dutch dialect of Bemmel, the nasal sandhi in
fonsg3.let.uva.nl /Proceedings/Proceedings22/PaulBoersmaA/PaulBoersma1998a.html   (6275 words)

 LabPhon 8 - Abstracts   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Indeed, in this language, nasal consonants preceding nasal vowels are post-stopped or are realized with a sharp transition between the nasal consonant and the nasal vowel.
The nasal vowel following a nasal consonant is always produced with a weaker airflow and a sharp transition in the nasal airflow between the consonant and the vowel.
This suggests that the co-articulation between the nasal vowel and the nasal consonant plays a crucial role to identify the nasality of the vowel and that Karitiana speakers must co-articulate nasal vowels with nasal consonants, in addition to the strategy to avoid the contact of oral vowels and nasal consonants.
sapir.ling.yale.edu /labphon8/Talk_Abstracts/Storto.html   (719 words)

 Nasal consonant   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
(Compare with oral stop consonants, which block off the air completely, and fricatives, which force the air through a narrow channel.
is an alveolar or dental nasal: see alveolar nasal
Examples of languages containing nasals: English, German and Cantonese have, and French has, and, as well as in a few recent loanwords (such as le parking).
nasal-consonant.area51.ipupdater.com   (327 words)

 HLW: Word Forms: Processes: Assimilation
But notice that the change from an alveolar to a dental consonant should not interfere seriously with comprehension because the resulting sounds are quite similar to the original ones and because English has no dental stop or dental nasal phonemes that could be confused with the sounds that result.
Note that the nasalization of the vowel in tan, sang, and jam is completely predictable from the vowel's context, specifically, the following nasal consonant.
This means that all English vowels have a nasalized (at least to some degree) allophone, which occurs when the vowels precede a nasal consonant.
www.indiana.edu /~hlw/PhonProcess/assimilation.html   (3809 words)

 CSLI Calendar, 3 November 1994, vol.10:6
In this language, suffixes such as applicative /-id-/ are realized nasal even when the nasal is not the immediately preceding consonant, e.g., -mat-in-, -miituk-in-, etc. As seen in these examples, voiceless consonants are transparent to nasal harmony.
While prenasalized consonants do not condition nasal consonant harmony (hence, -biimb-il-), they too are somehow transparent to the process, hence: /-niimb-id-/ --> -niimb-in- because of the initial /n/.
I will begin by showing that the nasal harmony effects are pervasive in the language (within the stem domain) and then argue that they should be captured by a phonological rule of [+nasal] spreading (i.e., not by allomorphy or feature copying).
www-csli.stanford.edu /Archive/calendar/1994-95/msg00005.html   (2289 words)

 Fricative consonant - One Language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Fricative consonants are produced by air flowing through a narrow channel made by placing two articulating organs close together (e.g.
the tip of the tongue and the upper teeth, as in the pronunciation of English initial "th" in thick, or the back of the tongue and the soft palate, as in the case of German [x], the final consonant of Bach).
Ubykh may be the language with the most fricatives, with 26.
www.onelang.com /encyclopedia/index.php/Fricative   (171 words)

[n] consonant articulated by constricting (but not closing) the vocal tract
occlusive, plosive, plosive consonant, plosive speech sound, stop, stop consonant
consonant, fricative, fricative consonant, liquid, nasal, nasal consonant, spirant
www.hyperdictionary.com /dictionary/continuant+consonant   (30 words)

 Nasal Consonant Encyclopedia Article, Definition, History, Biography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
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www.fburg.com /encyclopedia/Nasal_consonant   (851 words)

 Nasal consonant   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
A nasal is a sound produced when the is allowed to escape through the nose its oral passage may be blocked by lips or tongue (a nasal stop) or opened (a nasal vowel).
[n] is an alveolar or dental nasal: see voiced alveolar nasal
[ɲ] voiced palatal nasal (SAMPA [J]); is a common sound in languages as in: Spanish ñ ; or French and Italian gn ; or Catalan and Hungarian ny ; or Portuguese nh.
www.freeglossary.com /Nasal_consonant   (149 words)

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