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Topic: Nationalist terrorism


  
 Terrorism - MSN Encarta
In broad terms the causes that have commonly compelled people to engage in terrorism are grievances borne of political oppression, cultural domination, economic exploitation, ethnic discrimination, and religious persecution.
State-sponsored terrorism is a form of covert (secret) warfare, a means to wage war secretly through the use of terrorist surrogates (stand-ins) as hired guns.
Terrorism operates underground, concealed from the eyes of the authorities and from potential informants among the populace.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761564344_2/Terrorism.html   (2233 words)

  
 Wikipedia: Terrorism
Terrorism, originating from the French 18th century word terrorisme (under the Terror), is the term commonly used to refer to the calculated use of violence or the threat of violence, against a civilian population, for the purpose of producing fear usually for some political end.
Acts of revolutionary or guerrilla warfare usually are not considered to constitute terrorism, unless the revolutionaries or guerrillas they deliberately and specifically select civilians as targets of violence in the pursuit of political or religious ends.
Almost all the countries in Latin America have experienced periods of state terrorism under dictatorial or military governments, pushed by the CIA Condor Plan; it was common that the initial three to five years after the coup d'├ętat were characterized by violence, arbitrary detentions, exile, torture, and "disappearances".
www.factbook.org /wikipedia/en/t/te/terrorism.html   (4454 words)

  
 History News Network
Terrorism still occurred frequently on the basis of national conflicts, but it was no longer primarily directed against political and military leaders of the other side; it became progressively more and more indiscriminate.
Furthermore, other forms of terrorism occurred, such as terrorism that was largely religiously motivated and terrorism which consisted of a mixture of ideological and criminal elements, such as the drug trade.
Terrorism could flourish only in a surrounding that was at least partly democratic in character or, alternatively, in a wholly inefficient dictatorship.
hnn.us /articles/printfriendly/1629.html   (1871 words)

  
 Terrorism : Terrorist
Terrorism (from french (XVIIIe century) : terrorisme under the Terror) refers to the systemic or calculated use of violence or the threat of violence, against the civilian population, to instil fear in an audience for purposes of obtaining political or religious goals.
Terrorism can be committed by governments (see state terrorism), individuals, or non-government groups; although some consider governments incapable of terrorism by definition (see article state terrorism and section on state terrorism below).
Other reasons to engage in terrorism include attempts to gain or consolidate power either by instilling fear in the population to be controlled, or by stimulating another group into becoming a hardened foe, thereby setting up polarizing us-versus-them dynamics (also see nationalism and fascism).
www.fastload.org /te/Terrorist.html   (3464 words)

  
 PostTerrorism
But while there is a diversity of personalities attracted to the path of terrorism, an examination of memoirs, court records, and, on rare occasions, interviews, suggests that individuals with particular personality traits and personality tendencies are drawn disproportionately to terrorist careers-in particular, frustrated individuals, who tend to externalize, seeking an external cause for their difficulties.
In the 1970's and 1980s, most of the acts of terrorism were perpetrated by nationalist separatist and social-revolutionary terrorists, who wished to call attention to their cause and accordingly would regularly claim responsibility for their acts.
The "nationalist- separatist" terrorists are often known in their communities and maintain relationships with friends and family outside of the group.
www.crab.rutgers.edu /~goertzel/PostTerrorism.htm   (4561 words)

  
 Terrorism - Gurupedia
The use of the term terrorism or terrorist is politically weighted, because of the universally negative connotation of harming civilians.
A nation that supports terrorism may then tend to dissociate itself from the term, by using neutral or even positive terms to characterize its combatants—such as fighters or freedom fighters—both of which can be ambiguous terms for describing terrorist actors.
State terrorism is a term referring to acts which fit some definition of terrorism but are committed by an official state military or are sponsored by a sovereign government.
www.gurupedia.com /t/te/terrorism.htm   (4526 words)

  
 title - Global Policy Forum - WTC: The Crisis
Its central meaning is the use of terror for the furthering of political ends, and it was originally used to denote the use of terror by the French revolutionary government against its opponents.
The second phase of terrorism was the use of violence by political groups in the nineteenth century, especially by anarchists and some nationalists.
Terrorism in this specific sense generated widespread concern in the societies affected, and, as a result of the spread of transnational terrorism in the world as a whole.
www.globalpolicy.org /wtc/terrorism/2510t.htm   (1331 words)

  
 Nationalist terrorism information - Search.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Nationalist terrorism is a form of terrorism through which participants attempt to form an independent state against what they consider an occupying, imperial, or otherwise illegitimate state.
As with the definition of terrorism, the characterization of "nationalist terrorism" is highly contentious.
One, the mostly Roman Catholic republican or nationalist community, mainly descended from the native Irish inhabitants, identifies itself as Irish and want the six counties under British jurisdiction to leave the United Kingdom and unite with the Republic of Ireland.
www.search.com /reference/Nationalist_terrorism   (628 words)

  
 PostTerrorism
But while there is a diversity of personalities attracted to the path of terrorism, an examination of memoirs, court records, and, on rare occasions, interviews, suggests that individuals with particular personality traits and personality tendencies are drawn disproportionately to terrorist careers-in particular, frustrated individuals, who tend to externalize, seeking an external cause for their difficulties.
In the 1970's and 1980s, most of the acts of terrorism were perpetrated by nationalist separatist and social-revolutionary terrorists, who wished to call attention to their cause and accordingly would regularly claim responsibility for their acts.
The "nationalist- separatist" terrorists are often known in their communities and maintain relationships with friends and family outside of the group.
crab.rutgers.edu /~goertzel/PostTerrorism.htm   (4561 words)

  
 Nationalist terrorism 3363
He may be a positive or a negative nationalist -- that is, he may use his mental energy either in boosting or in denigrating -- but at any rate his thoughts always turn on victories, defeats, triumphs and humiliations.
He sees history, especially contemporary history, as the endless rise and decline of great power units, and every event that happens seems to him a demonstration that his own side is on the upgrade and some hated rival is on the downgrade.
Nationalists owe unthinking loyalty to their own Power Group alone, lumping people into us and them groups.
www.plex86.org /computer_2/Nationalist-terrorism-3363.html   (292 words)

  
 Nationalist terrorism - Definition, explanation
Nationalist terrorism is a form of terrorism through which participants attempt to form an independent state against what they consider an occupying, imperial, or otherwise illegitimate state.
As with the definition of terrorism, the characterization of "nationalist terrorism" is highly contentious.
One, described as Catholic or "Nationalist", mainly descended from the native Irish inhabitants, identifies itself as Irish and want the six counties under British jurisdiction to leave the United kingdom and unite with the Republic of Ireland.
www.calsky.com /lexikon/en/txt/n/na/nationalist_terrorism.php   (579 words)

  
 SuperEthics.com :: Political Issues :: Terrorism
Terrorism is the systematic use or threatened use of violence to intimidate a population or government and thereby effect political, religious, or ideological change.
Terrorism is a political tactic, not unlike letter writing or protesting, that is used by activists when they believe no other means will effect the kind of change they desire.
The term "terrorism" comes from the French word terrorisme, which is based on the Latin verb terrere (to cause to tremble), It dates back to 1795 when it was used to describe the actions of the Jacobin Club in their rule of post-Revolutionary France, the so-called "Reign of Terror".
www.superethics.com /issues/terrorism.html   (4937 words)

  
 Terrorism Around Us Avi Nardia and J.L. Coffman
Nationalist terror groups seek to form a separate state for there own national group, often by drawing attention to a fight for "National Liberation" that they think the world has ignored.
Nationalist terror groups have tended to calibrate their use of violence, using enough to rivet world attention but not so much that they alienate supporters abroad or members of there base community.
Terrorism, which garners a disproportionately large share of news coverage, can also move neglected issues to the top of the political agenda, as a series of attacks in the 1970s and 1980s did for the cause of Palestinian nationalism.
www.usadojo.com /articles/terrorism-around-us.htm   (4735 words)

  
 Conspiracy Nuts
Nationalists are so poised to rally the masses, take power and make change that their opponents will go to any length to stop them.
Nationalists had advised Hale to follow the law, early on, but he refused, calling them "psychos," and was arrested.
Nationalists comply with the law, which requires that even a hint of a conspiracy be specifically repudiated.
www.nationalist.org /docs/law/conspiracy.html   (3081 words)

  
 Hoover Institution - Policy Review - The Terrorism to Come
Terrorism has become over a number of years the topic of ceaseless comment, debate, controversy, and search for roots and motives, and it figures on top of the national and international agenda.
But governments defending themselves against terrorism are widely expected not to behave in a similar way but to adhere to international law as it developed in conditions quite different from those prevailing today.
Terrorism, therefore, will continue — not perhaps with the same intensity at all times, and some parts of the globe may be spared altogether.
www.hoover.org /publications/policyreview/3437231.html   (6941 words)

  
 The Terrorism Research Center ::
Bruce Hoffman, the director of RAND’s Washington office, is considered one of the world’s preeminent analysts of terrorism.
He discusses how substate groups have used terrorist violence over the years as a tactic to “educate” their adversaries that even though the terrorists may not possess the military powers of a state, they still can inflict brutal harm upon a state and its citizenry.
In the past, Hoffman argues, the main goal of terrorist groups was to kill civilians to attract media attention to the terrorists’ cause as part of their efforts to force their adversaries to redress their grievances, such as by initiating political reform or granting independence to a minority community.
www.terrorism.com /modules.php?op=modload&name=books&file=index&bkid=165&ttitle=Inside_Terrorism   (263 words)

  
 Recent History of Terrorism
Several of these groups chose terror as a method to conduct their struggle and make their situation known to world powers they hoped would be sympathetic.
When terrorism was used, it was used within the framework of larger movements, and coordinated with political, social, and military action.
Even when terrorism came to dominate the other aspects of a nationalist struggle, such as the Palestinian campaign against Israel, it was (and is) combined with other activities.
www.terrorism-research.com /history/recent.php   (811 words)

  
 Nationalistic Terrorism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Nationalist terrorism is mostly "traditional" terrorism (also called revolutionary or ideological terrorism), but it is also a large category of terrorism with many subtypes.
The usual targets of nationalist terrorism are usually selective and usually discriminate -- ambassadors, bankers, dignitaries -- symbols often blamed for an economic, political, or social injustice.
When state terrorism is uncovered, the spin or media story is often that of a lone gunman or some conspiracy theory, which feeds additional conspiracy theories trying to uncover the real story.
faculty.ncwc.edu /toconnor/429/429lect12.htm   (5572 words)

  
 [No title]
For example, religious terrorism is motivated by religion while bioterrorism is classified according to the method/tactics employed.
Terrorism types can be classified according to aim or motive, according to the nature of its attacks and its perpetrator and victims, etc.
The first two types, nationalist and state terrorism are the traditional terrorism types.
library.thinkquest.org /05aug/00533/lowres_content/loweng_content_types1.htm   (181 words)

  
 Commentary No. 40: Irish Nationalist Terrorism Outside Ireland: Out-of-Theatre Operations 1972-1993
Irish nationalist terrorists can only be successful in their own terms if they can maintain the level of attacks in Britain and balance this with assaults on prestige targets.
Irish Republican terrorism outside the UK can be divided into three separate campaigns: 1973 where all but one of the incidents were letter-bombs; 1978-1980 which included explosive bombings and shootings; and 1987-1990 which appears to be a duplicate of the campaign a decade earlier.
In a paper written in 1990 analysing the international dimensions of terrorism, noted terrorism analyst and academic Paul Wilkinson wrote that the strengthening of international police and intelligence co-operation, combined with the greater organizational problems of operating abroad, had tended to discourage international terrorist attacks outside the borders of the terrorists' own country.
www.csis-scrs.gc.ca /en/publications/commentary/com40.asp?print_view=1   (4517 words)

  
 Definitions of Terrorism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Nationalist terrorism provided the notion that "there are no innocent non-combatants" since it was typical with this type of terrorism for many more non-combatants to be killed than combatants.
Terrorism should also be distinguished from crime, at least in the sense that a war on terrorism is different from a war on crime or war on drugs.
The fact that the connection between terrorism and crime, on the one hand, and counterterrorism and social control, on the other, is not always neatly drawn nor evident does not mean that criminologists have no legitimate stake in their study.
faculty.ncwc.edu /toconnor/429/429lect01.htm   (8770 words)

  
 Foreign Policy Association: Terrorism|Terrorism
Terrorism is a strategy that has a long history, but one that took on a particularly deadly caste beginning in the 20th century.
Most scholarly texts devoted to the study of terrorism contain a section, chapter, or chapters devoted to a discussion of how difficult it is to define the term.
Terrorism has its roots in first-century Palestine where Jewish Zealots publicly slit the throats of Romans and their collaborators.
www.fpa.org /newsletter_info2478/newsletter_info.htm   (2196 words)

  
 Press Release, March 8 (WG 2) - International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Her first article, “The Concept of Revolutionary Terrorism,” was published in the Journal of Conflict Resolution in 1972.
Rogelio Alonso (Spain), co-ordinator of the Unit for the Documentation and Analysis of Terrorism at the University Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid.
Terrorism researcher for thirty years, an expert on relationships between political protest, violence and dissent, including the role of media.
english.safe-democracy.org /mediaroom/press-release-march-8-wg-2.html   (634 words)

  
 Amazon.ca: Inside Terrorism: Books: Bruce Hoffman   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The word "terrorism" first became popular during the French Revolution, when the régime de la terreur was initially viewed as a positive political system that used fear to remind citizens of the necessity of virtue.
He makes careful distinctions between the motivations that drive political (or ethno-nationalist) terrorism and religious terrorism, and he also shows why the rise of religious terrorism, coupled with the increased availability of weapons of mass destruction, may foretell an era of even greater violence.
Of particular interest is Hoffman's discussion of the evolution of terrorism from its 1960s left-wing and secular nature to the current focus on religion as the major driving force of international terrorism.
www.amazon.ca /Inside-Terrorism-Bruce-Hoffman/dp/0231126999   (1489 words)

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