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Topic: Philosophy of naturalism

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  George Santayana (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Science provides explanations of natural phenomena, but poetry and religion are festive celebrations of human life born of consciousness generated from the interaction of one's psyche (the natural structure and heritable traits of ones physical body) and the physical environment.
If the spiritual disciplines of philosophy are to thrive, philosophers have to take off the bandages of epistemology and metaphysics altogether, accept the finite and fallible status of their knowledge claims, and get on with confessing their belief in the things that make life worth living.
The nature of truth simply is correspondence with what is, but since humans, nor any other conscious being, are able to see beyond the determinant limits of their nature and environment, pragmatism becomes the test of truth rather than correspondence.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/santayana   (8644 words)

  NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Naturalism (philosophy)
Naturalism does not necessarily claim that phenomena or hypotheses commonly labeled as supernatural do not exist or are wrong, but insists that all phenomena and hypotheses can be studied by the same methods and therefore anything considered supernatural is either nonexistent, unknowable, or not inherently different from natural phenomena or hypotheses.
Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, especially in the natural sciences and social sciences.
Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Naturalism-(philosophy)   (818 words)

 Naturalism (philosophy) - Information from Reference.com
This distinction between approaches to the philosophy of naturalism is made by philosophers supporting science and evolution in the creation–evolution controversy to counter the tendency of some proponents of Creationism or intelligent design to refer to methodological naturalism as scientific materialism or as methodological materialism and conflate it with metaphysical naturalism.
Naturalism of this sort says nothing about the existence or nonexistence of the supernatural which by this definition is beyond natural testing.
Their general criticism is that insisting that the natural world is a closed system of inviolable laws independent of theism or supernatural intervention will cause science to come to incorrect conclusions and inappropriately exclude research that claims to include such ideas.
www.reference.com /search?q=Naturalism+(philosophy)   (1790 words)

  naturalism, in philosophy. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
in philosophy, a position that attempts to explain all phenomena and account for all values by means of strictly natural (as opposed to supernatural) categories.
The particular meaning of naturalism varies with what is opposed to it.
Naturalism in the broad sense has been maintained in diverse forms by Aristotle, the Cynics, the Stoics, Giordano Bruno, Spinoza, Thomas Hobbes, Auguste Comte, Friedrich Nietzsche, Karl Marx, William James, John Dewey, and Alfred North Whitehead, philosophers who differ widely on specific questions.
www.bartleby.com /65/na/natrlsm3.html   (266 words)

 Naturalism [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
Naturalism is an approach to philosophical problems that interprets them as tractable through the methods of the empirical sciences or at least, without a distinctively a priori project of theorizing.
Naturalism is a philosophical view, but one according to which philosophy is not a distinct mode of inquiry with its own problems and its own special body of (possible) knowledge.
With respect to the epistemological dimension of naturalism, the main claim is roughly the following: the acquisition of belief and knowledge is a (broadly) causal process within the natural order, and a priori norms, principles, and methods are not essential to the acquisition or justification of beliefs and knowledge.
www.iep.utm.edu /n/naturali.htm   (7839 words)

 naturalism - Encyclopedia.com
naturalism in philosophy, a position that attempts to explain all phenomena and account for all values by means of strictly natural (as opposed to supernatural) categories.
Naturalism in the broad sense has been maintained in diverse forms by Aristotle, the Cynics, the Stoics, Giordano Bruno, Spinoza, Thomas Hobbes, Auguste Comte, Friedrich Nietzsche, Karl Marx, William James, John Dewey, and Alfred North Whitehead, philosophers who differ widely on specific questions.
Naturalism vs. supernaturalism: how to survive the culture wars.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-natrlsm3.html   (1048 words)

 Naturalism in Legal Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Naturalism in philosophy is most often a methodological view to the effect that philosophical theorizing should be continuous with empirical inquiry in the sciences.
S-naturalism in philosophy is either the (ontological) view that the only things that exist are natural or physical things; or the (semantic) view that a suitable philosophical analysis of any concept must show it to be amenable to empirical inquiry.
Philosophy cum conceptual analysis and intuition-pumping should be abandoned in favor of empirical science; philosophy is simply the more abstract and reflective part of empirical science and lays claim to no distinctive methods or body of knowledge.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/lawphil-naturalism   (8357 words)

 Naturalism (Philosophy) - Psychology Wiki
Naturalism does not claim that phenomena or hypotheses commonly labeled as supernatural necessarily do not exist or are wrong, but insists that they are not inherently different from natural phenomena or hypotheses, and that all phenomena and hypotheses can be studied by the same methods.
This distinction between approaches to the philosophy of naturalism is particularly made by those supporting science and evolution in the creation-evolution controversy.
Naturalism of this sort says nothing about the existence or nonexistence of the supernatural which by definition is beyond natural testing.
psychology.wikia.com /wiki/Naturalism_(Philosophy)   (1540 words)

 philosophy: Naturalism
So, generally, naturalism is the view that (1) all phenomena are "natural", and (2) the way to discover and evaluate such phenomena is by applying the methods of science.
epictetus_rex -- there are broadly two categories of naturalism -- metholodical naturalism (the methods of philosophy should be empirically responsible and in some sense contiguous with the methods of the natural sciences) and ontological naturalism, which states that every entity is accessible to the methods of the natural sciences.
Methodological naturalism, on the other hand, while making no claims about the existence/nonexistence of supernatural beings such as God, instead is founded upon the weaker claim that the universe is causally closed, ie.
community.livejournal.com /philosophy/1493192.html   (3299 words)

 ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY: The Period of Naturalism
Nature, as presented to our senses, is a continuous "becoming" - a passage from one state to another, from birth to death.
He reduces the multiplicity of nature to a single principle, animated and divine, which would be the reason for all empirical becoming.
Nature, as presented to our senses, is a continuous "becoming," a passage from one state to another, from birth to death.
radicalacademy.com /adiphilnaturalism.htm   (2273 words)

 Philosophy Faculty, University at Albany
His primary interests are in the philosophy of language, the philosophy of logic, and metaphysics, though he also has interests in epistemology.
She is the author of a number of articles on Hume's moral and political philosophy and on normative reasons for action.
Her research focuses on political philosophy (especially issues in global justice, human rights, and international law) and bioethics (with a focus on environmental and agricultural issues).
www.albany.edu /philosophy/faculty.shtml   (846 words)

 The Metaphilosophy of Naturalism
As a subfield of the philosophy of religion, atheism is usually classified as a body of counter-arguments against the cosmological, teleological and ontological arguments, and counter-arguments against the arguments from religious experience and (alleged) miracles.
“Philosophy of religion” disappears, to be replaced by a new subfield of naturalism, namely, “skepticism about naturalism,” with skeptical arguments being put forth and argued against, with the aim in mind of further developing the argumentative foundations of the naturalist world-view.
If my earlier remarks about philosophy and cultural activism are reread, one may see that they imply that if it turns out that some supernaturalists come to know that supernaturalism is true, then naturalists ought to become supernaturalists and ought to be helped to become supernaturalists by the supernaturalists who know supernaturalism to be true.
www.philoonline.org /library/smith_4_2.htm   (6652 words)

 Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind - naturalism, transcendental   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Transcendental naturalism (TN) was put forward by Colin McGinn, a philosopher at Rutgers University.
Applied to the mind-body problem, TN tells us that, although consciousness can be seen as a natural, emergent property of the brain, we lack the biological capacity to articulate such a relation.
Insofar as consciousness is considered as an emergent property of a brain, it represents as much a natural phenomenon as those studied by physics, chemistry, or biology.
philosophy.uwaterloo.ca /MindDict/transcendentalnaturalism.html   (408 words)

 Naturalism Is an Essential Part of Science
Naturalism is therefore a metaphysical philosophy opposed primarily by supernaturalism.
Naturalism could be accepted as the most reasonably true philosophy by examining and justifying it's statements as a scientist would examine and justify the statements of a scientific theory.
Naturalism is not an assumption or presupposition on the part of scientists, a common claim by critics of science; it is, instead, a hypothesis that has been tested and repeatedly corroborated, and so has become reliable knowledge itself.
www.freeinquiry.com /naturalism.html   (14771 words)

 Stephen E. Jones: Projects: Problems of Evolution (Outline): Philosophy (3): Naturalism
Nature, according to naturalism is a single sphere in which there cannot be incursions from outside by supernatural beings or agencies (Lacey, 1995, p.604).
Naturalism tends to deny human freedom on the grounds that every event must be explainable by deterministic natural laws (Macdonald, 1984, p.750).
Nature's underlying order is, as it were, written in a "cosmic code," which is "attuned human capabilities," such that the humans mind uniquely has been able t" "crack the cosmic code" (Davies, 1992, pp.148-149).
members.iinet.net.au /~sejones/PoE/pe02phl2.html   (1936 words)

 philosophy: Naturalism...the finer details
Naturalism doesn't mean anything in particular, other than that its invoker wants to avoid debate about what constitutes nature by identifying nature fundamentally with whatever views they happen to hold.
Marrying science to naturalism is a philosophical predjudice and is in no way a necessary condition of the scientific method.
That being said naturalism is more or less equivalent to materialism in that proponents of naturalism tend to be motivated either by the belief that 1) the material world is all that exists or 2) that the material world, if it isn't all that exists, at the very least is causally closed.
community.livejournal.com /philosophy/1597059.html   (1211 words)

 Philosophy and Religion
I will begin with his remark that the really important conflict between science and religion is that the general spirit of science, as expressed in what he calls "the philosophy of naturalism," conflicts with any sort of religious view.
The "philosophy of naturalism," as I understand it, holds inter alia that all consciousness (and a fortiori personality) is completely and one-sidedly dependent on the fulfilment of certain physico-chemical, physiological, and anatomical conditions.
On the other hand, the philosophy of naturalism is supported psychologically by the immense prestige which the methods of natural science now enjoy, and for many persons it could be undermined only by counter-instances established by the same methods.
www.ditext.com /broad/reply/reply2.html   (2550 words)

 Evolution and Philosophy: Naturalism
n philosophy, 'naturalism' is the view that an explanation is justified just so far as it rests on evidence of an empirical kind.
The usual way to define non-natural is that it is not explicable in terms of natural laws; that is, it breaks the causal chain.
In the philosophical doctrine known as moral naturalism, moral systems are explained in terms of the social or biological properties of humans.
www.talkorigins.org /faqs/evolphil/naturalism.html   (1002 words)

 Center for Naturalism
Naturalism undercuts retributive, punitive, and fawning attitudes based on the belief that human agents are first causes, as well other responses amplified by the supposition of free will, such as excessive pride, shame, and guilt.
Naturalism also has deep implications for how we conceive of our place in the world, since it replaces the dualism and human exceptionalism of free will with the unity of full causal connection to nature.
Naturalism as a philosophy is based on a scientific, evidence-based understanding of the world and our place in it.
www.naturalism.org /center_for_naturalism.htm   (1998 words)

 Princeton University Department of Philosophy - Course Descriptions
Emphasis is placed upon the complex relations of philosophy to the development of modern science, the social and political history of the West, and man's continuing attempt to achieve a satisfactory worldview.
A study of the nature of mathematics based on a logical and philosophical examination of its fundamental concepts and methods.
An examination of the nature of language through the study of such topics as truth, reference, meaning, linguistic structure, how language differs from other symbol systems, relations between thought and language and language and the world, the use of language, and the relevance of theories concerning these to selected philosophical issues.
philosophy.princeton.edu /course_descriptions.html   (1478 words)

These and other papers and reviews in the Philosophy section are written for the educated lay person with some prior exposure to the issues and arguments involved.
I wish to explore the consequences of naturalism for various aspects of our personal and social life, to see how naturalism might replace theism, dualism and spiritualism in answering the human needs for coherence and meaning.
Naturalism, as a view that might take hold in an open society, also has the potential to change deeply rooted attitudes that underlie social policy.
www.naturalism.org /philosop.htm   (516 words)

 Tenets of Naturalism
The knowledge we have of ourselves and our place in nature is the achievement of a collective effort to construct a consistent view of the world that permits prediction and control.
Naturalism doesn’t undermine the need or possibility of responsibility and morality, but it places them within the world as understood by science.
Naturalism may show the ultimate contingency of some values, in that human nature might have evolved differently and human societies and political arrangements might have turned out otherwise.
www.naturalism.org /tenetsof.htm   (806 words)

Naturalism.Org, a production of the Center for Naturalism, is a resource for those interested in scientific naturalism and its personal and social implications.
Letters to magazines and newspapers are included to illustrate how naturalism applies in the social arena.
page explores how naturalism can provide a philosophical basis for feelings of connection and meaning within a strictly material universe.
www.naturalism.org   (239 words)

 Philosophical Dictionary: Nagel-Newton
Belief that the principles of human conduct can be derived from a proper understanding of human nature in the context of the universe as a rational whole.
Modern appeals to natural law are the foundation for social thought in Grotius and Pufendorf.
The first declares that the classes of fish and birds have no common members, while the second maintains that there is at least one member of the class of birds that is excluded from the class of geese.
www.philosophypages.com /dy/n.htm   (1220 words)

 Naturalism (philosophy) - Search Results - MSN Encarta
Indian Philosophy : Indian mythology: art depicting Indian mythology
Naturalism is any of several philosophical stances, typically those descended from materialism and pragmatism, that do not distinguish the supernatural (including strange entities like non-natural...
Naturalism.Org Center for Naturalism Applied Naturalism Philosophy Spirituality Allies.
encarta.msn.com /Naturalism_(philosophy).html   (190 words)

 Framer : What have we learned from philosophy?
Philosophy gave birth to the natural and social sciences, from which we have derived the tools to enable and facilitate civilization.
Philosophy was the first to discover the natural forces of the world and then science, its offspring, transformed them so as to benefit us.
Science and Philosophy have the nasty habit of being supplanted by future theories and developments, and we have no way of knowing whether we are moving in the right direction.
www.philosophynews.com /PNS/blogs/framer/archive/2007/03/20/5216.aspx   (4544 words)

 Prometheus Books
Pragmatic naturalism, like all varieties of pragmatism, steers clear of the extreme intellectualism too often found in philosophy.
Pragmatic naturalism stresses that genuine inquiry must be conducted in a consistently empirical manner and be responsive to real human problems.
This excellent collection of high-quality essays on a resurgent school of American philosophy will be of interest to philosophers as well as scholars in the natural and social sciences.
www.prometheusbooks.com /site/catalog/book_1234.html   (239 words)

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