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Topic: Natural selection


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  Natural selection - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Natural Selection is the phrase Charles Darwin used in 1859 in his book The Origin of Species to name the natural process he proposed to be responsible for the origin of new species and the adaptation of organisms to their environments.
Natural selection occurs when individuals differ in reproductive output for functional reasons, i.e., when differences in reproduction follow from the fact that individuals differ from each other in their ability to tackle the challenges posed by their internal biology and by the biological and physical environment.
Natural selection is different from artificial selection which refers to the evolution of domesticated species as a result of human culling rather than culling by the "natural environment".
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Natural_selection   (3939 words)

  
 Kids.net.au - Encyclopedia Natural selection -   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Natural selection is an essential mechanism of evolution proposed by Charles Darwin and generally accepted by the scientific community as the best explanation of speciation as evidenced in the fossil record.
Darwin's theory of the evolution of species through natural selection starts from the premise that an organism's traits vary in a non-deterministic[?] way from parent to offspring, a process called "individuation" by Darwin.
Natural selection does not distinguish between ecological selection and sexual selection, as it is concerned with traits, e.g.
www.kidsseek.com /encyclopedia-wiki/na/Natural_selection   (913 words)

  
 Natural selection: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Sexual selection is the theory that competition for mates between individuals of the same sex drives the evolution of certain traits....
Disruptive selection is a type of natural selection that simultaneously favors individuals at both extremes of the distribution....
Frequency dependent selection is the term given to an evolutionary process where the fitness of a phenotype is dependent on the relative frequency of other phenotypes...
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/n/na/natural_selection.htm   (4013 words)

  
 IV. Natural Selection; or the Survival of the Fittest. Natural Selection: Its Power Compared with Man’s Selection. ...
Natural Selection; or the Survival of the Fittest.
In the literal sense of the word, no doubt, natural selection is a false term; but who ever objected to chemists speaking of the elective affinities of the various elements?—and yet an acid cannot strictly be said to elect the base with which it in preference combines.
Natural selection may modify and adapt the larva of an insect to a score of contingencies, wholly different from those which concern the mature insect; and these modifications may affect, through correlation, the structure of the adult.
www.bartleby.com /11/4001.html   (2248 words)

  
 The Origin of Species: Chapter 4
As in each fully stocked country natural selection necessarily acts by the selected form having some advantage in the struggle for life over other forms, there will be a constant tendency in the improved descendants of any one species to supplant and exterminate in each stage of descent their predecessors and their original parent.
Whether natural selection has really thus acted in nature, in modifying and adapting the various forms of life to their several conditions and stations, must be judged of by the general tenour and balance of evidence given in the following chapters.
Natural selection, also, leads to divergence of character; for more living beings can be supported on the same area the more they diverge in structure, habits, and constitution, of which we see proof by looking at the inhabitants of any small spot or at naturalised productions.
www.talkorigins.org /faqs/origin/chapter4.html   (9778 words)

  
 Natural Selection (computer game) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Natural Selection v1 was first publicly released on Halloween 2002, and is as of May 2006 at version 3.1.3.
An important part of Natural Selection is the "technology race", as better technology allows more effective map control, which translate to a higher resource flow, which once again lends to more technology.
Due to the nature of siege maps the door room is usually held stubbornly by the Frontiersmen while the Kharaa rely mainly on hit and run tactics coupled with continuous bombardment of ranged attacks to wear down the marine defense.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Natural_Selection_(computer_game)   (7617 words)

  
 natural selection - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about natural selection   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Natural selection favoured the darker mutation in industrial areas because it offered better camouflage there, so it had become widespread, whereas in rural areas the darker mutant was highly visible against the lighter tree trunks and so was easy prey to insect feeders.
The accumulated effect of natural selection is to produce adaptations such as the insulating coat of a polar bear or the spadelike forelimbs of a mole.
Natural selection usually takes place over many years, but in fast breeding organisms it can occur rapidly, for example the spread of antibiotic resistance in some bacteria.
encyclopedia.farlex.com /natural%20selection   (374 words)

  
 Natural selection
In more advanced textbooks natural selection is claimed to produce a change in the ratio of the genes or a change in gene frequency and this in itself is called evolution.
Natural selection is simply the effect the natural world has on living things, selecting out living forms that can survive from those that can’t handle their environment and therefore perish.
Natural selection produces or uncovers previously unseen combinations of genes that have always been there and remain unchanged.
www.answersingenesis.org /creation/v6/i4/naturalselection.asp   (1332 words)

  
 Introduction to Evolutionary Biology
The mechanisms of evolution are mutation, natural selection, genetic drift, recombination and gene flow.
Natural selection is the only mechanism of adaptive evolution; it is defined as differential reproductive success of pre- existing classes of genetic variants in the gene pool.
Selection is not a force in the sense that gravity or the strong nuclear force is. However, for the sake of brevity, biologists sometimes refer to it that way.
www.talkorigins.org /faqs/faq-intro-to-biology.html   (15764 words)

  
 Natural Selection: How Evolution Works Interview with Douglas Futuyma
Natural selection leads to evolutionary change when individuals with certain characteristics have a greater survival or reproductive rate than other individuals in a population and pass on these inheritable genetic characteristics to their offspring.
Natural selection is a difference in reproductive success that involves both the ability to survive until reproductive age and then the capacity to reproduce.
Since natural selection is totally an impersonal process that is nothing more than a difference, generation by generation, in the reproductive success of one genome over another, there’s no way that it can look forward to the future or guard against the possibility of extinction.
www.actionbioscience.org /evolution/futuyma.html   (2253 words)

  
 NATURAL SELECTION
The limits of selection due to the absence of hoped-for positive mutations were most severely felt in mutation breeding at the end of the 1970s and in the 1980s after some 40 years of worldwide mutation research with cultivated plants as maize, rice, barley, peas, and others.
After the neo-Darwinian school of biologists had taught plant breeders that mutation, recombination, and natural selection were responsible for the origination of all life forms and structures on earth, the possibility of the threefold time-lapse-method led to a previously unknown euphoria among geneticists in order to revolutionize plant breeding.
Natural selection is survival of the fittest, and the tautology hinges on the word fittest.
www.weloennig.de /NaturalSelection.html   (5560 words)

  
 Natural Selection
As a result the gypsy moth, through adaptation and natural selection, was able to gradually change it's coloring to a dark gray-fl, to match the surface of the trees covered in pollution.
Natural selection plays upon variation and adaptation, all of which occur simultaneously.
When the environment began to be polluted the lighter moths which occupied the middle section of the bell curve began to be killed by predators, while the darker moths at the other end of the bell curve were not.
www.mnsu.edu /emuseum/biology/evolution/genetics/naturalselection.html   (723 words)

  
 Natural Selection
An allele is defined as a suite of genes that are required for constructing a specific structure or behavior; to the extent that genes are selected on the basis of their phenotypic results, natural selection cannot act on genetic units smaller than the allele.
Kin selection is a cognitive and behavioral adaptation, and as such a result of natural selection.
Hamilton defined kin selection in terms of what he called "inclusive fitness"--a term that still echoes the old paradigm that the basic unit of selection is the individual.
www.cogweb.ucla.edu /ep/Selection.html   (1193 words)

  
 NATURAL SELECTION STOCK PHOTOGRAPHY, LLC   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Natural Selection is your number one source for beautiful images of nature, including wildlife, landscape scenes, concepts, panoramics...everything to do with the natural world.
Natural Selection Stock Photography is your premiere source for stock photo images of the natural world, including wildlife photos, images of plant life, and scenic landscape photographs.We specialize in only the best quality rights protected stock images for use by corporations, advertising agencies, design studios, and discriminating publishers.
Natural Selection Stock Photography also features an extraordinary collection of plant stock photos, including thousands of stock photographs featuring flowers, trees, vines, and blossoms.
www.nssp.com   (413 words)

  
 Natural Selection Item @ CreatedByGod.com (Created by God)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Wells' hypothesis, applied to explain the origin of human races, was presented in person at the Royal Society.
Many theories of eugenics were created in an attempt to address these issues.
Odum">Howard T. Odum this principle of natural selection has become known as the maximum power principle and applied to ecosystem evolution such that those evolutionary systems that have selective advantage maximise the rate of useful energy tranformation.
www.createdbygod.com /encyclopedia/Natural_selection   (2921 words)

  
 Darwin's Finches & Natural Selection   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Alleles for these organisms over time are governed by the theory of natural selection, and over this time the genetic differences between groups in different environments soon become apparent, as in the case of industrial melanism.
In this instance, natural selection would favour the darker moths in polluted environments and the whiter moths in the lesser polluted environments due to their ability to merge in with their environmental colours and lessen the chances of them being prone to a predator.
Consider this argument of natural selection in the case of sickle cell trait, a genetic defect common in Africa.
www.biology-online.org /2/11_natural_selection.htm   (712 words)

  
 NATURAL LANGUAGE AND NATURAL SELECTION   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Gould himself readily admits that natural selection is the cause of structures such as the vertebrate eye, and he invokes the criterion of engineering design, for example, to rescue Darwinism itself from the charge of circularity (Gould, 1977a).
Of course, the entire theory of natural selection may be literally unfalsifiable in the uninteresting sense that elaborations can always rescue its empirical failings, but this is true of all large-scale scientific theories.
Natural languages are hopeless for this function: they are needlessly serial, rife with ambiguity (usually harmless in conversational contexts, but unsuited for long term knowledge representation), complicated by alternations that are relevant only to discourse (e.g., topicalization), and cluttered with devices (such as phonology and much of morphology) that make no contribution to reasoning.
bbsonline.org /documents/a/00/00/04/99/bbs00000499-00/bbs.pinker.html   (19347 words)

  
 Early Theories of Evolution: Darwin and Natural Selection
He realized that the most fit individuals in a population are the ones that are least likely to die of starvation and, therefore, are most likely to pass on their traits to the next generation.
They also understood that nature selects from the existing varieties those traits that are most suited to their environment.
If natural selection were the only process occurring, each generation should have less variation until all members of a population are essentially identical, or clones of each other.
anthro.palomar.edu /evolve/evolve_2.htm   (2745 words)

  
 Natural Selection and Speciation
Additionally, because the city and country environments were different, there were different selective pressures on city vs. country moths that could potentially drive the evolution of these two populations of moths in different directions.
Another important point is that natural selection operates on the genetics of a species, including whatever genes affect instinctive behavior patterns as well as those affecting the looks of the individuals.
The only category that actually exists in nature is individual species — everything else is groupings we have invented based on similarities among the organisms we decided should be members of that group.
biology.clc.uc.edu /courses/bio106/nat-sel.htm   (2433 words)

  
 Evolution I
Although Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace's theory of natural selection supplanted Lamarckianism, sporadic efforts to revive it continued into this century, most notably in the Soviet Union under the guidance of Troffim Lysenko.
Wallace's paper, published in 1858, was the first to define the role of natural selection in species formation.
Careful field observations of organisms and their environment led both Darwin and Wallace to the role of natural selection in formation of species.
www.emc.maricopa.edu /faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookEVOLI.html   (1958 words)

  
 Theory of Natural Selection   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
After spending time on the islands, he soon developed a theory that would contradict the creation of man and imply that all species derived from common ancestors through a process called natural selection.
Natural selection is considered to be the biggest factor resulting in the diversity of species and their genomes.
A look at the theory of natural selection devised by Charles Darwin, an English biologist..
www.biology-online.org /2/10_natural_selection.htm   (487 words)

  
 Natural Selection, Inc.
Natural Selection, Inc.® and Valuated State Space® are registered trademarks of Natural Selection, Inc. This site is best viewed with Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 or Netscape 7.0 and higher.
Natural Selection, Inc. was created in 1993 to bring the cutting edge of high technology to bear on real-world problems in industry, medicine, and defense.
With the ever-increasing speed of computers, we are able to apply sophisticated computational intelligence algorithms to many of these problems without requiring expensive supercomputing.
www.natural-selection.com   (127 words)

  
 Shebang's Natural Selection, Inc. - Raw Natural Diet - Dog Training - Pet Health Food Store   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Dogs, cats, and even ferrets are carnivores that evolved to "live off the land" and depended on nature for their survival.
Shebang's Natural Selection prepares and packages a raw natural diet specifically designed with your carnivore in mind.
Shebang's Natural Selection also offers training classes given by an accrediated trainer.
www.rawnaturaldiet.com   (490 words)

  
 Natural selection - EvoWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Technically defined as the differential reproductive success of preexisting classes of genetic varients, natural selection is the idea that traits which bestow a reproductive advantage on their possessors tend to spread throughout a given population, and traits which are reproductively deleterious tend to disappear.
See Natural Selection Observed in Nature for several large surveys of measurements of natural selection.
(2001) "The Strength of Phenotypic Selection in Natural Populations." American Naturalist, Vol.
wiki.cotch.net /index.php/Natural_selection   (129 words)

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