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# Topic: Natural transformation

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 Natural transformation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Natural transformations are, after categories and functors, one of the most basic notions of categorical algebra and consequently appear in the majority of its applications. Natural transformations arise frequently in conjunction with adjoint functors. The natural transformations from a representable functor to an arbitrary functor F : C → Set are completely known and easy to describe; this is the content of the Yoneda lemma. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Natural_transformation   (1075 words)

 Natural transformation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) Natural transformations are after categories and one of the most basic notions of algebra and consequently appear in the majority its applications. These maps are "natural" in the sense: the double dual operation is a and the maps form a natural transformation the identity functor to the double dual This composition of natural transformation is associative and allows to consider the collection all functors C → D itself as a category (see below Functor categories). www.freeglossary.com /Natural_equivalence   (1103 words)

 PlanetMath: natural transformation is called a natural isomorphism, a natural equivalence, or an isomorphism of functors. By definition, every morphism of presheaves is a natural transformation. This is version 11 of natural transformation, born on 2002-01-23, modified 2004-03-31. www.planetmath.org /encyclopedia/NaturalTransformation.html   (123 words)

 Natural transformation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) Natural transformations are, after categories and functors, one of the most basicnotions of categorical algebra and consequently appear in the majority of its applications. These maps are "natural" in the following sense: the doubledual operation is a functor, and the maps form a natural transformation from the identity functor to the double dual functor. This composition of natural transformation is associative, and allows to consider the collection of all functors C → D itselfas a category (see below under Functor categories). www.therfcc.org /natural-transformation-178033.html   (844 words)

 "Natural Transformation of Acinetobacter sp. Strain BD413 with Cell Lysates of Acinetobacter sp., ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) To elucidate the biological significance of dead bacterial cells in soil to the intra- and interspecies transfer of gene fragments by natural transformation, we have exposed the kanamycin-sensitive recipient Acinetobacter sp. Transformation efficiencies obtained in vitro and in situ with the various lysates were similar to or exceeded those obtained with conventionally purified DNA. The relatively short-term biological activity (e.g., transforming activity) of chromosomal DNA in soil contrasts the earlier reported long-term physical stability of DNA, where fractions have been found to persist for several weeks in soil. www.biotech-info.net /natural_transformation.html   (314 words)

 Bacterial Transformation Natural transformation is distinct from artificial transformation by techniques such as electroporation, protoplast formation, and microprojectiles. The process of transformation in both gram negative and gram positive bacteria is broadly similar. It is not known if transformation is a natural phenomenon in all bacteria -- it may be widespread in nature but it can be difficult to observe in the laboratory. www.mun.ca /biochem/courses/4103/topics/transformation.html   (2404 words)

 Natural transformation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) If F and G are (covariant) functors between the categories C and D, then a natural transformation η from F to G associates to every object X in C a morphism η This composition of natural transformation is associative, and allows to consider the collection of all functors C → D itself as a category (see below under Functor categories). The natural transformations from a representable functor to an arbitrary functor F : C www.sciencedaily.com /encyclopedia/natural_transformation   (919 words)

 [No title] A natural transformation is an indexed family of arrows such that a certain diagram commutes. Neil Ghani Date: Wed, 25 Mar 1998 18:23:46 +1100 (EST) From: maxk@maths.usyd.edu.au (Max Kelly) Subject: categories: Re: Naturality Squares and Pullbacks In response to the question of Neil Ghani, namely A natural transformation is an indexed family of arrows such that a certain diagram commutes. Natural transformations for which the naturality square is a pullback are commonly called cartesian: it's not an ideal name for them, but it's quite well established. www.mta.ca /~cat-dist/catlist/1999/nat-squares   (1345 words)

 World J Gastroenterol By RAPD, DNA fingerprints of the transformants and their parent strains showed no change in DNA profiles though transformants were all resistant to metronidazole as compared with their metronidazole-sensitive parent strains. The transformation frequencies were calculated by dividing the number of transformants from the tatal number of viable cells on chocolate blood agar. Transformation of Helicobacter pylori by chromosomal metronidazole resistance and by a www.wjgnet.com /1007-9327/4/385.asp   (1533 words)

 Natural Transformation of Acinetobacter sp. Strain BD413 with Cell Lysates of Acinetobacter sp., Pseudomonas ... The diversity of alleles at the hsd locus in natural populations of Escherichia coli. Induced natural transformation of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus in soil microcosms. Physiological characterization of natural transformation in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. aem.asm.org /cgi/content/full/66/1/206   (5220 words)

 Variation of the natural transformation frequency of Campylobacter jejuni in liquid shake culture -- Wilson et al. 149 ... Transformation frequency was determined at 2 h intervals during 16–22 h incubation in liquid shake culture under a 5·0 % CO atmosphere as described in Methods. Transformants or progeny were identified by their dual resistance to chloramphenicol and kanamycin. Steinmoen, H., Knutsen, E. and Håvarstein, L. Induction of natural competence in Streptococcus pneumoniae triggers lysis and DNA release from a subfraction of the cell population. mic.sgmjournals.org /cgi/content/full/149/12/3603   (5662 words)

 Spread of Recombinant DNA by Roots and Pollen of Transgenic Potato Plants, Identified by Highly Specific Biomonitoring ... The fractions of samples yielding transformants and the average transformation frequencies of the positive samples for the transgenic potato plants (DC1, DL10, and DL12) and parental plants (Désirée) are given separately. Characterization of natural transformation of the soil bacteria Pseudomonas stutzeri and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus by chromosomal and plasmid DNA, p. The natural transformation of the soil bacteria Pseudomonas stutzeri and Acinetobacter sp. aem.asm.org /cgi/content/full/69/8/4455?view=full&pmid=12902229   (5992 words)

 Transformation Techniques, Natural Awareness, God is Dharmakaya This innate wisdom has the ability to transform thought patterns, thereby opening our minds to true clarity and bliss. In the moment of recognizing our true nature, we can see that our ordinary thinking is very lacking. Transformation techniques are about seeing the light of our true nature and letting that light purify our ordinary ways of thinking and acting. www.thelotus.org /transformationtechniques.html   (1216 words)

 Natural Genetic Transformation of Streptococcus mutans Growing in Biofilms -- Li et al. 183 (3): 897 -- The Journal of ... The transformation frequency is expressed as the percentage of viable cells transformed to erythromycin resistance. Transformation of Streptococcus mutans with chromosomal and shuttle plasmid (pYA629) DNAs. Steinmoen, H., Knutsen, E., Havarstein, L. Induction of natural competence in Streptococcus pneumoniae triggers lysis and DNA release from a subfraction of the cell population. jb.asm.org /cgi/content/full/183/3/897   (7661 words)

 DNA restriction is a barrier to natural transformation in Pseudomonas stutzeri JM300 -- Berndt et al. 149 (4): 895 -- ... DNA restriction is a barrier to natural transformation in Pseudomonas stutzeri JM300 -- Berndt et al. Natural transformation is a mechanism for intra- and interspecific Highly different levels of natural transformation are associated with genomic subgroups within a local population of Pseudomonas stutzeri from soil. mic.sgmjournals.org /cgi/content/full/149/4/895   (3544 words)

 Impact of mutS Inactivation on Foreign DNA Acquisition by Natural Transformation in Pseudomonas stutzeri -- Meier and ... DNA of strain 19smn4 the transformation decreased to 20% of The transforming DNA was the 1.5-kb autogamic rpoB fragment of the mutant described in line 1 of Table 4 (A), the 3.1% divergent 1.5-kbp heterogamic rpoB fragment of the mutant described in line 4 of Table 4 (B), or autogamic chromosomal DNA (C). DNA in transformants 1, 3, 4, 5, and 8. jb.asm.org /cgi/content/full/187/1/143   (6827 words)

 A building transformation -- Wisconsin Natural Resources magazine S.C. Johnson’s corporate headquarters in Racine, the Williamson Street Coop in Madison, Outpost Natural Foods in Milwaukee, and Erickson’s Diversified corporate office in Hudson are a few examples. UW-Green Bay is building a green academic building with natural light and solar energy to reduce electric lighting, heating and cooling loads, and equipment; operating costs will be one-third lower than a standard building. There is evidence that people in spaces lit by natural light are more productive, miss work less, and are more creative. www.wnrmag.com /stories/2000/jun00/greenbuild.htm   (2174 words)

 Integration of foreign DNA during natural transformation of Acinetobacter sp. by homology-facilitated illegitimate ... Transformation is considered a major horizontal gene-transfer mechanism contributing to genetic adaptation and evolution of Dependence of the transformation frequency with one-side homologous donor DNA on the length of the homologous region. In HD1 the 5'-homologous strand was derived from the plasmid, whereas the 3'-homologous strand was the single-stranded phage www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/99/4/2094   (4299 words)

 Variation of the natural transformation frequency of Campylobacter jejuni in liquid shake culture -- Wilson et al. 149 ... Variation of the natural transformation frequency of Campylobacter jejuni in liquid shake culture -- Wilson et al. Variation of the natural transformation frequency of Campylobacter jejuni in liquid shake culture Natural transformation, a mechanism that generates genetic diversity mic.sgmjournals.org /cgi/content/abstract/149/12/3603   (314 words)

 natural transformation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) Natural transformation [*] looks pretty mach as "intertwining" operator as in group theory, but not quite the same. Is there any nice theorem analogue to the one in the representation theory: If A and B are two irreducible representations of G over V1 and V2 then any linear "intertwining" operator T:V1->V2 such that B T = T A must be proportional to the identity map. Then a natural transformation from a functor F:C1->C2 to the functor G:C1->C2 is a map T:Obj(C1)->Hom(C2) such that for ant f in Hom(C1) and any 'a' in in Obj(C1) we have commuting diagram (T(b)F(f)=G(f)T(a)): T(a) F(a)---------->G(a) www.lns.cornell.edu /spr/1999-12/msg0019813.html   (199 words)

 Natural transformation in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Some bacterial strains are naturally capable of taking up DNA from the environment. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain BD4 and its derivatives express these genes constitutively, allowing transformation to be carried out by mixing chromosomal DNA with bacterial cells directly on a plate. Because the segments of DNA that are taken up during natural transformation are fairly short, this is a good technique for mapping the distance between mutations in the same operon. www.sfu.ca /biology/courses/bisc302/lab8.htm   (897 words)

 Bacterial gene transfer by natural genetic transformation in the environment -- Lorenz and Wackernagel 58 (3): 563 -- ... Natural genetic transformation is the active uptake of free DNA by Sikorski, J., Teschner, N., Wackernagel, W. Highly Different Levels of Natural Transformation Are Associated with Genomic Subgroups within a Local Population of Pseudomonas stutzeri from Soil. Natural genetic transformation of Pseudomonas stutzeri in a non-sterile soil. mmbr.asm.org /cgi/content/abstract/58/3/563   (1547 words)

 Identification and Characterization of ComE and ComF, Two Novel Pilin-Like Competence Factors Involved in Natural ... of natural transformation in gram-negative soil bacteria is on the transformation frequency, it is tempting to speculate that Friedrich, A., Hartsch, T., Averhoff, B. Natural Transformation in Mesophilic and Thermophilic Bacteria: Identification and Characterization of Novel, Closely Related Competence Genes in Acinetobacter sp. aem.asm.org /cgi/content/full/65/10/4568   (3840 words)

 Transformation Institute - Natural Hygiene   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) T. Fry, Champion of Natural Hygiene, Passes On The Natural Hygiene movement lost its clearest voice, most brilliant writer and most prolific health counselor with the passing of T. Fry on September 9. Fry was probably more passionate than anyone on the health scene in getting the message out to health seekers about how to eat their natural diet and live healthfully. Even in his difficult final days, T. Fry was most concerned with counseling and corresponding with others, writing his newsletter and preparing to fulfill his dream of creating the Shelton College of Health Sciences in Honduras. transformationinstitute.org /history.html   (1430 words)

 Cogprints - NATURAL TRANSFORMATION MODELS IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) Molecular models in terms of Categories, Functors and Natural Transformations are introduced for unimolecular chemical transformations, multi-molecular chemical and biochemical transformations. Novel approaches to realization of Relational Biology Models of Complex System Biology are introduced in terms of Natural Transformations between Functors of Molecular Categories. Several applications of such natural transformations are then presented to protein biosynthesis, embryogenesis and nuclear transplant experiments. cogprints.org /3675   (538 words)

 Wilderdom - a project in natural living & transformation This fast-paced montage-style video presents an inspiring yet disturbing series of outdoor education, people and nature images, intercut with cosmological, evolutionary, historical, and environmental images, and quotes and graffiti. During periods of social upheaval and transformation it seems that simplistic world-views increase their appeal. The 'control of nature' is a phrase conceived in arrogance, born of the Neanderthal age of biology and the convenience of man." www.wilderdom.com   (677 words)

 Barriers to Genetic Exchange between Bacterial Species: Streptococcus pneumoniae Transformation -- Majewski et al. 182 ... pneumoniae is a gram-positive bacterium, naturally competent for transformation. The sexual isolation in the absence of mismatch repair is the result of transformation of the R6 hexA mutant. Meier, P., Wackernagel, W. Impact of mutS Inactivation on Foreign DNA Acquisition by Natural Transformation in Pseudomonas stutzeri. jb.asm.org /cgi/content/full/182/4/1016   (4871 words)

 Category Theory The nature of these combinations might appear to be considerably different when looked at from too close. Thus, in category theory, the nature of the elements constituting a certain construction is irrelevant. Categories, functors, natural transformations, limits and colimits appeared almost out of nowhere in 1945 in Eilenberg and Mac Lane's paper entitled "General Theory of Natural Equivalences". plato.stanford.edu /entries/category-theory   (7029 words)

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