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Topic: Negation


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In the News (Thu 18 Apr 19)

  
  Negation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In linguistics, logic, and mathematics, negation is an operation on logical values, for example, the logical value of a proposition, that sends true to false and false to true.
In logic, logical negation is a unary logical operator that reverses the truth value of its operand.
As in mathematics, negation is used in computer science to prove the logic of a statement.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Negation   (1142 words)

  
 Untitled Document
The appearance of negation as refusal to comply with a request or command is missing is many mammals because there is a deficit in their natural social environment that makes it unnecessary for them to grasp it.
Negation is often used for the concept of zero, or non-existence, as when we say 'there is no way to get there from here' or an infant notes an unexpected absence by saying 'no car'.
Negation is not only used to indicate the total absence of a quality, but can also be used to indicate a quantity less or greater than another to which it is compared.
www.semioticon.com /dse/encyclopedia/n/long/negationlong.html   (5478 words)

  
 Negation (comics) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Believes that she sleeps in a stasis tube under the sea, and that being in the Negation universe is only a vivid dream.
It was revealed in the series that there were five Sigil-Bearers taken by the Negation, though apparently only four survived the "Extinction Wave", a weapon which rendered the prison planet into a burnt husk.
The fifth Sigil-bearer, a blue-skinned, blue-haired individual with the Sigil marked on the right side of his neck, was shown in the Negation Prequel, though his name and his abilities were never mentioned.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Negation_(comics)   (879 words)

  
 Negation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Negation, in its most basic sense, changes the truthvalue of a statement to its opposite.
Algebraically, logical negation corresponds to the complement in a Boolean algebra (for classical logic) or a Heytingalgebra (for intuitionistic logic).
In grammar, negation is the process that turns an affirmativestatement (I am the walrus) into its opposite denial (I am not thewalrus).
www.therfcc.org /negation-35033.html   (487 words)

  
 A Natural History of Negation
The capacity to negate is the capacity to refuse, to contradict, to lie, to speak ironically, to distinguish truth from falsity--in short, the capacity to be human.
As its title suggests, A Natural History of Negation is first of all a critical synopsis and reinterpretation of past work on negation, both in the West and the East.
Negation is a topic which engaged Aristotle and the Buddha, Spinoza and Leibniz, Hegel and Mill, Freud and Marx, Russell and Frege.
csli-publications.stanford.edu /site/1575863367.html   (404 words)

  
 Negation and its Reliabilities
In the case of the conscious use of negation the situation is totally different: The subject enunciates a content which is unpleasant for him/ her, often under the form of a self-accusation (for example "I am a Replicant").
Negation cannot be regarded as the only possible testimony of something which can only have a negative status (for example, the status of man, or a position outside ideology, etc.).
Negation represents an absence, but it is not the presence of the absent itself.
www.lacan.com /pfaller.htm   (7776 words)

  
 1877: Anti-Duhring - XIII. Negation of the Negation
The Hegelian negation of the negation, in default of anything better and clearer, has in fact to serve here as the midwife to deliver the future from the womb of the past.
It will be followed by a second, which bears the character of a negation of the negation and hence of a restoration of 'individual property', but in a higher form, based on the common ownership of land and of the instruments of labour.
This modern materialism, the negation of the negation, is not the mere re-establishment of the old, but adds to the permanent foundations of this old materialism the whole thought-content of two thousand years of development of philosophy and natural science, as well as of the history of these two thousand years.
www.marxists.org /archive/marx/works/1877/anti-duhring/ch11.htm   (3888 words)

  
 Negation in Middle Dutch
The most common negation in Middle Dutch is double and consists of the elements en or ne and another negating word such as niet, niemant and geen ["not, nobody, none"], with the first element always immediately preceding the finite verb form.
Negation with just the single particle en or ne before the finite verb occurs in Middle Dutch only in specific circumstances but is actually the more original form, and was the only possibility in Old Dutch.
To avoid confusion with negation using two elements it seems sensible to reserve the term double negation for sentences in which two or more negative adverbs or pronouns are used alongside each other, as for example in Daerne quam oec nie geen man,...
www.ned.univie.ac.at /publicaties/taalgeschiedenis/en/negation.htm   (366 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
On the other hand, the negation of the axiom of choice is also bizarre.
We will abbreviate "Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory plus the negation of the axiom of choice" by ZF C. For certain models of ZF C, it is possible to prove the negation of some standard facts.
Generally speaking, negation is an automorphism of any abelian group, but not of a ring or field.
www.worldhistory.com /wiki/N/Negation.htm   (969 words)

  
 Negation and Logic
The negation of statement p is "not p." The negation of p is symbolized by "~p." The truth value of ~p is the opposite of the truth value of p.
Construct a truth table for the negation of p, and for the negation of not p.
The negation of statement p is "not p", symbolized by "~p".
www.mathgoodies.com /lessons/vol9/negation.html   (665 words)

  
 In texts, through thoughts, with pleasure: Negation in Indian Philosophy (preprint of an entry in the MacMillan ...
From the early centuries CE onward, the philosophical traditions of ancient India produced theories of negation in a broad variety of contexts, dealing with such diverse issues as negative existentials, the referentiality of empty terms, and the laws of the excluded middle and double negation.
For entities where such a necessary perceivedness cannot be ensured, either because they are intrinsically beyond the realm of perception or because the specific environmental conditions for their perception are incomplete, not perceiving them only establishes that one does not know that they exist, not that one knows that they do not exist.
It is not known whether Īśvarasena developed his theory of nonperception, which he is said to have assumed as a third instrument of knowledge besides perception and inference, merely to solve specific problems of the theory of inference, or whether he intended it as a general theory of negative knowledge.
www.birgitkellner.org /index.php?id=133   (2290 words)

  
 Negation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
In grammar negation is the process that turns an statement (I am the walrus) into its opposite denial (I am not the walrus).
Other languages have simpler forms of negation; Latin simple negation is a matter of the negative particles non or ne to the verb.
It is historical in that it identifies the way in which a given author questions some logical relation that all previous thinkers took for granted.
www.freeglossary.com /Negation   (736 words)

  
 Projects: Constructive Negation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Inclusion of negation into logic programs is considered traditionally to be painful as the incorporation of full logic negation tends to super-exponencial time complexity of the prover.
Therefore the alternative approaches to negation in logic programs are studied and among them, the procedural negation as failure sounds to be the most successful and the most widely used.
The reasons for acceptance of constructive negation are the preservation of the advantages of the negation as failure, i.e., efficiency and handling special features of the language, and, at the same time, removing the main drawbacks, i.e., handling ground negative subgoals and usage as a test only.
kti.ms.mff.cuni.cz /~bartak/html/negation.html   (267 words)

  
 Graphitti Designs Presents... NEWSARAMA
Editorially, Negation War will take the place of the Negation series for six months starting in March (issue #27 in February will be the "final" issue of the original series).
The Negation are led by the godlike emperor, Charon, and feature such nasty creatures as the twisted Lawbringers.
They've been fighting the Negation for months and months on their own, and when the opportunity presents itself to return to their home universe, it's too much for some.
www.newsarama.com /pages/CrossGen/NegationWar.htm   (2152 words)

  
 neg1: introduction to negation
Negation is a grammatical term for the contradiction of some or all of the meaning of an affirmative (positive) sentence.
In English, a sentence is commonly negated by inserting a single negative word (not, don't, didn't, won't, etc.) into the appropriate place in the sentence.
In French, a sentence is commonly negated by inserting two words.
www.laits.utexas.edu /tex/gr/neg1.html   (140 words)

  
 Three Types of Negation: A Case Study in Bavarian   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
One of the few linguistic phenomena which seems to be universal in a very straightforward sense is negation: all human languages have means to overtly "deny the truth of a proposition" (Dahl 1993: 914).
However, what is rather rarely found in literature is a thorough investigation of all three types of non-constituent negation in one and the same language which could probably shed more light on the complex syntax-semantics interface behaviour of negation in natural languages.
The two types of (non-expletive) clausal negation differ in their syntactic position: negation 1 - as predicate negation it constitutes the unmarked case of sentence negation - immediately dominates VP, whereas negation 2 is located higher in the sentence structure.
www.meertens.knaw.nl /books/synmic/abstracts/weiss.html   (397 words)

  
 [Dpf] negation of negation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Negation of negation Suppose there are criterions of something; then we are in the situation of the opposite of these criterions (negation); at last we find the way out (negation of negation).
People in a desperate effort to survive have to escape to other countries even at the cost of their lives (negation of negation).
Peasants worked on the basis of family, when harvest, they should first turn in the pre-determinate amount of corps to the State, then set aside the part for the collective economy which were used to ameliorate irrigating facilities, purchase large farming machines and so on that can not accomplished by individual.
lists.econ.utah.edu /pipermail/dpf/2004-December/000062.html   (333 words)

  
 ComputerBase - Lexikon: Negation
Negation ist die kritische Ablehnung eines positiven philosophischen Systems.
In der Sprachwissenschaft bedeutet Negation die Verneinung; sowie das Wort, das eine Verneinung ausdrückt, siehe auch: Doppelte Verneinung.
Negation als Zerstörung: Jimi Hendrix zerfetzte musikalisch die amerikanische Nationalhymne und zündete seine Gitarre an.
www.computerbase.de /lexikon/Negation   (902 words)

  
 Glossary of Terms: Ne
(3) The negation of essence (the inward) is appearance (the outward); the negation of the outward appearance comes about by means of discovering that it is identical with the inward, and the completion of this identity between inward and outward is Actuality.
(4) Essence is the negation of Being, the negation of Essence is The Notion.
The negation of the negation of Being is the Notion, and Hegel shows that while the Notion " is not palpable to the touch,...
www.marxists.org /glossary/terms/n/e.htm   (8190 words)

  
 Negation in XSB
Negation in the context of logic programming has received a lot of attention.
So to guarantee reasonable answers to queries to programs containing negation, the negation operator must be allowed to apply only to ground literals.
The other problem that may arise in programs with negation, that of nonstratification, is a bit more subtle.
www.cs.sunysb.edu /~warren/xsbbook/node58.html   (655 words)

  
 Prolog Tutorial -- 2.5   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Thus, negative goals ?-not(g) with variables cannot be expected to produce bindings of the variables for which the goal g fails.
For programs having negation as failure in the bodies of program clauses, the definition of a program clause tree, and the definition of a consequence based upon these trees needs to be carefully formulated.
The last two exercises show that programs with negation as failure can be problematic if there is either recursion through negation or if the negation of some unbounded literal is considered.
www.csupomona.edu /~jrfisher/www/prolog_tutorial/2_5.html   (476 words)

  
 The Origens of Negation in the Gulf of Guinea Creoles
The Origens of Negation in the Gulf of Guinea Creoles
Discontinuous or final negation only exists in a very limited number of Creole languages (Palenquero, Afrikaans, Berbice Dutch) and is generally assigned to substrate influence (see Schwegler, Den Besten, Kouwenberg, etc.).
Kikongo and Kimbundu, on the other hand, do have discontinuous negation and their presence in the GGC has left imprints, but we believe these imprints to be essentially of lexical nature but not crucial to structural features like negation.
www.udc.es /dep/lx/acblpe/comunicaciones/Hagemeijer.htm   (448 words)

  
 Conjunction, Negation, and Disjunction
The logical operations of conjunction, negation, and disjunction (alteration) are discussed with respect to their truth-table definitions.
Truth Functionality: In order to know the truth value of the proposition which results from applying an operator to propositions, all that need be known is the definition of the operator and the truth value of the propositions used.
Another truth functional operator is negation: the phrase "It is false that …" or "not" inserted in the appropriate place in a statement.
philosophy.lander.edu /logic/conjunct.html   (875 words)

  
 Technorati Tag: negation
Euro consultants camp May 17th, 2006 We, Fuzzy and me, will be leaving for camp early on the 19th, and I will be going off line as of today to prepare...
Negation Find Deals on negation and other Computer Accessories at DealTime.
Posts tagged Negation per day for the last 30 days.
www.technorati.com /tag/negation   (369 words)

  
 ABC Radio National - Lingua Franca Transcript - October 10, Giving Up on Double Negation
When you say something like, 'We can't not go, they're expecting us', you're using two negatives, but one of them is negating the bit about whether we can, and the other is negating the bit about going, and the 'can' is in between them.
So one of the things you have to watch out for is that the two negatives might be negating the content of two quite different clauses or phrases, and getting rid of them might leave something that isn't even similar to what the original said.
There is in fact only one negation in 'I didn't see nuffink', as used by Cockneys or working-class Australians or fl Americans or anyone else who uses this device.
www.abc.net.au /rn/arts/ling/stories/lf981010.htm   (1878 words)

  
 joint-committee Mailing List Archive: markup tagnames for negation: consensus formulation and notes from RuleML SC ...
Here it is: In markup tags: neg stands for classical negation in FOL, strong negation in LP naf stands for negation-as-failure, a.k.a.
weak negation and default negation Often in a given tool-specific rule/KB editors' presentation syntax/view, however, one could without ambiguity use "not" for negation, because only one form of negation would be available.
Each community uses "not" to mean negation in both presentation syntax (e.g., Prolog's, KIF) and in natural language.
www.daml.org /listarchive/joint-committee/1826.html   (605 words)

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