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Topic: Neocortex

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In the News (Tue 18 Jun 19)

  Neocortex - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The neocortex (Latin for "new bark" or "new rind") is a part of the brain of mammals.
The neocortex consists of grey matter surrounding the deeper white matter of the cerebrum.
With respect to evolution, the neocortex is the newest part of the cerebral cortex (whence the name "neo"); the other parts of the cerebral cortex are the paleocortex and archicortex, collectively known as the allocortex.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Neocortex   (476 words)

 Molecular regionalization of the neocortex is disrupted in Fgf8 hypomorphic mutants -- Garel et al. 130 (9): 1903 -- ...
Molecular regionalization of the neocortex is disrupted in Fgf8 hypomorphic mutants -- Garel et al.
In Fgf8neo/neo embryos, the neocortex primordium and the bulks of the ventral telencephalic ganglionic eminences are present.
Molecular regionalization of the neocortex is perturbed in `mild' Fgf8neo/neo neonates.
dev.biologists.org /cgi/content/full/130/9/1903   (6722 words)

The neocortex is not the only section of the brain which is disproportionately larger in humans and primates.
It is in the neocortex that demonstrably increased blood-flows occur during the performance of various mental tasks.
Approximately 75-85% of the neurons in the neocortex are pyramidal cells (pyramid-shaped), characterized by a broad base at the bottom, and an apex that points upwards to the cortical surface.
www.benbest.com /science/anatmind/anatmd5.html   (3336 words)

 Neocortex   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Neocortex is the structure in the brain that differentiates mammals from other vertebrates and it is assumed that the neocortex is responsible for the evolution of intelligence.
Second, although primates generally have more neocortex than some other mammals, they clearly are not unique in their neocorticalization.
It has often been assumed that the evolution of the neocortex is responsible for the evolution of intelligence.
serendip.brynmawr.edu /bb/kinser/Int6_neo.html   (294 words)

 The Early Differentiation of the Neocortex: a Hypothesis on Neocortical Evolution -- Supèr and Uylings 11 (12): ...
Marín-Padílla M (1978) Dual origin of the mammalian neocortex and evolution of the cortical plate.
Marín-Padílla M (1992) Ontogenesis of the pyramidal cell of the mammalian neocortex and developmental cytoarchitectonics: a unifying theory.
Northcutt RG, Kaas JH (1995) The emergence and evolution of mammalian neocortex.
cercor.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/11/12/1101   (6118 words)

 Neocortex   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
They found that man does indeed "possess much more neocortex than would be expected in a basal insectivore of comparable body weight, yet man does not possess much more neocortex than would be expected in a basal insectivore of comparable brain weight" (Macphail, 251).
According to the figure, we see that the neocortex shows a dramatic progression in size as we go from the insectivores to the 'lower' primates and on to the 'higher' primates.
The importance of this figure is that while neocortex maintains a relatively constant percentage of brain volume as it expands (Fig.
serendip.brynmawr.edu /bb/kinser/Int7_neo.html   (414 words)

 Co-evolution of neocortex size, group size and language in humans   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
However, Neocortex Ratio (measured against the rest of the brain excluding the neocortex) gives much the best fit, accounting for 76% of the variance in mean group size among 36 genera of Prosimian and Anthropoid primates (using data on neocortex volume provided by Stephan et al 1981) (see Dunbar 1992a).
With a neocortex volume of 1006.5 cc and a total brain volume of 1251.8 cc (Stephan et al 1981), the neocortex ratio for humans is CR=4.1.
It is worth noting that this much has been achieved without the need to increase neocortex size: indeed, the gelada have a rather small neocortex compared to their baboon cousins (genus Papio) which probably explains the lack of cohesiveness in their larger-scale groups compared to those of the baboons.
bbsonline.org /documents/a/00/00/05/65/bbs00000565-00/bbs.dunbar.html   (11018 words)

 BrainConnection.com - Brain Evolution: Expanding Our Minds - Page 3
John Allman estimates in his book Evolving Brains that, even after correcting for body size, the neocortex varies in area by a factor of 125 from the least cortical to the most cortical mammals.
The neocortex is made up of both primary sensory areas that receive input from the thalamus, and primary motor areas.
Another important difference between the neocortex of the primate and that of other mammals is a large prefrontal cortex which is the rostral or front part of the cortex not devoted to motor function.
www.brainconnection.com /topics?main=fa/brain-evolution3   (800 words)

 Neopallium -   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
It is the top layer of the cerebral hemispheres, about 2 mm thick, and is involved in higher functions such as sensory perception, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning, and in humans, language and conscious thought.
The neopallium consists of grey matter surrounding the deeper white matter of the cerebrum.
Each column typically responds to a sensory stimulus representing a certain body part or region of sound or vision.These columns are similar and can be thought of as the basic repeating functional units of the neocortex.
psychcentral.com /psypsych/Neocortex   (517 words)

 Neuroscience for Kids - New Neurons in Neocortex?
The "neo" in neocortex means "new," signifying that this area evolved later and is not as primitive as other cortical areas (such as the "older" hippocampus).
In 1999, the same group published work showing that there were areas of the neocortex in adult monkeys where new nerve cell growth occurred.
Then perhaps that knowledge can be harnessed to prompt new cell growth in the neocortex and other areas of the brain, which could lead to promising therapies for a variety of brain diseases.
staff.washington.edu /chudler/newneu.html   (513 words)

 No Evidence Of New Neurons In Adult Primate Neocortex
For decades, scientists believed that adult humans and other primates such as monkeys are born pretty much with all the nerve cells, or neurons, in the brain that they'll ever have.
However, in the last few years, several scientists equipped with new imaging techniques have reported growth of new neurons in adult primates including monkeys and humans in certain older parts of the brain, such as the hippocampus, which is key to memory, and the olfactory bulb, which is important for smell.
The neocortex -- the wrinkled outer layer of the brain -- is the most evolved part of the brain, controlling our most sophisticated behaviors such as language and planning.
unisci.com /stories/20014/1207014.htm   (641 words)

 Storfer, Miles David (2000) Myopia, Intelligence, and the Expanding Human Neocortex, Psycoloquy: 11,#83 Brain ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
It is proposed that this neocortical expansion has made possible the large, gradual increase in IQ that has occurred across the developed world, and been responsible for the dramatic upsurge in the prevalence and severity of near-sightedness (myopia) usually found after societies urbanize.
At the heart of this analysis are MRI studies of healthy adults that permit comparisons of the amount of gray matter in these areas in young adulthood and at midlife (section 5.4).
Among the social implications of humankind's apparent proclivity for rapid, adaptive neocortical change are the possible long-term deleterious consequences of working mothers' decisions to re-enter the labor force when their children are infants, coupled with the inadequate training given to most surrogate caregivers.
psycprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk /archive/00000083   (4876 words)

 Distinct forms of short-term plasticity at excitatory synapses of hippocampus and┬áneocortex -- Castro-Alamancos and ...
neocortex and the underlying dorsal hippocampus was removed and
Facilitation is revealed in neocortex with pairs of paired stimuli.
Most synapses in the neocortex pathway have a relatively high probability of release.
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/94/8/4161   (4810 words)

 A comparative analysis of transcribed genes in the mouse hypothalamus and neocortex reveals chromosomal clustering -- ...
A comparative analysis of transcribed genes in the mouse hypothalamus and neocortex reveals chromosomal clustering -- Boon et al.
percentages for the neocortex dataset are 60%, 27%, and 13%,
2- to 24-fold (in neocortex) and 2- to 20-fold (in hypothalamus).
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/101/41/14972   (3543 words)

 CXCR4 Regulates Interneuron Migration in the Developing Neocortex -- Stumm et al. 23 (12): 5123 -- Journal of ...
precursors migrating from the basal forebrain to the neocortex
of interneurons in the neocortex of SDF-1- and CXCR4-deficient
Anderson SA, Qiu M, Bulfone A, Eisenstat DD, Meneses J, Pedersen R, Rubenstein JL (1997b) Mutations of the homeobox genes Dlx-1 and Dlx-2 disrupt the striatal subventricular zone and differentiation of late born striatal neurons.
www.jneurosci.org /cgi/content/full/23/12/5123   (5789 words)

 Computational Models of the Neocortex
The cerebral cortex (or neocortex) in an adult human can be visualized as a crumpled sheet about the size of a large dinner napkin (see Figure 1).
The neocortex has a highly regular structure, at least when compared with other, older parts of the brain.
Sensory information is mapped onto the neocortex from receptive fields at the periphery of the body; importantly, these mappings preserve spatial and locality relationships in the sensory data.
www.cs.brown.edu /people/tld/projects/cortex   (1263 words)

 BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | Supercomputer to build 3D brain
This is the part of the brain thought to be responsible for language, learning, memory and complex thought.
The Blue Brain Project will start with the neocortex but scientists expect eventually to produced a 3D model of the entire brain.
Researchers expect not only to get a better understanding of how the organ is wired up but also to use that "atlas" of neurocircuitry to probe how the brain functions - and malfunctions.
news.bbc.co.uk /2/hi/science/nature/4071192.stm   (443 words)

 The Cerebrum or Neocortex   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
The neocortex is also the largest part of the brain.
Also, a great deal of the neocortex's surface is "silent," meaning that no apparent functions can be determined.
The neocortex has taken over most of the limbic system's original functions.
www.peace.saumag.edu /faculty/Kardas/Courses/GPWeiten/C3BioBases/Cerebrum.html   (461 words)

 Development of the Central Nervous System and the Evolution of the Neocortex   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Discussion focuses on the developing brain, and particular attention is be paid to the development of the neocortex.
The neocortex is considered to be the origin of the sophisticated cognitive abilities observed in some animals.
The restriction of this unique structure to members of the mammalian class, and the striking expansion of the size of the neocortex within this group, makes the study of the development of this structure especially interesting from and evolutionary point of view.
www.pitt.edu /AFShome/p/i/pittanth/public/html/grad/research/dickma.html   (184 words)

 Model Obtains Evidence Of Chaos In Brain's Neocortex
The neocortex is the most complex brain structure specific to humans and other mammals.
Now, evidence of chaos in the neocortex has been obtained in a model by researchers at Swinburne University of Technology in Australia.
Chaos in the brain would manifest itself as unpredictable and seemingly random electrical activity in a population of nerve cells, or neurons.
unisci.com /stories/20013/0820011.htm   (425 words)

 Untitled Document
We do our thinking in the neocortex, the most evolved, "highest" part of the brain, the seat of our rationality.
One route goes to the system at the base of the brain, another to the neocortex.
So fast is the response that its output arrives in the neocortex virtually in parallel with the direct signal from the sensory organ, and well before the neocortex has processed the sensory signal to a rational thought.
cyber.law.harvard.edu /bridge/Facts/facts4.txt.htm   (624 words)

 Interlaminar Connections in the Neocortex -- Thomson and Bannister 13 (1): 5 -- Cerebral Cortex
Del Rio MR, DeFelipe J (1997) Double bouquet cell axons in the human temporal neocortex: relationship to bundles of myelinated axons and colocalization of calretinin and calbindin D-28k immunoreactivities.
Gupta A, Wang Y, Markram H (2000) Organizing principles for a diversity of GABAergic interneurons and synapses in the neocortex.
Lewis DA, Lund JS (1990) Heterogeneity of chandelier neurons in monkey neocortex: corticotrophin-releasing factor and parvalbumin immunoreactive populations.
cercor.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/13/1/5   (7376 words)

 Seizures of the posterior neocortex
By definition, seizures of the posterior neocortex originate in regions of the cerebral cortex behind the rolandic fissure, but not to include the posterior limits of the temporal lobe.
Because seizures originating in the posterior neocortex can have multiple spread patterns, they can mimic other types of seizures such as lateral temporal, mesial temporal, or frontal lobe seizures (Ajmone-Marsan and Ralston 1957; Salanova et al 1992; 1995; Williamson et al 1992a; 1992b; Williamson 1999).
Seizures of the posterior neocortex are a heterogeneous group of seizures that originate in the occipital and parietal lobes.
www.ilae-epilepsy.org /Visitors/Centre/ctf/posterior_neo.html   (3911 words)

 Technorati Tag: neocortex
Neocortex at DanceRecords.com We sell releases by Neocortex on vinyl.
Web Resources in the Brain Sciences Red Reef Publications offers a variety of learning resources in the brain sciences: brain models, anatomical charts, new and used books and videos.
Posts tagged Neocortex per day for the last 30 days.
technorati.com /tag/neocortex   (199 words)

 Geeking with Greg: Scalable hierarchical models of the neocortex
Googler Corinna Cortes just posted a bunch of links on the Google Research Blog, including a link to talks various researchers have done at Google.
Following that, I discovered a talk that Brown University Professor Tom Dean did at Google in Jan 2006 called "Scalable Learning and Inference in Hierarchical Models of the Neocortex".
This is a paragraph of text that could go in the sidebar.
glinden.blogspot.com /2006/03/scalable-hierarchical-models-of.html   (439 words)

 How long before superintelligence?
As the present, however, not enough is known about the neocortex to allow us to simulate it in such an optimized way.
In fact, the human neocortex seems to start out as a fairly flexible and general-purpose mechanism; specific modules arise later through self-organizing and through interacting with the environment.
But the neocortex tends to be highly plastic and that is where most of the high-level processing is executed that makes us intellectually superior to other animals.
www.nickbostrom.com /superintelligence.html   (6953 words)

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