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Topic: Nerve agent


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VX

In the News (Sat 17 Aug 19)

  
  Nerve agent - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nerve agents (also known as nerve gases, though these chemicals are liquid at room temperature) are a class of phosphorus-containing organic chemicals (organophosphates) that disrupt the mechanism by which nerves transfer messages to organs.
Nerve agents can also be absorbed through the skin, requiring that those likely to be subjected to such agents wear a full body suit in addition to a respirator.
Nerve agents were not used by Iraq in the Gulf War, though a number of U.S. and UK personnel were exposed to them when the Khamisiyah chemical depot was destroyed.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Nerve_agent   (3069 words)

  
 Chemical Weapons Information - Federation of American Scientists
The "G" agents tend to be non-persistent whereas the "V" agents are persistent.
The effects of the nerve agents are mainly due to their ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase throughout the body.
Nerve agent poisoning may be identified from the characteristic signs and symptoms.
www.fas.org /cw/cwagents.htm   (3379 words)

  
 NERVE AGENTS
Nerve agents inhibit acetylcholinesterase in tissue, and their effects are caused by the resulting excess acetylcholine.
Oximes attach to the nerve agent that is inhibiting the cholinesterase and break the agent-enzyme bond to restore the normal activity of the enzyme.
Nerve agent exposed workers in a depot or research facility are prevented from returning to work with agents until this recovery occurs.
www.fas.org /nuke/guide/usa/doctrine/army/mmcch/NervAgnt.htm   (5332 words)

  
 Emergency Preparedness & Response   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Nerve agents have no industrial uses and are not easily obtainable, but a skilled chemist may be able to make them.
Nerve agents can spread from one person to another through clothing or skin that has been contaminated with large amounts of vapor or any amount of liquid.
Since nerve agents are so toxic, the safest step is to remove the outer layer of clothing from anyone that may have been in a vapor.
www.vdh.state.va.us /EPR/Agents_Chemical_NerveAgent.asp   (825 words)

  
 Nerve Agent Effects on Body   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Nerve agents are more or less fat-soluble and can penetrate the outer layers of the skin.
Consequently, death caused by nerve agents is a kind of death by suffocation.
In the presence of nerve agent the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for breaking down acetylcholine, is inhibited.
www.health.state.nd.us /epr/public/chemical/nerveeffects.htm   (946 words)

  
 Nerve Agents
The "G" agents tend to be nun-persistent whereas the "V" agents are persistent Some "G" agents may be thickened with various substances in order to increase their persistence, and therefore the total amount penetrating intact skin.
Following the ingestion of substances containing a nerve agent, which is essentially tasteless, the initial symptoms include abdominal cramps, vomiting, and diarrhea.
The main principles of therapy for nerve agent poisoning are early treatment, assisted ventilation, bronchial suction, muscarinic cholinergic blockade (atropine), enzyme reactivation.
mywebpage.netscape.com /Emrgncprepinfo/nerve.htm   (860 words)

  
 Noah's Ark: Nerve Agents and Their Effects
Nerve agents can be dispersed from missiles, rockets, bombs, howitzer shells, spray tanks, land mines, and other large munitions.
Liquid agent on the skin will not cause miosis if the amount of liquid is small; a moderate amount of liquid may or may not cause miosis; and a lethal or near-lethal amount of agent usually causes miosis.
Gastrointestinal tract: After they are absorbed, nerve agents cause an increase in the motility of the GI tract and an increase in secretions by the glands in the wall of the GI tract.
www.millennium-ark.net /News_Files/NBC/Chem.Agents.Nerve.html   (1142 words)

  
 Emergency Preparedness and Response: Safety and Health Guides - Nerve Agents
Nerve agents are highly toxic chemicals called "organophosphates" that poison the nervous system and disrupt bodily functions which are vital to an individual’s survival.
Nerve agents, depending on their purity, are clear and colorless or slightly colored liquids and may have no odor or a faint, sweetish smell.
When a person is exposed to a nerve agent, the nerve agent, upon entering the body, inhibits the normal actions of acetylcholinesterase; a chemical within the body whose normal function it is to break down the chemical acetylcholine.
www.osha.gov /SLTC/emergencypreparedness/guides/nerve.html   (1955 words)

  
 Nerve Agent: GB
The immediate treatment for nerve agent intoxication is intravenous injection of 2 mg atropine sulfate (intramuscular injection should be considered if the patient is hypoxic and ventilation can not be initiated, as there is a risk of ventricular fibrillation).
GB is a "first generation" nerve agent, identified in 1938 as a potential chemical agent by German researchers examining toxic organophosphates as a result of the discovery of GA (Tabun).
GB was the first agent to be employed to cause mass casualties by nonstate actors when it was used for attacks by the Aum Shinrikyo cult in Japan during 1994 and 1995.
www.cbwinfo.com /Chemical/Nerve/GB.shtml   (5111 words)

  
 CDC | Facts About VX
Nerve agents are the most toxic and rapidly acting of the known chemical warfare agents.
All the nerve agents cause their toxic effects by preventing the proper operation of the chemical that acts as the body’s “off switch” for glands and muscles.
VX is the least volatile of the nerve agents, which means that it is the slowest to evaporate from a liquid into a vapor.
www.bt.cdc.gov /agent/vx/basics/facts.asp   (1226 words)

  
 ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Nerve Agents (GA, GB, GD, VX)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Nerve agents are highly toxic regardless of the route of exposure.
Most of the nerve agents were originally produced in a search for insecticides, but because of their toxicity, they were evaluated for military use.
Regardless of the route of exposure, the manifestation of nerve agent exposure includes runny nose, chest tightness, pinpoint pupils, shortness of breath, excessive salivation and sweating, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, involuntary defecation and urination, muscle twitching, confusion, seizures, paralysis, coma, respiratory paralysis, and death.
www.atsdr.cdc.gov /tfactsd4.html   (1236 words)

  
 eMedicine - CBRNE - Nerve Agents, G-series: Tabun, Sarin, Soman : Article by Kermit D Huebner, MD FACEP   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
At muscarinic receptors, nerve agents cause miosis, glandular hypersecretion (salivary, bronchial, lacrimal, bronchoconstriction, vomiting, diarrhea, urinary and fecal incontinence, bradycardia).
Percutaneous absorption of nerve agent typically results in localized sweating caused by direct nicotinic effect on the skin, followed by muscular fasciculations and weakness as the agent penetrates deeper and a nicotinic effect is exerted on underlying muscle.
Nerve agents cause death via respiratory failure, which in turn is caused by increased airway resistance (bronchorrhea, bronchoconstriction), respiratory muscle paralysis, and most importantly, loss of central respiratory drive.
www.emedicine.com /emerg/topic898.htm   (4709 words)

  
 Nerve Agents
Nerve agents acquired their name because they affect the transmission of nerve impulses in the nervous system.
Binary technology implies that the final stage in the synthesis of the nerve agent is moved from the factory into the warhead, which thus functions as a chemical reactor.
The reaction mechanism for nerve agents is similar but with the important difference that the rate of the final, hydrolyzing step is negligible.
www.opcw.org /resp/html/nerve.html   (3591 words)

  
 Nerve Agent Antidotes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The various nerve agents cause poisoning which are more or less easy to treat with oximes.
From this standpoint, VX and sarin are the easiest to treat and all oximes used increase the chances of surviving poisoning with these nerve agents.
In cases of severe poisoning by nerve agents, large doses of atropine (grammes) may be required.
www.health.state.nd.us /epr/public/chemical/nerveantidotes.htm   (778 words)

  
 Bomb containing sarin nerve agent explodes in Iraq - Salon
Two members of a military bomb squad were treated for minor exposure to nerve agent, but none was injured.
Nerve gases work by inhibiting key enzymes in the nervous system, blocking their transmission.
Antidotes to nerve gases similar to sarin are so effective that top poison gas researchers predict they eventually will cease to be a war threat.
dir.salon.com /story/news/wire/2004/05/17/sarin_iraq/index.html   (1225 words)

  
 Boston Public Health Commission - Information on Possible Terrorist Agents - Nerve Agents   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The initial symptoms of exposure to a nerve agent depend on the amount of the agent and whether a person is exposed to the liquid or the gas form.
Treatment of victims of nerve agents may include decontam- ination, or trying to clean the substance off the victims.
The range of time that nerve agents remain in the environment depends on the agent, and other variables such as weather conditions.
www.bphc.org /bphc/prepare_nerveagents.asp   (468 words)

  
 [No title]
Diagnosis The diagnosis of nerve agent exposure is made when there is a high index of suspicion and when the symptoms described above present themselves.
For localized nerve agent induced bronchospasm, an ipratropium inhaler may be used.
Should the patient with symptoms survive the immediate effects of nerve agent poisoning, several delayed effects may occur which need to be identified should they occur.
www.pdhealth.mil /wot/downloads/Fact_Sheet_Nerve_Agents.doc   (1191 words)

  
 washingtonpost.com: U.S. Suspects Al Qaeda Got Nerve Agent From Iraqis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
They said the principal source on the chemical transfer was uncorroborated, and that indications it involved a nerve agent were open to interpretation.
Its remaining chemical arsenal was limited to blister agents, such as mustard gas, that date back to World War I. First developed as a weapon by the U.S. Army, VX is an oily, odorless and tasteless liquid that kills on contact with the skin or when inhaled in aerosol form.
Like other nerve agents, it is treatable in the first minutes after exposure but otherwise leads swiftly to fatal convulsions and respiratory failure.
www.washingtonpost.com /ac2/wp-dyn/A42876-2002Dec11?language=printer   (1830 words)

  
 Nerve Agent: VX
It is an organophosphate nerve agent with an extended persistence (evaporation rate about 1/1500th that of water).
It has been suggested that the development parallels that of the G agents, beginning with the investigations into pesticides of Dr. Ranjit Ghosh's team for Imperial Chemical Industries which led to the discovery of materials of great toxicity to both insects and humans.
A number of these involved the use of VX, including one in which the agent was painted on the door of his car and another in which a VX-containing mixture was squirted into a keyhole.
www.cbwinfo.com /Chemical/Nerve/VX.shtml   (2734 words)

  
 VX Nerve Agent
The U.S. Army is proposing to pre-treat stockpiles of VX nerve agent at its Newport Chemical Agent Disposal Facility in Newport Indiana, and then transport the resulting hydrolysate across the country to the Dupont Chambers Works facility at Carney’s Point, Salem County, NJ for final treatment and disposal into the Delaware River.
The Newport Indiana community has repeatedly voiced its preference that the VX nerve agent be treated, destroyed and disposed of on site in Newport as originally agreed to by the Army.
The Army is proposing to “neutralize” the VX nerve agent stored at the Newport, Indiana facility using a chemical neutralization process.
www.delawareriverkeeper.org /factsheets/vx_nerve_agent.htm   (2010 words)

  
 Sarin Nerve Agent Bomb Explodes In Iraq
Earlier this month, some trace residue of mustard agent, an older type of chemical weapon, was detected in an artillery shell found in a Baghdad street, a U.S. official said Monday, speaking on condition of anonymity.
Nerve gases inhibit key enzymes in the nervous system, blocking their transmission.
While the finding an artillery shell designed to disperse the nerve gas sarin is notable, it would take an arsenal of such weapons to pose a meaningful military threat, arms policy experts said.
www.military.com /NewsContent/0,13319,FL_sarin_051804,00.html   (1053 words)

  
 BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | Push for anti-nerve agent drug
Molecules that destroy deadly nerve agents could provide the basis of a new type of civilian drug to protect people against a terrorist attack.
Paraoxonases are a particularly attractive choice as the basis for developing pre-treatment drugs, or prophylactics, because they completely break down organophosphorus nerve agents like sarin, the agent used in the Tokyo underground attack in March 1995.
"The difficulty with nerve agents is their rapidity of action," Professor Alistair Hay, a chemical weapons specialist at the University of Leeds, UK, said.
news.bbc.co.uk /2/hi/science/nature/3671827.stm   (819 words)

  
 VE (nerve agent) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
VE (S-(Diethylamino)ethyl O-ethyl ethylphosphonothioate) is a "V-series" nerve agent closely related to the better-known VX nerve agent.
Like most of the agents in the V-series (with the exception of VX), VE has not been extensively studied outside of military science.
They have similar lethal dose levels to VX (between 10-50 mg) and have similar symptoms and method of action to other nerve agents that act on cholinesterase, and treatment remains the same, but the window for effectively treating second generation V series seizures is shorter.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/VE_(nerve_agent)   (242 words)

  
 BBC NEWS | World | Middle East | 'Nerve gas bomb' explodes in Iraq
It appears to be the first evidence of nerve gas existing in Iraq since the start of the US-led war last year.
Gen Kimmitt said the dispersal of the nerve agent from a device such as the homemade bomb was "limited".
The gas is one of a group of nerve agents invented by German scientists in the 1930s as part of Adolf Hitler's preparations for World War II.
news.bbc.co.uk /1/hi/world/middle_east/3722255.stm   (377 words)

  
 Chemical & Engineering News: Latest News - VX Nerve Agent Spill
On March 14, the Army experienced another spill of the wastewater by-product of VX nerve agent neutralization.
This time, about 300 gal of the caustic by-product leaked in a contained area at the facility where the nerve agent is hydrolyzed by hot sodium hydroxide and water in large reactors.
Destruction of the nerve agent has been halted until the spill can be cleaned up and the Army's contractor, Parsons, determines why the plug became loose, says Lt. Col.
pubs.acs.org /cen/news/84/i12/8412VX.html   (427 words)

  
 UPI News Article: 35,000 veterans to get nerve agent notice   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
It also is sending letters to around 32,000 veterans to tell them new computer simulations of the resulting plume of sarin shows they were probably not in its path, contradicting what the Pentagon said in 1997.
The sarin -- the same nerve agent that killed Japanese subway riders in an attack by a religious cult -- was released when soldiers of the 18th Airborne Corps conducted two large-scale operations to destroy the munitions and facilities around Khamisiyah in southern Iraq in March 1991.
The CIA now estimates that 320 kilograms of the two agents - about three-quarters of it sarin and the rest cyclosarin -- were dispersed into the air and ground when 225 of the rockets were blown up.
www.fortunecity.com /meltingpot/nebraska/1386/nerveagentwarning.htm   (771 words)

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