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Topic: Neural tube

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In the News (Fri 22 Mar 19)

  Neural tube - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The neural groove gradually deepens as the neural folds become elevated, and ultimately the folds meet and coalesce in the middle line and convert the groove into a closed tube, the neural tube or canal, the ectodermal wall of which forms the rudiment of the nervous system.
In secondary neurulation, the cells of the neural plate form a cord-like structure that migrates inside the embryo and hollows to form the tube.
There are four subdivisions of the neural tube that will each eventually develop into distinct regions of the central nervous system: The prosencephalon, the mesencephalon, the rhombencephalon and the spinal cord.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Neural_tube   (506 words)

 I. Embryology. 6. The Neural Groove and Tube. Gray, Henry. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body.
After the coalescence of the neural folds over the anterior end of the primitive streak, the blastopore no longer opens on the surface but into the closed canal of the neural tube, and thus a transitory communication, the neurenteric canal, is established between the neural tube and the primitive digestive tube.
Before the neural groove is closed a ridge of ectodermal cells appears along the prominent margin of each neural fold; this is termed the neural crest or ganglion ridge, and from it the spinal and cranial nerve ganglia and the ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system are developed.
By the upward growth of the mesoderm the neural tube is ultimately separated from the overlying ectoderm.
www.bartleby.com /107/7.html   (435 words)

 [Clinical Preventive Services] Screening for Neural Tube Defects -- Including Folic Acid/Folate Prophylaxis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The birth prevalence of neural tube defects has declined substantially over the past 60 years.3,4 Neural tube defects are reported in 3.6-4.6/ 10,000 live births in the United States.3,5 These rates underestimate true incidence, however, because affected pregnancies may be spontaneously or electively aborted and because not all cases are detected and reported at birth.
Of eight neural tube defects occurring in the screened group, seven were detected by screening and electively aborted, reducing the birth prevalence by 88%, to 0.13/1,000 screened women.
While MSAFP screening is a relatively safe procedure, neural tube defects are relatively uncommon, and in certain low-prevalence populations it is possible for the complication rate from screening and its follow-up diagnostic tests to equal or exceed the detection rate for the target condition.
cpmcnet.columbia.edu /texts/gcps/gcps0052.html   (5236 words)

 Neural Tube Defects from Even One Gene - Healthy Kids and Pediatrics - health and medical information produced by ...
Background: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common birth defects of the brain and spinal cord that include anencephaly and spina bifida (meningomyelocele).
Neural tube defects are a class of birth defects affecting the brain and spinal cord.
In anencephaly, a fatal neural tube defect, the brain and skull are grossly underdeveloped.
www.medicinenet.com /script/main/art.asp?articlekey=32779   (833 words)

 Neural tube defects
Neural tube defects occur in 1 or 2 out of every 1000 pregnancies.
Some babies with neural tube defects are stillborn or die shortly after birth.
Elevated levels of AFP indicate an increased risk for a fetus with a neural tube defect.
www.stronghealth.com /services/womenshealth/maternity/neuraltube.cfm   (99 words)

 Neural Tube Defects (NTD)
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are one of the most common birth defects, occurring in approximately one in 1,000 live births in the United States.
Neural tube defects are considered a complex disorder because they are caused by a combination of multiple genes and multiple environmental factors.
The formation of the neural tube during development is a complex process, and the goal of our project is to discover the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to NTDs.
www.chg.duke.edu /diseases/ntd.html   (1439 words)

 Neural Tube Defects - Contra Costa Health Services
A neural tube defect (NTD) is a birth defect of the brain or spinal cord.
The neural tube is the embryonic structure that grows into the brain and spinal cord.
The neural tube starts out as a small ribbon of tissue that normally folds inward to form a tube by the 28th day after conception.
www.cchealth.org /topics/folic_acid/neural_tube_defects.php   (390 words)

 Neural tube defect
A neural tube defect (NTD) is a birth defect that occurs when the spine, the brain, or the bone and skin that protect them do not develop properly.
The most common type of neural tube defect is spina bifida, in which the spinal cord or spinal nerves may bulge out through an opening in the bones of the spine.
The neural tube is the part of a developing fetus that grows into the spinal cord and brain.
www.webmd.com /hw/health_guide_atoz/stn166112.asp?navbar=   (236 words)

 Neural Tube Defects
Spina bifida is caused by disturbances in the closure of the neural tube.
This is the most common neural tube defect and often occurs before the women realises she is pregnant.
A shunt is a flexible tube placed into the ventricular system of the brain which diverts the flow of CSF into another region of the body, most often the abdominal cavity or a chamber of the heart, where it can be absorbed.
www.btinternet.com /~tetheredcordresources/ntds.htm   (951 words)

 Folic Acid & Neural Tube Defects
Two recent, highly recognized studies have shown that the risk of neural tube defects in the low risk population can be lowered significantly, both statistically and clinically, by the use of folic acid.
Neural tube defects, including spina bifida, anencephaly, and congenital hydrocephalus, are the most common, and second only to congenital heart defects in causing infant mortality.
Researchers believe that neural tube defects in humans are caused by a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors (Laurence, 1990).
www.theberries.ns.ca /Archives/neural.html   (658 words)

 12.15.2003 - Single gene plays key role in neural tube defects
Neural tube defects, including spina bifida - an open spinal cord - and anencephaly, or lack of a complete brain, are among the most common serious birth defects in the United States.
Birth of a neural tube: Development of a normal frog embryo showing formation of the neural tube – the hollow structure that will become the brain and spinal cord.
Despite the large number of genes known to be involved in proper neural tube closure, scientists know little or nothing about the normal function of these genes, largely because mice develop inside the mother's uterus, where it's impossible to watch the process of neural tube closure.
www.berkeley.edu /news/media/releases/2003/12/15_neural.shtml   (1042 words)

 eMedicine - Neural Tube Defects : Article Excerpt by: George Jallo, MD   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Neural tissue is exposed with associated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage.
Neural tissue is not exposed and the defect is fully epithelialized, although the skin covering the defect may be dysplastic.
The neural plate and the notochord are formed during early embryonic development.
www.emedicine.com /neuro/byname/neural-tube-defects.htm   (539 words)

 ScienceDaily: New Insights Into Neural Tube Defects
One cause of these defects is the failure of cells within the neural tube to migrate to the middle of the developing neural tube.
Neural Tube Defects Decrease With Folic Acid Fortification (May 14, 2005) -- A new study examines whether the recent decline in neural tube defects in Chile was due to the addition of folic acid to wheat flour in that country or to pre-existing decreasing...
Neural development -- The study of neural development draws on both neuroscience and developmental biology to describe the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which complex nervous systems emerge during embryonic...
www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2006/01/060112051738.htm   (1607 words)

 UBDN :: Neural Tube Defects
The neural tube is an early embryonic structure which forms 18 to 30 days after conceptions.
Neural tube defects occur when the tube fails to close completely, usually before most women even know they are pregnant.
Neural tubes defects result in significant disabilities and have a significant economic impact.
health.utah.gov /birthdefect/defects/neural.html   (1336 words)

 Neural Tube Defect - Search Results - MSN Encarta
Neural Tube Defect (NTD), type of birth defect and any of a group of abnormalities caused by incomplete closure of the neural tube.
During pregnancy the foetal brain grows dramatically in size and complexity, and the neurons and glia which constitute it must find their...
- congenital disorder: a disorder such as that is present at birth and is caused by failure of the neural tube to close completely, resulting in loss of muscle function and various medical disorders
uk.encarta.msn.com /Neural_Tube_Defect.html   (154 words)

 Breeding Guide: Neural Tube Defects   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Neural Tube Defects (NTD) are the result of the neural tube failing to form or close properly during embryonic development.
Fusion of the neural tube begins cranially (towards the head) and progresses caudally (towards the tail).
Anencephaly- Anencephaly is the most severe form of neural tube defect, the brain tissue as well as a portion of the spinal cord are absent.
ratguide.com /breeding/birth_abnormalities/neural_tube_defects.php   (559 words)

 Neural Tube Defects
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects (Read about "Birth Defects") with symptoms that range from mild to severe impairment.
According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), anencephaly occurs when the "cephalic" or head end of the neural tube fails to close, resulting in the absence of a major portion of the brain, skull and scalp.
Encephaloceles are rare neural tube defects that result in abnormal openings in the skull through which brain tissue protrudes.
www.stayinginshape.com /3osfcorp/libv/k36.shtml   (1776 words)

 Neural tube defects - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Normally the closure of the neural tube occurs around the 30th day after fertilization.
Among the most common tube defects are anencephaly, encephalocele, and spina bifida.
Research has shown that women with folic acid deficiences also have a higher chance of having a child with a neural tube defect, but this is only one factor.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Neural_tube_defect   (162 words)

 Untitled Document
The technical names of the two major neural tube birth defects reduced by adequate folate intake are anencephaly and spina bifida.
Neural tube defects result in malformations of the spine (spina bifida), skull, and brain (anencephaly).
Spina bifida, a type of neural tube defect, is a Latin term which means "split spine" and describes birth defects caused by an incomplete closure of one or more vertebral arches of the spine, resulting in malformations of the spinal cord.
www.wisc.edu /ansci_repro/misc/project_websites_06/tuesday/neural_tube/dreamweaver_folate.htm   (3249 words)

 Pregnancy Planning - Folic Acid and Neural Tube Defects
Depending on the size and the location of the neural tube defect, some children may experience limited feeling and movement of the lower limbs, loss of bowel and bladder control, and mental handicap.
This test alone can't diagnose a neural tube defect but, if there is a significant increase in the maternal serum alpha fetoprotein level, counseling and further testing would be available.
This is because at least 50% of all pregnancies are unplanned, and the neural tube closes before a woman even knows that she is pregnant.
www.crha-health.ab.ca /health_info/mat_new/FolicAcidNeuralTube.htm   (896 words)

 Neural tube defects - Glossary Entry - Genetics Home Reference
Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation.
Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure.
Any of various congenital defects (as anencephaly and spina bifida) caused by incomplete closure of the neural tube during the early stages of embryonic development.
ghr.nlm.nih.gov /ghr/glossary/neuraltubedefects   (94 words)

 ScienceDaily: Neural Tube Defects Decrease With Folic Acid Fortification   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Recent data in Chile have suggested that the incidence of the neural tube defects spina bifida and anencephaly (a fatal condition that results in malformation of the brain) have significantly declined since January 2000, when wheat flour began to be fortified with folic acid.
While the prevalence rates of neural tube defects did not significantly change between the two pre-fortified periods, the rate of spina bifida decreased by 51 percent and the rate of anencephaly decreased by 46 percent in the 2001-2002 period.
In addition, the inclusion of two pre-fortification periods successfully demonstrated that the decrease in neural tube defects seen in 2001-2002 was not due to a historical trend like in other areas of the world, including the U.S., where decreasing trends are documented.
www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2005/05/050513230056.htm   (1569 words)

 Researchers Suggest Cause for Neural Tube Defects in Babies of Mothers with Diabetes - Joslin, May 2002
It is not clear whether the protein, p53, plays a similar role in human neural tube defects, which include spina bifida (where the spinal cord is not completely enclosed) and exencephaly (where the brain is exposed and the skull is not fully formed).
Even with good control of diabetes, the risk for neural tube and other birth defects is two to five times higher than normal if a mother has diabetes.
She first suspected p53 might be involved in neural tube defects while investigating the role of another protein, Pax-3.
www.hms.harvard.edu /news/pressreleases/jos/0302NeuralTubeDefects.html   (702 words)

 eMedicine - Neural Tube Defects : Article by George Jallo, MD   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
No differentiated supratentorial neural tissue is present, and the brain stem consists of nests of poorly differentiated neural elements.
The neurological deficits may be due to accompanying hydrocephalus, a Chiari II malformation, tethering of the cord, cystic mass, or fibrous band compressing the neural elements.
MRI is the study of choice for imaging neural tissue and for identifying contents of the defect in the newborn.
www.emedicine.com /neuro/topic244.htm   (2952 words)

 Preventing Neural Tube Defects at StorkNet's Pregnancy Cubby
The defects develop between the 17th and 30th day after conception (four to six weeks after the first day of a woman's last menstrual period), usually before a woman knows she is pregnant.
During this critical time of pregnancy, the proper formation and closure of the neural tube, which later becomes the spinal cord, brain and bone surrounding the spinal cord and brain, normally takes place.
Anencephaly is a fatal condition in which the upper end of the neural tube fails to close.
www.storknet.com /cubbies/pregnancy/preventingneuraltube.htm   (1073 words)

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