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Topic: Neurogenesis

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  Neurogenesis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
Their frequency increases dramatically with age, and morbidity associated with neurological disorders is expected to rise dramatically in the coming years in lockstep with the aging of the population.
Evidence that neurogenesis and nerve regeneration persist beyond the embryonic and early developmental periods has led to a number of programs in academia and the commercial sector that seek to stimulate the differentiation and growth of adult neural stem cells.
Advances in neurogenesis and nerve regeneration are being chaperoned by a number of enabling technologies such as functional mapping, which is already being used in a number of clinical settings, and enhanced diagnostic imaging.
www.greystoneassociates.org /Neurogenesis.htm   (252 words)

  Neurogenesis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
Neurogenesis (birth of neurons) is the process by which neurons are created.
The function of adult neurogenesis is not certain [1] - although there is good evidence that hippocampal adult neurogenesis is important for learning and memory.
Evidence for neurogenesis in the adult mammalian substantia nigra.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Neurogenesis   (940 words)

 The Scientist : No role for neurogenesis in enrichment?
Neurogenesis does not appear to be the reason why mice living in enriched environments tend to exhibit certain behavioral changes -- such as less anxiety -- relative to mice living in standard housing, according to a study published this week in Nature Neuroscience.
The conclusion contradicts the recent hypothesis that neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, a region of the hippocampus, is the cause of certain behavioral effects of environmental enrichment, which also include improved learning.
The study of adult neurogenesis is in the midst of a technical evolution, said Eisch, from anticancer drugs to whole-brain irradiation, to targeted irradiation in the current study.
www.the-scientist.com /news/display/23351   (751 words)

 Neurogenesis and brain injury: managing a renewable resource for repair -- Hallbergson et al. 112 (8): 1128 -- Journal ...
Neurogenesis in the adult brain is largely confined to two germinal centers: the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone, shown schematically (a) and in a corresponding sagittal section of the rodent brain (b).
Neurogenesis in the adult is involved in the formation of trace memories.
Kuhn, H.G., Dickinson-Anson, H., and Gage, F.H. Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the adult rat: age-related decrease of neuronal progenitor proliferation.
www.jci.org /cgi/content/full/112/8/1128   (3786 words)

 Pinel: Biopsychology
Neurogenesis in this part of the brain has also been demonstrated in a variety of nonhuman primates and in rodents, thus opening the door for animal studies to better understand the phenomenon.
And lest one assumes that neurogenesis is always beneficial to an animal, Parent and his colleagues have demonstrated that seizures promote neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus and that these new neurons contribute to a pathological rewiring of the neural circuitry in this brain region.
Neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus of the Adult Tree Shrew Is Regulated by Psychosocial Stress and NMDA Receptor Activation.
www.abacon.com /pinel/hot_sept.html   (742 words)

 Neurogenesis: What is it?
Neurogenesis, or the birth of new neuronal cells, was thought to occur only in developing organisms.
However, recent research has demonstrated that neurogenesis does indeed continue into and throughout adult life in both vertebrate and invertebrate organisms.
Examples of neurogenesis are found in the hippocampus of mammals, song control nuclei of birds and the olfactory pathway of rodents, insects and crustaceans.
www.wellesley.edu /Biology/Concepts/Html/neurogenesiswhat.html   (98 words)

 Regulation of Adult Neurogenesis by Psychotropic Drugs and Stress -- Duman et al. 299 (2): 401 -- Journal of ...
Neurogenesis in adult brain is characterized by DNA synthesis that occurs during the S phase of mitosis of dividing progenitor
Gross CG (2000) Neurogenesis in the adult brain: death of a dogma.
Magavi SS, Leavitt BR and Macklis JD (2000) Induction of neurogenesis in the neocortex of adult mice.
jpet.aspetjournals.org /cgi/content/full/299/2/401   (4732 words)

 Alzforum: News
The decreased neurogenesis was accompanied and probably fueled by the activation of microglia, as neurogenesis was tightly correlated with the degree of microglial activation.
The authors showed that decreased neurogenesis was accompanied with, and probably fueled by, activation of microglia, as neurogenesis was tightly correlated to the degree of microglial activation.
Adult neurogenesis, occurring in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and olfactory bulb in the adult brains, is evolutionarily preserved in mammalian species, including rodents to monkeys to humans.
www.alzforum.org /new/detail.asp?id=939   (1270 words)

 Developing Intelligence: Modeling Neurogenesis
On a molecular level, neurogenesis may occur in a process roughly similar to the following: astrocytes actively express growth proteins dependent on the local patterns of neural activity and the local neural density, which then upregulate the proliferation of adult hippocampal stem cells and encourage them to adopt a specific fate as neurons.
Neurogenesis in the hippocampus could therefore be a way of maintaining capacity for distributed representations and avoiding catastrophic interference.
Other computational models of neurogenesis, such as the cascade correlation algorithm, are not as biologically constrained and work on slightly different principles: new units are added to better orthogonalize existing representations rather than prepare for better orthogonalization of new ones.
develintel.blogspot.com /2006/02/modeling-neurogenesis.html   (749 words)

 Neurogenesis in the Human Brain:Fact or Fiction?
In 1998, a study was undertaken to investigate whether neurogenesis occurs in the adult human brain.
The theory that neurogenesis in the adult primate brain occurs only during development is challenged by new experimental evidence that does not support this theory.
"Neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus of the Adult Tree Shrew Is Regulated by Psychosocial Stress and NMDA Receptor Activation." The Journal of Neuroscience.
serendip.brynmawr.edu /bb/neuro/neuro00/web1/Wall.html   (1455 words)

 Grow Little Cell Grow! Investigating Neurogenesis
Neurogenesis, the production of new nerve cells, has been a revolutionary finding as nerve formation has always been thought to end with adulthood.
It has not been until recently that such dogma has been contradicted as research findings report that neurogenesis continues in the hippocampus throughout most of the adult life of mammals and primates (1).
Neurogenesis is a complex issue with an array of possibilities for the future.
serendip.brynmawr.edu /bb/neuro/neuro02/web1/calbert.html   (1012 words)

 A Hypothesis About the Role of Adult Neurogenesis in Hippocampal Function -- Schinder and Gage 19 (5): 253 -- Physiology
neurogenesis is enhanced in animal models of epilepsy (28–30).
Induction of neurogenesis in the neocortex of adult mice.
Dentate granule cell neurogenesis is increased by seizures and contributes to aberrant network reorganization in the adult rat hippocampus.
physiologyonline.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/19/5/253   (4972 words)

Research on Neurogenesis has been progressing since the 1960s and achieved a breakthrough in 1998 with publications by Gerard Kemperman of The Salk Institute, La Jolla CA, stating that neurogenesis, in the human brain, can be induced under enriched living environmental conditions.
The field of Neurogenesis is an encouraging one, because of its implications in developing new strategies to treat Neuro-degenerative disorders such as MSA, Shy-Drager Syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease, Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease.
Neurogenesis research, published in mainstream journals of medicine and neuroscience worldwide in the last five years, has substantiated the observations confirming the appearance of new neurons in the adult human brain.
www.br13.com /html/2c__neurogenic.html   (2494 words)

 Circadian Control of Neurogenesis.
The possibility of persistent neurogenesis in the neocortex of primates is also being widely discussed (Gould et al., 1999; Kornack and Rakic, 2001).
All influence the rate of neuronal proliferation and survival in a variety of organisms, suggesting that mechanisms controlling life-long neurogenesis are conserved across a range of vertebrate and invertebrate species.
Data show a diurnal rhythm of neurogenesis among the olfactory projection neurons in the crustacean brain, with peak proliferation during the hours surrounding dusk, the most active period for lobsters.
hdlighthouse.org /research/general/updates/0058circadian.shtml   (617 words)

 A Neurogenic Theory of Depression Gains Momentum -- Thomas and Peterson 3 (8): 441 -- Molecular Interventions
abound in the interpretation of neurogenesis in the amelioration
Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus is a process that includes progression from cell proliferation through lineage commitment and functional integration.
Gould, E., McEwen, B.S., Tanapat, P., Galea, L.A., and Fuchs, E. Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the adult tree shrew is regulated by psychosocial stress and NMDA receptor activation.
molinterv.aspetjournals.org /cgi/content/full/3/8/441   (2373 words)

 Adult neurogenesis
Adult neurogenesis (the creation of new brain cells in adult brains) was first discovered in 1965, but only recently has it been accepted as a general phenomenon that occurs in many species, including humans (1998).
It's now widely accepted that adult neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus within the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the walls of the lateral ventricles within the forebrain.
Neurogenesis is measured in terms of these two factors, which researchers often fail to distinguish between: the generation of new brain cells, and their survival.
www.memory-key.com /Neurology/neurogenesis.htm   (2128 words)

 Why New Neurons? Possible Functions for Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis -- Kempermann 22 (3): 635 -- Journal of ...
Altman J, Das GD (1965) Autoradiographic and histologic evidence of postnatal neurogenesis in rats.
Gould E, McEwen BS, Tanapat P, Galea LAM, Fuchs E (1997) Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the adult tree shrew is regulated by psychosocial stress and NMDA receptor activation.
Kuhn HG, Dickinson-Anson H, Gage FH (1996) Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the adult rat: age-related decrease of neuronal progenitor proliferation.
www.jneurosci.org /cgi/content/full/22/3/635   (2846 words)

 What is Neurogenesis?
This "regenerative" development from stem cell to mature neuronal cell is the basis of neurogenesis.
Increasing levels of stress causes the body to secrete corticosteroid hormones which acts to inhibit neurogenesis by reducing the growth factor production, which is vital to new cell growth.
Neurogenesis introduces a host of possibilities for people suffering from degenerative brain diseases.
www.wisegeek.com /what-is-neurogenesis.htm   (544 words)

 Neurogenesis definition - Health and Medical Information produced by doctors - MedicineNet.com
Neurogenesis: The process by which new nerve cells are generated.
In neurogenesis, there is active production of new neurons, astrocytes, glia, and other neural lineages from undifferentiated neural progenitor or stem cells.
Neurogenesis is considered a rather inactive process in most areas of the adult brain.
www.medicinenet.com /script/main/art.asp?li=FOA&articlekey=18200   (169 words)

 High Times for Brain Growth: Marijuana-like drug multiplies neurons: Science News Online, Oct. 15, 2005   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
Previous research had suggested that neurogenesis happens only in select locations in the brain, such as the hippocampus, a region involved in learning and memory.
They reasoned that if marijuana affected neurogenesis in the hippocampus, then cells in that area must have a way to recognize the drug.
While data suggesting that cannabinoid drugs can accelerate neurogenesis are "interesting and potentially promising," it's too early to tell whether high doses of marijuana over long periods have a similar effect on depression and anxiety in people, says Ron Duman, a neuroscientist at Yale University.
www.sciencenews.org /articles/20051015/fob7.asp   (589 words)

Recent studies have shown that the hippocampus can influence neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus but little is known about the mechanism through which this occurs and the circuitry involved.
In the subgranular zone of the adult dentate gyrus, neurogenesis involves a series of differentiation steps from radial glia-like stem/progenitor cells to transiently amplifying neuronal progenitor cells to postmitotic neurons.
Earlier research suggested that there is extensive evidence indicating that new neurons are generated in the dentate gyrus of the adult mammalian hippocampus, a region of the brain that is important for learning and memory.
radio.weblogs.com /0117471/2005/09/28.html   (395 words)

 Introduction to Neurogenesis
Neurogenesis is regulated by growth factors that can lead to the development of new cells.
Researchers have speculated that neurogenesis occurs in the hippocampus since this area is so important in memory and learning.
Other researchers have attempted to discover if neurogenesis occurs in other areas of the brain and spinal cord, but have not yet found conclusive evidence to support this hypothesis.
neurogenesis.iord.org   (460 words)

 Neurogenesis by Progenitor Cells in the Ischemic Adult Rat Hippocampus -- Yagita et al. 32 (8): 1890 -- Stroke   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
Neurogenesis by Progenitor Cells in the Ischemic Adult Rat Hippocampus -- Yagita et al.
Neurogenesis by Progenitor Cells in the Ischemic Adult Rat Hippocampus
Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the adult rat: age-related decrease of neuronal progenitor proliferation.
stroke.ahajournals.org /cgi/content/full/32/8/1890   (4329 words)

 The functional consequences of neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus — Bernstein Center for Computational ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
Several of the few existing experimental studies on the function of adult neurogenesis have been published by Gerd Kempermann [1-4].
The work consists of tightly interlaced experiments in behavioral neuroscience (assessing hippocampal function after manipulation of adult neurogenesis), cellular neurobiology (examining the influence of modulatory manipulations and learning stimuli on the regulation of adult neurogenesis), and computational neurosciences (modeling adult neurogenesis on a system level, its regulation and its functional consequences).
Other experiments will study the role of time-scales in the regulation and functional consequences of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, because a network adaptation by adding new neurons is extremely slow compared to, for example, synaptic modifications.
www.bccn-berlin.de /projects/B7   (567 words)

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