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Topic: Neurohypophysis


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  Physiologyadenohypophysis
The neurohypophysis is subdivided into three regions on the basis of regional morphologic specializations: (1) the median eminence, (2) the infundibular stem, and (3) the neural lobe.
The neurohypophysis is drained rostrally by a series of fenestrated portal vessels that are interposed between the median eminence primary plexus and the pars distalis secondary plexus.
The neurohypophysis is drained caudally (at the level of the neural lobe) by paired posterior hypophyseal veins, which course parallel to the inferior hypophyseal arteries and drain to the posterior cavernous sinus lateral to the midline.
www.e-neurosurgery.ws /physiologyadenohypophysis.htm   (9114 words)

  
 bc_martini_eap_3|The Endocrine System|Embryology Atlas
The neurohypophysis is an extension of the brain and, like the brain, meninges surround the entire pituitary gland.
The neurohypophysis (posterior lobe) develops as a neurohypophyseal bud, a depression in the neuroectoderm of the floor of the hypothalamus.
The neurohypophysis develops as the infundibulum grows inferiorly from the diencephalon to meet the developing adenohypophysis.
wps.aw.com /bc_martini_eap_3/0,7016,454195-,00.html   (1706 words)

  
  Effects of porcine relaxin on oxytocin release from the neurohypophysis in the anaesthetized lactating rat -- O'Byrne ...
The effect of relaxin on electrically evoked release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary was examined by monitoring changes in intramammary pressure in the anaesthetized lactating rat.
The neurohypophysis is known to contain endogenous opioid peptides, therefore the effect of relaxin on electrically stimulated release of oxytocin from the rat isolated neural lobe in vitro was examined.
They are unlikely to be of neurohypophysial origin and may probably come from the adrenal medulla, since acute adrenalectomy negated the inhibitory effect of relaxin on oxytocin release.
joe.endocrinology-journals.org /cgi/content/abstract/109/3/393   (293 words)

  
 [No title]
The secretory activities of its 2 parts, the adenohypophysis and the neurohypophysis, are both controlled by a nearby part of the brain, the hypothalamns.
The pars intermedia is a narrow band of adenohypophyseal tissue that borders the neurohypophysis.
The neurohypophysis arises as a downgrowth of the neural ectoderm of the hypothalamus and is therefore actually a part of the brain (Fig 20-1).
www.loyno.edu /~chood/histnotesendo.html   (4938 words)

  
 EURORAD   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
A bright spot representing ectopic neurohypophysis was detected at the undersurface of the hypothalamus-optic chiasm, associated with absence of the pituitary stalk and hypoplasia of the anterior hypophysis within the sella turcica.
T1-shortening of the neurohypophysis reflects enhanced relaxation of water protons in the vicinity of neurosecretory vesicles that function in the storage and secretion of oxytocin and vasopressin.
The pathogenesis of ectopic neurohypophysis was explained originally by a traumatic transection of the pituitary stalk during delivery.
www.eurorad.org /eurorad/case.php?id=1751   (645 words)

  
 Endotext.com - The Pineal Gland and Pineal Tumours, Normal and Abnormal Physiology of the Hypothalamus and Posterior ...
In contrast to the anterior pituitary gland, the posterior pituitary is derived from the forebrain during development and is composed predominantly of neural tissue.
The neurohypophysis consists of three parts: the supraoptic and paraventricular nucleii of the hypothalamus (containing the cell bodies of the magnocellular, neurosecretory neurones that synthesize and secrete VP and OT); the supraoptico-hypophyseal tract (which includes the axons of these neurones); and the posterior pituitary (where the axons terminate on capillaries of the inferior hypophyseal artery).
VP is produced and regulated by the neurohypophysis, and is modulated by sensory signals chiefly reflecting osmotic status and blood pressure/circulating volume.
www.endotext.org /neuroendo/neuroendo2/neuroendo2.htm   (3288 words)

  
 Distribution of Lamprey Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone in the Brain and Pituitary Gland of Larval, Metamorphic, and ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone was observed in the neurohypophysis and preoptic area of the brain of larval, metamorphic, juvenile, and prespawning adults.
The occurrence of immunoreactive cells and the intensity of the immunostaining was lowest in larvae, but by stage 5 of metamorphosis there was a marked increase in the prevalence and staining of these cells, which continued into adults.
Changes in immunoreactivity of these cells and fibres in the brain and neurohypophysis correlate well with increased concentrations of hormone in the brain during development and with the timing of presumed changes in activity of cells in the adenohypophysis during metamorphosis.
www.sgnis.org /publicat/cjz48.htm   (280 words)

  
 NEL, Focal ischemia in the cerebral cortex has an effect on the neurohypophysis, Part1 pii:NEL220201A01
The purpose of this study is to first characterize the ultrastructural morphological consequences of photochemically induced ischemia in the cerebral cortex on the capillaries of neurohypophysis as the barrier-free region of the brain.
Material for electron microscopic studies were sampled from the neurohypophysis 1 and 4 days after irradiation (4 animals in each group) in experimental group and 1 and 4 days after a rose bengal injection in control group.
In the capillaries of the neurohypophysis, one and four days after irradiation, numerous microthrombi adhering to the damaged endothelium were present.
www.nel.edu /22_2/NEL220201A01_Frontczak.htm   (319 words)

  
 Posterior pituitary - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The posterior pituitary (also called the neurohypophysis) comprises the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system.
It consists mainly of neuronal projections (axons) extending from the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus that secrete peptide hormones into the capillaries of the hypophyseal circulation.
Despite its name, the posterior pituitary gland is not a gland, per se; rather, it is largely a collection of axonal projections from the hypothalamus that terminate behind the anterior pituitary gland.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Neurohypophysis   (318 words)

  
 Distribution of Lamprey Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone in the Brain and Pituitary Gland of Larval, Metamorphic, and ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone was observed in the neurohypophysis and preoptic area of the brain of larval, metamorphic, juvenile, and prespawning adults.
The occurrence of immunoreactive cells and the intensity of the immunostaining was lowest in larvae, but by stage 5 of metamorphosis there was a marked increase in the prevalence and staining of these cells, which continued into adults.
Changes in immunoreactivity of these cells and fibres in the brain and neurohypophysis correlate well with increased concentrations of hormone in the brain during development and with the timing of presumed changes in activity of cells in the adenohypophysis during metamorphosis.
sgnis.org /publicat/cjz48.htm   (280 words)

  
 Histology of the Neurohypophysis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The infundibular process froms the bulk of the neurohypophysis is what is usually referred to as the posterior pituitary.
The bulk of the neurohypophysis is composed on largely unmyelinated axons from hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons.
In comparison to the adenohypophysis, the histologic appearance of the neurohypophysis is rather...
arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu /hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/hypopit/histo_neuro.html   (270 words)

  
 Sect. 5, Ch. 2: Anatomy of the Pituitary Gland   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
One part is the anterior pituitary (anterior lobe, adenohypophysis) derived from buccal ectoderm, Rathke's pouch, which arises from the embryonic roof of the pharynx.
The other is the posterior pituitary (posterior lobe, neurohypophysis) derived from neuroectoderm, an evagination of the neural tube at the base of the hypothalamus.
The anterior pituitary migrates to an area adjacent to the neurohypophysis to form the pituitary gland.
www.lib.mcg.edu /edu/eshuphysio/program/section5/5ch2/s5ch2_2.htm   (221 words)

  
 Pituitary Gland
It is these tracts which transport hormones produced by the hypothalamus down the axons to the posterior pituitary (the neurohypophysis) for temporary storage.
Notice that the Neurohypophysis stains relatively lightly compared to the darker staining Adenohypophysis.
The blue arrow is pointing to the Neurohypophysis while the red arrow is pointing to the Adenohypophysis.
www3.umdnj.edu /histsweb/lab22/lab22pituitary.html   (987 words)

  
 Dorlands Medical Dictionary   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
It consists of the infundibulum or neural stalk, which is continuous with the hypothalamus, and the neural lobe, which is the main body of the neurohypophysis.
The median eminence is sometimes classified as part of the neurohypophysis.
It serves as a reservoir for the hypothalamic neurohormones vasopressin, oxytocin, and the neurophysins, releasing them as needed.
www.mercksource.com /pp/us/cns/cns_hl_dorlands.jspzQzpgzEzzSzppdocszSzuszSzcommonzSzdorlandszSzdorlandzSzdmd_n_07zPzhtm   (2304 words)

  
 [No title]
The two major subdivisions of the hypophysis are the neurohypophysis, which develops from the brain and the adenohypophysis, which develops from an evagination of the pharynx.
The neurohypophysis consists of axons and axon terminals whose cell bodies are in the hypothalamus.
The two hormones released from the axon terminals in the neurohypophysis are oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone.
www.med.uiuc.edu /histo/large/lab/lab7/text.htm   (1229 words)

  
 Final Diagnosis -- Case 276
Symptomatic GCTs of the neurohypophysis are rare neoplasms.
GCTs of the neurohypophysis are usually regarded as slowly growing, well-circumscribed benign tumors.
Our observation, in the context of cases reported in the literature, shows that the natural course of GST of the neurohypophysis may not be as favorable as is generally believed today (8, 11).
path.upmc.edu /cases/case276/dx.html   (618 words)

  
 Exercise 24: Endocrine Organs
The neurohypophysis is that part of the organ derived from the brain, and unlike the adenohypophysis, it retains its connection to the tissue of origin, via a long stalk.
The pars distalis, pars intermedia and the pars tuberalis are all derived from a rudiment arising from the cranial end of the gut, as a dorsal evagination of the stomodeum.
Even though it may be similar to the pars intermedia, the pars tuberalis is quite clearly distinct from the adjacent pars nervosa; it forms a "cuff" or "sleeve" around the stalk of the pars nervosa itself.
education.vetmed.vt.edu /Curriculum/VM8054/Labs/Lab24/Lab24.htm   (6848 words)

  
 SIU SOM Histology ERG
The pars intermedia, a portion of the adenohypophysis adjacent to the neurohypophysis, may contain colloid-filled, epithelially-lined follicles.
The neurohypophysis consists of the terminals of axons extending down through the stalk from cell bodies in the hypothalamus.
The pituitary is attached by its stalk to the median eminence at the base of the hypothalamus, between the optic chiasm and the mammillary bodies.
www.siumed.edu /~dking2/erg/pituit.htm   (456 words)

  
 K+ channel modulation in rodent neurohypophysial nerve terminals by sigma receptors and not by dopamine receptors -- ...
The nerve terminals of the neurohypophysis release oxytocin and vasopressin, and these two neuropeptides define two populations of nerve terminals present in roughly equal numbers.
However, the interpretations of these results are complicated by the different potencies displayed by these drugs on different dopamine receptor subtypes, and by the difficulty of distinguishing direct actions on peptidergic nerve terminals from actions within the integrative circuitry of the hypothalamus.
are modulated by the same population of sigma receptors in the rat neurohypophysis, we compared the reduction in peak current with the reduction in sustained current for a number of sigma receptor ligands (Fig.
jp.physoc.org /cgi/content/full/517/2/391   (8390 words)

  
 Avp — PubMed Gene Hits   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Injection of Gal to salt-loaded rats caused a marked raise in AVP and OT level in the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis with subsequent diminution of both neurohormones concentration in blood plasma.
The locations of the microinjection sites indicate that the neurons sensitive to AVP and involved in the expression of flank-marking behavior are found in the ventromedial area of the AH-MPOA extending from the caudal border of the suprachiasmatic nucleus to the rostral limit of the supraoptic nucleus.
In LiDI rats plasma vasopressin increased whereas AVP concentration in the hypothalamus and the neurohypophysis significantly decreased.
www.bcgsc.ca /services/pleiades/textmining/gene/id11998/gene_view   (6000 words)

  
 lecture 10: Hormones   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The posterior lobe (neurohypophysis) is attached by a stalk directly the hypothalamus.
The anterior lobe arises from an outpocketing of the roof to the mouth and is connected to the hypothalamus by the portal system previously mentioned.
The neurohypophysis stores and releases two hormones (both octapeptides) produced by the nervous tissue of the hypothalamus.
nas.cl.uh.edu /novotny/apH10..htm   (1528 words)

  
 Table of Contents
The authors report on the unusual association of acromegaly with a granular cell tumor of the neurohypophysis.
This case represents the first reported association between a granular cell tumor of the neurohypophysis and acromegaly.
Granular cell tumor of the neurohypophysis could be added to the restricted list of neoplastic causes of acromegaly secondary to hypersecretion of a GH-releasing substance.
www.thejns-net.org /jns/issues/v333n333/abs/n0930121_r.html   (320 words)

  
 BIOL 2304 Lecture Outline - Endocrine   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
neurohypophysis = posterior pituitary gland, extension of nervous tissue of brain
their axons leave the hypothalamus and project inferiorly into the neurohypophysis, forming the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract
their axon terminal end at the walls of capillaries in the neurohypophysis
www.austincc.edu /sstrong/anat_lect_25_sp06   (512 words)

  
 Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) in hypothalamus, neurohypophysis and choroid plexus: dehydration supports a ...
Using a rat model of chronic dehydration to test the hypothesis that FGF2 is involved in fluid balance, we show that in the neural lobe, the remodeling of extracellular matrix and increased number of pituicytes is accompanied by greater levels of immunoreactive FGF2 associated with basement membranes underlying blood vessels, pituicytes and other glial cells.
Disrupted water intake was thus accompanied by altered distribution of FGF2 in the neurohypophysis as well as in the fluid-forming choroid plexus.
Therefore FGF2 expression patterns in the neurohypophysis, AVP-containing magnocellular neurons and choroidal epithelium point to a role for centrally-synthesized FGF2, possibly coupled to that of AVP, in regulating water balance in various regions.
www.endocrine-abstracts.org /ea/0007/ea0007p29.htm   (297 words)

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