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Topic: Neurotoxicity

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In the News (Thu 18 Jul 19)

  Neurotoxicity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Neurotoxicity occurs when the exposure to natural or manmade toxic substances (neurotoxicants) alters the normal activity of the nervous system.
Neurotoxicity can result from exposure to substances used in chemotherapy, radiation treatment, drug therapies and organ transplants, as well as exposure to heavy metals such as lead and mercury, certain foods and food additives, pesticides, industrial and/or cleaning solvents, cosmetics, and some naturally occurring substances.
The term neurotoxic is used to describe a substance, condition or state that damages the nervous system and / or brain, usually by killing neurons.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Neurotoxicity   (406 words)

 FDA/CFSAN Redbook 2000 IV.B.10 Contains non-binding recommendations
The reliability of assessing the full spectrum of neurotoxic potential for a test substance is directly related to the extent to which the detection and evaluation of neurotoxicity is explicitly included as a specific, defined objective of routine toxicity testing.
Under the previous guidelines for toxicity testing of proposed food ingredients the identification of neurotoxic effects was based on information derived from a general pathological evaluation of a few sections of neuronal tissue and an unstructured casual observation of test animals in their cages for overt signs of toxicity.
Since neurotoxicity screening is intended to be a routine part of both general and reproductive toxicity studies, the specific composition of the screen and the endpoints to be recorded should be consistent with the particular focus of the study and, specifically, be appropriate for the age (and species) of the animals to be tested.
vm.cfsan.fda.gov /~redbook/redivc10.html   (5563 words)

 Neurotoxicity Testing: A Discussion of in Vitro Alternatives
Neurotoxicity is defined as "any adverse effect on the chemistry, structure and function of the nervous system during development or at maturity, induced by chemical or physical influences" (3).
Because of the variety of toxic effects and of cellular biochemical targets, a test strategy for the evaluation of the neurotoxic potential of chemicals should not be totally rigid, but should be determined case by case, with an emphasis on the structure of the chemical and the indications of the standard toxicity tests.
A commonly recommended strategy for neurotoxicity testing is that of a tiered approach consisting of three tiers aimed at identifying (tier 1), and characterizing (tiers 2 and 3) the neurotoxicity of a chemical (2).
www.ehponline.org /members/1998/Suppl-2/505-510costa/costa.html   (4774 words)

 Neurotoxicity associated with exposure to chemicals, principles and methods for the assessment of (EHC 60, 1986)
Major outbreaks of neurotoxicity in human populations of various sizes have emphasized the importance of neurotoxicology as an independent discipline.
The cases illustrated above are unfortunately typical in that the neurotoxicity of the chemicals was first discovered when human beings exposed to them became ill. Later, research using animal models in a controlled setting provided experimental evidence that the chemical believed to have caused the illness in the human population produced similar effects in animals.
Once a chemical is known to produce neurotoxic effects, further studies must be performed in order to characterize the nature and mechanism of the alterations.
www.inchem.org /documents/ehc/ehc/ehc060.htm   (16960 words)

 In Vitro Techniques for the Assessment of Neurotoxicity
Therefore, end points used to determine potential neurotoxicity of a compound have to be carefully selected and evaluated with respect to their potential to discriminate between an adverse neurotoxic effect and a pharmacologic effect.
Although the assessment of neurotoxic end points in the whole animal are presumed to be causally related to those initiated at the cellular level, in many cases the cascade of effects is not well understood.
A well-characterized mechanism for neurotoxicity is excess release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate.
www.herc.org /news/mcsarticles/harry.htm   (20559 words)

Chemically induced neurotoxic effects may be direct (i.e., due to an agent or its metabolites acting directly on sites in the nervous system) or indirect (i.e., due to agents or metabolites that produce their effects primarily by interacting with sites outside the nervous system) (ECETOC, 1992; O’Donoghue, 1994; Ladefoged et al., 1995).
A potentially confusing factor is that neurotoxic effects can be produced either by chemicals that do not require metabolism prior to interacting with their sites in the nervous system (i.e., primary neurotoxic agents) or by chemicals that require metabolism prior to interacting with their sites in the nervous system (i.e., secondary neurotoxic agents) (O’Donoghue, 1994).
Neurotoxicity is generally seen as a continuum of signs and effects, which depend on the chemical, the dose and the duration of exposure (Johnsen et al., 1992).
www.intox.org /databank/documents/supplem/supp/ehc223.htm   (12754 words)

 MAPS - Volume 5 Number 3 Winter 1994-95 - neurochemical markers and mdma neurotoxicity
At this level, it would be of concern perhaps in the same way that the neurotoxicity of alcohol is of concern mostly to those who use to excess.
This study would seem to indicate a lower boundary on MDMA neurotoxicity using doses which were 2-6 times as large as a single human dose, with a cumulative dose of 16-54 human doses.
In light of these considerations, MDMA has only been shown to be neurotoxic at somewhat high levels in experimental animals, and the evidence in humans suggests a lack of neurotoxicity.
www.maps.org /news-letters/v05n3/05310neu.html   (2576 words)

 NEUROTOXICITY FROM CHEMOTHERAPY   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Although both drugs are neurotoxic, neurotoxicity is the dose-limiting toxicity for VCR.
It seems that much of the neurotoxicity reported with procarbazine was seen with continuous daily dosing, not a common schedule today.
Neurotoxicity is thought to be due to metabolic abnormalities induced by l-asparaginase (eg.
www.uic.edu /classes/pmpr/pmpr652/Final/bressler/neurochemo.html   (1167 words)

 Neurotoxicity of carbapenem antibiotics: consequences for their use in bacterial meningitis -- Norrby 45 (1): 5 -- ...
Neurotoxicity of carbapenem antibiotics: consequences for their use in bacterial meningitis
not neurotoxic and that the toxic moiety is the parent carbapenem
Hikida, M., Masukawa, Y., Nishiki, K. and Inomata, N. Low neurotoxicity of LJC 10,627, a novel 1-beta-methyl carbapenem antibiotic: inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid A, benzodiazepine, and glycine receptor binding in relation to lack of central nervous system toxicity in rats.
jac.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/45/1/5   (1499 words)

 TheDEA.org: Neurotoxicity
The image on the right is representative of the baboons that were given a neurotoxic dose of MDMA a year before the brain scans; the animal on the left was not given any drugs.
One of the long-term effects of MDMA neurotoxicity in lab animals is that the animals become hyper-sensitive to drugs that activate serotonin receptors.
Although the exact mechanisms of MDMA neurotoxicity are at best imperfectly understood, damage is clearly a result of the combination of the unusual strain placed on the neurons by drug exposure being greatly amplified by overheating.
thedea.org /neurotoxicity.html   (9219 words)

 Drug Info
Or you may be inclined to dismiss all claims of MDMA neurotoxicity, because so much of what you see in the popular press is clearly exaggerated.
Animal experiments suggest that if neurotoxicity occurs, some new serotonin axons can grow to replace them...but they grow in different places than where the original ones were.
With neurotoxicity, the serotonin signal isn't being sent as strongly (since some of the axons sending it have been destroyed.) With neuroadaptation, the brain can't hear the serotonin signal as well (since it has fewer receptors 'listening'.) The end result is the same: The brain receives fewer signals from the serotonin system.
www.dancesafe.org /documents/druginfo/neurotoxicity.php   (3261 words)

 Developmental Neurotoxicity Induced by Therapeutic and Illicit Drugs
Fourth, with the exception of CNS teratogens, it is not yet possible to predict which periods of brain development are the most vulnerable for the induction of learning disabilities, as seen by the different patterns of critical periods for phenytoin and isotretinoin compared to methamphetamine.
The pattern begins with clinical case reports, in which a small number of cases are identified, and the suggestion is made that the effects seen in the affected children are related to a particular intrauterine drug exposure.
Most instances of developmental neurotoxicity could be prevented with current techniques of assessment if these were incorporated in preclinical testing for all drugs and other agents to which people are exposed in significant quantities.
www.ehponline.org /members/1994/Suppl-2/vorhees-full.html   (5232 words)

 Fluorouracil-induced neurotoxicity -- Pirzada et al. 34 (1): 35 -- The Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Acute neurotoxicity manifests as encephalopathy or as cerebellar syndrome; seizures, as seen in our patient, have rarely been reported.
Acute neurotoxicity due to fluorouracil is dose related and generally self-limiting.
Delayed neurotoxicity has been reported when fluorouracil was given in combination with levamisole; this form of subacute multifocal leukoencephalopathy is immune mediated and responds to treatment with corticosteroids.
www.theannals.com /cgi/content/abstract/34/1/35   (372 words)

 The Ibogaine Dossier. Ibogaine Neurotoxicity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
(Dhahir 1971) No neurotoxicity was observed after 5-25 mg/kg ibogaine for 4 days per os in African green monkeys.
While O'Hearn and Molliver describe that ibogaine and harmaline have selective neurotoxic effects, leading to degeneration of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar vermis, (O'Hearn 1993a, 1993b) Molinari et al.
subsequently report that ibogaine induced neurotoxicity is dose-dependent, not causing pathological changes at therapeutic doses in the rat.
www.ibogaine.org /neurotoxicity.html   (332 words)

A person may or may not be aware of neurotoxic damage when it occurs.
Many types of nervous system disorders could be caused by neurotoxicity, including numerous neurologic and psychiatric disorders.
Legal difficulties may result from mental health problems stemming from neurotoxicity, including irrational, unusual, criminal or violent behavior.
www.neurotox.com   (271 words)

 MAPS - Volume 6 Number 1 Autumn 1995 - MDMA Neurotoxicity: New Data, New Risk Analysis
The best available data regarding MDMA neurotoxicity reveals a picture that is neither as simple nor as frightening as these recent news reports would have you believe.
McCann and Ricaurte that is the most comprehensive and controlled research project to date investigating the long-term effects of MDMA on experienced MDMA users.(7) The study showed that a group of MDMA users (average exposure of 95 times) had roughly 32% less serotonin metabolite in their spinal fluid on average than a group of controls.
Nevertheless, the lack of evidence of neurotoxic damage after such an enormous population of people has been exposed to these drugs certainly suggests that if any neurotoxicity-related problems have resulted, they are subtle and rare.
www.maps.org /news-letters/v06n1/06108neu.html   (2981 words)

 ClinicalTrials.gov - Information on Clinical Trials and Human Research Studies: Trial List
Relationship Between Platinum Levels in the Blood and Neurotoxicity in Patients Who Are Receiving Oxaliplatin for Gastrointestinal Cancer
Evaluation of BNP7787 for the Prevention of Neurotoxicity in Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Weekly Paclitaxel
Evaluation of the Efficacy of Xaliproden (SR57746A) in Preventing the Neurotoxicity of Oxaliplatin / 5FU/LV Chemotherapy.
clinicaltrials.gov /search/term=Neurotoxicity   (556 words)

 An Evaluation of l-Ephedrine Neurotoxicity with Respect to Hyperthermia and Caudate/Putamen Microdialysate Levels of ...
Eisch, A. J., and Marshall, J. Methamphetamine neurotoxicity: Dissociation of striatal dopamine terminal damage from parietal cortical cell body injury.
LaVoie, M. J., and Hastings, T. Dopamine quinone formation and protein modification associated with the striatal neurotoxicity of methamphetamine: Evidence against a role for extracellular dopamine.
Miller, D. and O'Callaghan, J. Environment-, drug-, and stress-induced alterations in body temperature affect the neurotoxicity of substituted amphetamines in the C57BL/6J mouse.
toxsci.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/55/1/133   (6157 words)

 EPA NCEA - Guidelines for Neurotoxicity Risk Assessment   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
These Guidelines set forth principles and procedures to guide EPA scientists in evaluating environmental contaminants that may pose neurotoxic risks, and inform Agency decision makers and the public about these procedures.
These Guidelines are the Agency's first statement on setting principles and procedures to guide EPA scientists in conducting neurotoxicity risk assessments.
The Guidelines specifically note the special vulnerability of the nervous system of infants and children to environmentally relevant chemicals and provide guidance for the interpretation of data from developmental and reproductive studies involving assessment of nervous system structure and function.
cfpub.epa.gov /ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=12479   (340 words)

 Statement from Dr. Phyllis Mullenix on the Neurotoxicity of Fluoride
She is considered one of the foremost experts on the neurotoxicity of fluoride compounds..
My studies focused on detection procedures for neurotoxicity, and they typically considered a variety of environmental and therapeutic agents, i.e., radiation, lead, amphetamine, phenytoin, nitrous oxide.
John Hein, then Director of Forsyth's Dental Infirmary for Children in Boston, was interested in neurotoxicity studies and invited me to continue this research at Forsyth and to apply it to substances used in dentistry.
www.fluoridealert.org /pmullenix.htm   (1788 words)

If you have understood everything so far, you should have no trouble with this section.When you are through, you may want to read "the short answer" on the neurotoxicity page of our site.
To date, it is still the dominant theory of how MDMA causes axon damage in laboratory animals, and would most likely apply to humans as well, should neurotoxic damage in humans be proven conclusively.
Looking at past studies of MDMA neurotoxicity, it is clear that dopamine plays a crucial role.
www.dancesafe.org /slideshow/slide19.html   (616 words)

 TestSmart Developmental Neurotoxicity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) is a major issue in children’s health worldwide.
Testing compounds for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) endpoints is an important societal and scientific goal.
Given the increasing number of chemicals that need to be tested and the increasing amount of information needed about them, we must look for new approaches to meet the expressed demands for identifying developmental neurotoxic agents with speed, reliability, and respect for animal welfare.
caat.jhsph.edu /dnt   (389 words)

 Mold Neurotoxicity: Validity, Reliability and Baloney
The so-called "study" most often cited as evidence of neuropsychological impairment due to mold neurotoxicity is not actually a scientific study and was not peer reviewed in any conventional sense.
The mold neurotoxicity debate is not simply about health care and science -- a focus on money and litigation is pervasive in the communications of the toxic mold promoters.
This article was adapted from Lees-Haley, P. Mold neurotoxicity: validity, reliability and baloney, presented at the conference "Mold Medicine and Mold Science: Its Practical Applications for Patient Care, Remediation and Claims," hosted by the International Center for Toxicology and Medicine and the Georgetown University Department of Pharmacology.
www.quackwatch.org /01QuackeryRelatedTopics/toxicmold.html   (7449 words)

 NTC: The Neurotoxicity Testing Center
The NTC Leverages proprietary high throughput technology and relies on contemporary scientific principles of neurotoxicity to deliver assessments faster, more cost effectively and more accurately than otherwise possible.
Neurotoxicity Screening: Low cost, incremental testing of a compound during preclinical development stages with an emphasis on identifying high risk candidates early
To learn more about neurotoxicity testing or the services offered by the NTC, call, email or fill out the Contact Form.
www.thentc.com   (241 words)

 Fluoride's Neurological Effects
Electronmicroscopically, mild degeneration of organelles of the nerve cells was observed in those brains of the 60 ppm F group.
Mullenix PJ, Denbesten PK, Schunior A, Kernan WJ, Neurotoxicity of sodium fluoride in rats, Neurotoxicology Teratology, 1995 March,17(2):169-177.
is neurotoxic when chronically administered in the drinking water of rats.
www.fluoridation.com /brain.htm   (3571 words)

 [No title]
The patients' affirmations about their complaints represent data which are reproducible like the results of sensory-physiological tests and referring reliably to the underlying organic disorders (25).
Thus neurotoxicity is not independent from the foundations of the existence of Universe, which has been proved to be justified by mappings of topologically closed abstract mathematical subspaces
Neurotoxicity must thus have to be detected and treated at many target sites of the brain-body reciprocal interactions.
www.aehf.com /articles/2001symp.htm   (9947 words)

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