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Topic: Neurotoxin


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  YOJOE.COM | Neurotoxin
Neurotoxin was released as part of the twentieth series (2004), carded in a two-pack with Razor Trooper as part of the Valor vs Venom line.
Both Neurotoxin and Sand Scorpion (v2) came with two fl and brown claws, a brown scorpion (that doubled as a backpack), and a fl rifle.
The same mold and paint scheme was used for Neurotoxin and Sand Scorpion (v2).
www.yojoe.com /action/04/neurotoxin.shtml   (164 words)

  
  Seeing a neurotoxin's deadly grip
Botulinum neurotoxin hijacks synaptic vesicle recycling at neuromuscular junctions.
Botulinum neurotoxins are among the most deadly natural toxins in the world.
The toxins principally affect muscle-controlling motor neurons activated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2006-12/hhmi-san121306.php   (979 words)

  
  Patent 7,172,763
The neurotoxin can be a botulinum toxin, such as one of the botulinum toxin types A, B, C.sub.1, D, E, F or G. Preferably the botulinum toxin is botulinum toxin type A. The neurotoxin can be a modified neurotoxin which has at least one amino acid deleted, modified or replaced.
The neurotoxins within the scope of the present invention exclude neuronal targeting moieties which are not native to the neurotoxin because we have found that the present invention can be effectively practiced without the necessity of making any modification or deletions to the native or wild type binding moiety of the neurotoxins used.
The neuronal binding moiety component of the neurotoxin is a neuronal binding moiety which is native to the selected neurotoxin because we have discovered that the present invention can be practiced without replacement of the wild type neuronal binding moiety with a non-native or non wild type targeting moiety.
www.pharmcast.com /Patents100/Yr2007/Feb2007/020607/7172763_Neurotoxin020607.htm   (4667 words)

  
 Neurotoxin Summary
Neurotoxins are categorized according to the nature of their impact on the nervous system.
A prime example of a neurotoxin in the brain is glutamate, which is paradoxically also a primary neurotransmitter.
A potent neurotoxin such as batrachotoxin affects the nervous system by causing depolarization of nerve and muscle fibres due to increased sodium ion permeability of the excitable cell membrane.
www.bookrags.com /Neurotoxin   (718 words)

  
 Neurotoxin
Neurotoxins act directly on neurons, or nerve cells, by interfering with membrane proteins and ion channels.
The most common effect of the neurotoxins used by organisms is rapid-setting paralysis, useful to snakes and other venomous predators as it keeps the prey from running away.
Pharmacology of Endogenous Neurotoxins: A Handbook by Andreas Moser
www.iscid.org /encyclopedia/Neurotoxin   (234 words)

  
 Patent 6,903,187
The entire toxic activity of botulinum and tetanus toxins is contained in the L chain of the holotoxin; the L chain is a zinc (Zn++) endopeptidase which selectively cleaves proteins essential for recognition and docking of neurotransmitter-containing vesicles with the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane, and fusion of the vesicles with the plasma membrane.
For example, a modified neurotoxin may be locally applied to the nasal cavity of the mammal in an amount sufficient to degenerate cholinergic neurons of the autonomic nervous system that control the mucous secretion in the nasal cavity.
The differences in single-chain neurotoxin activation and, hence, the yield of nicked toxin, are due to variations in the serotype and amounts of proteolytic activity produced by a given strain.
www.pharmcast.com /Patents100/Yr2005/June2005/060705/6903187_Neurotoxin060705.htm   (6708 words)

  
 ASA Newsletter - Article Natural Neurotoxin Review
Neurotoxins are a group of toxins, whose highly specific effects on the nervous system of animal, including humans, by interfere with nerve impulse transmission.
Neurotoxins are a varied group of compounds, both chemically and pharmacologically; they vary in chemical structures and mechanisms of action and produce very distinct biological effects.
Neurotoxins may cause symptoms similar to chemical nerve agents, such as miosis, convulsions, tremor, seizures and rigid paralysis.
www.asanltr.com /newsletter/02-2/articles/Neurotoxins.htm   (5318 words)

  
 Dietary Neurotoxin Linked To Alzheimer's
Neurotoxins from blue-green algae present in certain foods or water can accumulate in proteins and might cause brain diseases like Alzheimer's after many years, suggests a new study.
A neurotoxin called BMAA found in the fruit of the cycads on which the flying foxes feed is thought to become concentrated in the flying foxes' flesh.
BMAA, in turn, is made by a blue-green alga, or cyanobacterium, that lives in the roots of the cycads.
www.rense.com /general56/aalz.htm   (565 words)

  
 Why the cobra is resistant to its own venom? - Dr. Zoltan Takacs
The principal components of the cobra venom are neurotoxins.
Instead, according to the cobra DNA sequence, the receptor that serves as a target for the toxin has a structure that is different from the one present in mammals.
Cobras produce neurotoxins, mongooses are eating cobras: a good reason to be protected in both cases, - and an excellent example for convergent evolution at the molecular level.
zoltantakacs.com /zt/sc/naja.shtml   (892 words)

  
 Welcome to the Ailesbury Clinic
Neurotoxin is also used to relieve muscle spasm in children with cerebral palsy.
This Neurotoxin is a very pure preparation of a specific protein, obtained from a bacterium grown under modern methods of cultivation.
Neurotoxin Injection treatments are only available in Ireland under medical prescription and are therefore not generally available for cosmetic purposes.
www.ailesburyclinic.ie /neurotoxin.shtml   (172 words)

  
 Welcome to ChronicNeurotoxins, Inc. Home Page
Many biotoxins are neurotoxins in that they adversely affect neurologic function.
No single vision test can fully describe function of the visual system or conclusively indicate the presence or absence of neurotoxins or neurotoxicity.
Diagnoses cannot be made and medications cannot be prescribed without seeing a physician in person.
www.chronicneurotoxins.com   (1115 words)

  
 Botulinum Neurotoxin Detection and Differentiation | CDC EID
Development of novel assays for botulinum type A and B neurotoxins based on their endopeptidase activities.
High-throughput assays for botulinum neurotoxin proteolytic activity: serotypes A, B, D, and F. Anal Biochem.
High-throughput fluorogenic assay for determination of botulinum type B neurotoxin protease activity.
www.cdc.gov /ncidod/EID/vol11no10/04-1279.htm   (3661 words)

  
 Neurotoxin treatment for wrinkles and excessive underarm sweating   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin produced by a food poisoning bacterium, Clostridium botulinum.
The neurotoxin is one of the deadliest known.
Although neurotoxin is used throughout the world for cosmetic or "aesthetic" treatments, for the present this form of use is not licensed in the United Kingdom.
www.drpark.co.uk /botulism.htm   (636 words)

  
 neurotoxin - Search Results - MSN Encarta
Venom, Venom, animals that produce neurotoxins as a defense
Chemically, venoms vary greatly across the animal kingdom and are not readily defined.
Neurotoxin : animals that produce neurotoxins as a defense: pictures of animals
encarta.msn.com /neurotoxin.html   (113 words)

  
 UF STUDY: NEUROTOXIN ELIMINATES PAIN-TRANSMITTING NERVE CELLS IN RATS WITH SPINAL CORD INJURY   (Site not responding. Last check: )
They injected the neurotoxin into the area surrounding spinal cord injury in more than 60 rats, either at the time of injury or later, after the animals began exhibiting a grooming behavior associated with pain.
After the neurotoxin was administered, researchers noted delays in the expected onset and severity of pain-associated excessive grooming behavior.
Higher doses of the neurotoxin produced the most significant pain-relieving effect, although a significant response also was seen at a lower dose.
www.napa.ufl.edu /2004news/spinalpain.htm   (841 words)

  
 [No title]
Neurotoxins are substances attracted to the mammalian nervous system.
However, because of the lipophilic/neurotropic nature of the neurotoxins, most are reabsorbed by the abundant nerve endings of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in the intestinal wall.
If no chlorella is taken, most neurotoxins are reabsorbed on the way down the small intestine by the abundant nerve endings of the enteric nervous system).
www.neuraltherapy.com /LymeNeurotoxinProtocol.doc   (3017 words)

  
 Neurotoxin - Search Results - MSN Encarta
Neurotoxin, toxin that affects the functioning of the nervous system by damaging or destroying nerve cells.
Black Widow, common name for any of several related spiders, especially a species found chiefly in the southern United States and found as far north...
The venom of cobras, called a neurotoxin, acts powerfully on the nervous system.
uk.encarta.msn.com /Neurotoxin.html   (105 words)

  
 Researcher identifies the cellular receptor for botulinum neurotoxin A   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Botulinum neurotoxin A can be either the greatest wrinkle remover or one of the world's most potent biological weapons.
Now, a research team led by Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) researcher Edwin R. Chapman reports that it has identified the cellular receptor for botulinum neurotoxin A. The group's work was published in the March 16, 2006, edition of ScienceXpress, which provides electronic publication of selected Science papers in advance of print.
Synaptic vesicles are sac-like cargo carriers in neurons that haul neurotransmitters from the cell's interior to the synapses, which are the junctions between neurons.
www.news-medical.net /?id=16750   (951 words)

  
 Neurotoxin Term Papers, Essay Research Paper Help, Essays on Neurotoxin
Since 1998, our Neurotoxin experts have helped students worldwide by providing the most extensive, lowest-priced service for Neurotoxin writing and research.
We are available to write Neurotoxin term papers for research—24 hours a day, 7 days a week—on topics at every level of education.
Copyright © 1999-2006 Neurotoxins Essays, Term Papers, Book Reports, and Research Papers from www.essaytown.com All rights reserved.
www.essaytown.com /topics/neurotoxin_essays_papers.html   (772 words)

  
 FDA/CFSAN Bad Bug Book - Clostridium botulinum
Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming rod that produces a potent neurotoxin.
Foodborne botulism (as distinct from wound botulism and infant botulism) is a severe type of food poisoning caused by the ingestion of foods containing the potent neurotoxin formed during growth of the organism.
Certain foods have been reported as sources of spores in cases of infant botulism and the undetermined category; wound botulism is not related to foods.
vm.cfsan.fda.gov /~mow/chap2.html   (1656 words)

  
 Dr. Singh's Profile
However, this segment is perhaps not sufficient for the translocation of the neurotoxin or its L chain.
Interestingly, polypeptide segments that we have identified as amphiphilic (based on hydrophobic moment calculations) are located throughout the entire sequence of the L and H chains, thus opening the possibility of their interaction with the lipid bilayer.
To confirm our hypothesis that the predicted amphiphilic segments participate in the membrane channel formation and neurotoxin translocation, we propose to raise antibodies against small peptide segments (15-20 amino acids each) containing predicted amphiphilic segments of L and H chains.
www.umassd.edu /cas/chemistry/singh/about.htm   (1362 words)

  
 Hemagglutinin-33 of type A botulinum neurotoxin complex binds with synaptotagmin II -- Zhou et al. 272 (11): 2717 -- ...   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Li L and Singh BR (1998) Isolation of synaptotagmin as a receptor for type A and E botulinum neurotoxin and analysis of their comparative binding using a new microtiter plate assay.
Sharma SK and Singh BR (2004) Enhancement of the endopeptidase activity of purified botulinum neurotoxins A and E by an isolated component of the native neurotoxin associated proteins.
Adler M, Keller JE, Sheridan RE and Deshpande SS (2001) Persistence of botulinum neurotoxin A demonstrated by sequential administration of serotypes A and E in rat EDL muscle.
content.febsjournal.org /cgi/content/full/272/11/2717   (4422 words)

  
 www.myspace.com/massneurotoxin
Neurotoxin started in September of 92 in North Attleboro after the breakup of three bands.....
Formed at a party by Lyle, Pete, and Lenny "after the break up of their bands" they contacted Mark to complete the line up.....
After a few shows and almost a year Neurotoxin entered Celebration sounds in July of 93 to record 10 songs.....
www.myspace.com /massneurotoxin   (274 words)

  
 Scientific American: Algae Found to Produce Potential Neurotoxin   (Site not responding. Last check: )
A variety of types of blue-green algae all produce the same molecule, a potential neurotoxin, a new report suggests.
Paul Alan Cox of the National Tropical Botanical Garden in Hawaii and his colleagues studied five different morphological sections of cyanobacteria, as well as cyanobacterial symbionts taken from lichen and other plant species.
They discovered that 95 percent of all genera of cyanobacteria produce a molecule identified as BMAA, a suspected neurotoxin that has been recently detected in the brains of some Alzheimer's sufferers.
www.sciam.com /print_version.cfm?articleID=00088076-9CCB-1251-9CCB83414B7F0000   (253 words)

  
 eMedicine - Toxicity, Cone Shell Neurotoxin : Article Excerpt by: Don R Revis, Jr, MD
It is believed that the cone shell detects its prey primarily with chemoreceptors that continually monitor its environment, although some visual signals might also be involved.
The neurotoxins possessed by the cone shell are small peptides of fewer than 30 amino acids, which target different aspects of this neuronal communication sequence to achieve a common result, paralysis.
The neurotoxins of some species, such as Conus geographus, are selective for the muscle-type acetylcholine receptor, while the neurotoxins of other species are selective for the neuronal-type acetylcholine receptor.
www.emedicine.com /med/byname/toxicity-cone-shell-neurotoxin.htm   (641 words)

  
 Synaptotagmins I and II Act as nerve cell receptors for botulinum neurotoxin G -- Rummel et al., 10.1074/jbc.M403945200 ...
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) induce muscle paralysis by selectively entering cholinergic motoneurons and subsequent specific cleavage of core components of the vesicular fusion machinery.
Peptides derived from the luminal domain of synaptotagmin I and II are capable of blocking the neurotoxicity of BoNT/G in phrenic nerve preparations.
Pull-down and neutralization assays further established the membrane juxtaposed 10 luminal amino acids of synaptotagmins I and II as the critical segment for neurotoxin binding.
www.jbc.org /cgi/content/abstract/M403945200v1   (545 words)

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