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Topic: Neurulation

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In the News (Wed 24 Apr 19)

  Neural tube - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The neural tube is derived from a thickened area of ectoderm, the neural plate.
In primary neurulation, the neural plate creases inward until the edges come in contact and fuse.
Primary neurulation occurs in response to soluble growth factors secreted by the notochord.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Neural_tube   (366 words)

 Bio 361
Neurulation is the sequence of morphogenetic events that form the central nervous system.
The process of neurulation is of major scientific interest because of the prevalence of a congenital malformation known as spina bifida.
Neurulation is similar to that in birds except that the anterior portion of the neural plate is delayed in closure (fig 12.7).
www.bakeru.edu /faculty/chenry/devbio12A.htm   (550 words)

 Lecture 10   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Neurulation is the formation of the neural tube, which gives rise to both the spinal cord and the brain.
Neurulation begins with the formation of a neural plate, a thickening of the ectodermal covering of the embryo, caused when cuboidal epithelial cells become columnar.
During neurulation, the neural cells at the tips of the neural folds come to lie between the dorsal neural tube and the overlying epidermis.
mcdb.colorado.edu /courses/4650/lecture10.html   (1044 words)

 Pharyngula::Neurulation in zebrafish   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Neurulation is a series of cell movements and shape changes, inductive interactions, and changes in gene expression that partitions tissues into a discrete neural tube.
Neurulation has been a somewhat messy phenomenon for comparative embryology, too, because there are not only subtle differences between different vertebrate lineages in precisely how they segregate the neural tissue, but there are also differences along the rostrocaudal axis of an individual organism.
The derivation of the zebrafish neural tube from an epithelium and the cell movements involved are typical of primary neurulation.
pharyngula.org /index/weblog/comments/neurulation_in_zebrafish   (2686 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Neurulation consists of the folding of a flat layer of epithelial cells into a tube and the closure of that tube, resulting in the hollow brain and spinal cord.
Failure of neurulation results in the occurrence of human neural tube defects such as spina bifida, which is often debilitating, and anencephaly, which is usually fatal.
Since it has been suggested that apical constriction occurs during neurulation in zebrafish and shroom has been shown to induce apical constriction, it is expected that shroom expression will be visible in the neural tube during zebrafish neurulation, which would allow for further shroom gene analysis to be performed on this model organism.
cns.utexas.edu /urp/files/04-Abstracts/16-Julie-Hayes.doc   (476 words)

 Neurulation in amniote vertebrates: a novel view deduced from the use of quail-chick chimeras   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Neurulation in amniote vertebrates: a novel view deduced from the use of quail-chick chimeras
ABSTRACT Two apparently different mechanisms successively contribute to the formation of the neural tube in the avian embryo: bending of the neural plate during the primary neurulation in the cephalo-cervico-thoracic region and cavitation of the medullary cord during the secondary neurulation in the lumbo-sacral region.
Caudally to the organizer, both in primary and secondary neurulation, the presumptive territory of the alar plates of the future neural tube overlies the precursors of the paraxial mesoderm.
www.ijdb.ehu.es /abstract.9807/a909.htm   (157 words)

 Germ Layers and Differentiation of Tissues   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
During neurulation, the chordamesoderm that will go to form the notochord induces neural plate formation, which is the first stage in the formation of the neural tube.
Neurulation, or the formation of the neural tube, is characterized in most vertebrates by three stages: the neural plate stage, neural fold stage, and final neural tube stage.
The early stages of development of the mammalian embryo, such as primitive streak stage, neurulation and germ layer differentiation, are similar to that occurring in chickens and reptiles.
acad.udallas.edu /biology/Brown/Anatomy/04GermLayers.html   (1067 words)

 Chapter 14B. Neurulation and Limb Development
Neurulation in vertebrates results in the formation of the neural tube, which gives rise to both the spinal cord and the brain.
Below are scanning electron micrographs of a chick embryo during neurulation.
Mammalian neurulation is similar to that of birds, however the bulky anterior neural plate seems to resist closure - the middle of the tube closes first, followed by both ends.
biology.kenyon.edu /courses/biol114/Chap14/Chapter_14B.html   (828 words)

 NEURULATION: THE FORMATION OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The objective of this course is to impart an understanding of the development of the neural tube, and the mechanisms controlling this process.
  As neurulation commences and the "roll" begins to form, the cells at the edge of the plate, where there is a bend, become constricted making a wedge shape.
Neurulation:               The embryonic formation of the neural tube by closure of the neural plate directed by the underlying notochord.
www.bi.umist.ac.uk /users/mjfssaw/3DEV/NEURULATION.htm   (3352 words)

Neurulation is the stage during which the neural tube forms.
Secondary neurulation occurs in the abdomen and tail.
In secondary neurulation a medullary cord under the epidermis hollows out to make the lumen of the nerve tube by the process of cavitation (Fig.
www.msu.edu /~kopachik/zol320/website/notes/lec10.html   (1267 words)

 Declarative modeling of a neurulation-like process
This phenomena happens during embryogenesis and is called neurulation.
The neurulation process consists in a topological modification of the back region of the embryo (cf figure above): the neural plate is folding and forms the neural fold.
The topological modification corresponds to the transformation of a plate into a tube and is not trivial to implement.
mgs.lami.univ-evry.fr /ImageGallery/EXEMPLES/Neurulation   (1084 words)

 Heparan sulphate proteoglycans and spinal neurulation in the mouse embryo -- Yip et al. 129 (9): 2109 -- Development
Heparan sulphate proteoglycans and spinal neurulation in the mouse embryo -- Yip et al.
Heparan sulphate proteoglycans and spinal neurulation in the mouse embryo
are needed for heparan sulphate to regulate spinal neurulation.
dev.biologists.org /cgi/content/full/129/9/2109   (6520 words)

 amphibian neurulation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The following images illustrate the major changes that occur during normal neurulation of amphibian embryos, as observed from the exterior.
At this stage of early neurulation, when the embryo is about two and a half days old, the neural folds are moving towards the midline.
A mass of paraxial mesoderm (future somite) is apparent directly to the lower right of the neural tube.
muhlenberg.edu /depts/biology/courses/bio240/amphibian.html   (320 words)

 Control of neurulation by the nucleosome assembly protein-1−like 2 - Nature Genetics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Neurulation is a complex process of histogenesis involving the precise temporal and spatial organization of gene expression
Genes influencing neurulation include proneural genes determining primary cell fate, neurogenic genes involved in lateral inhibition pathways and genes controlling the frequency of mitotic events.
This is reflected in the aetiology and genetics of human and mouse neural tube defects, which are of both multifactorial and multigenic origin
www.nature.com /ng/journal/v25/n4/abs/ng0800_431.html;jsessionid=A1C71CABB7D68ADF879ADF347C959C84   (266 words)

 UNSW Embryo- Neural Selected References
Secondary neurulation, which begins at stage 12, is the differentiation of the caudal part of the neural tube from the caudal eminence (or end-bud) without the intermediate phase of a neural plate.
Many tissues interact during neurulation to induce and regionalize the neuroectoderm and to produce the morphogenetic forces that drive neurulation.
In addition, morphoregulatory molecules expressed during neurulation underlie induction and patterning of the forming neuraxis.
embryology.med.unsw.edu.au /Refer/neuron/select.htm   (452 words)

 Student project by Amy French
The initial model was that the neural state was a default state inhibited by the secretion of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and induced by the secretion of BMP antagonists, but it was merely a skeleton model, missing most of the details which we know must occur in elaborate biological processes.
In the larger context, the researchers have identified that the neural state is indeed induced, it is not the default state.
This article was focused on determining which protein is responsible for the transition from gastrulation to neurulation when many of the same proteins are present at each stage.
www.unr.nevada.edu /~afrench/french   (1571 words)

 Neural tube closure requires Dishevelled-dependent convergent extension of the midline -- Wallingford and Harland 129 ...
During early neurulation, the neuroepithelium thickens apicobasally while convergent extension movements shape the neural plate.
Brun, R. and Garson, J. Neurulation in the Mexican salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum): a drug study and cell shape analysis of the epidermis and the neural plate.
Moury, J. and Schoenwolf, G. Cooperative model of epithelial shaping and bending during avian neurulation: autonomous movements of the neural plate, autonomous movements of the epidermis, and interactions in the neural plate/epidermis transition zone.
dev.biologists.org /cgi/content/full/129/24/5815   (6621 words)

 Mice lacking the ski proto-oncogene have defects in neurulation, craniofacial patterning, and skeletal ...
Mice lacking the ski proto-oncogene have defects in neurulation, craniofacial patterning, and skeletal muscle development -- Berk et al.
Exencephaly is a cranial neural tube defect, resulting from failed closure of the neural folds during neurulation.
Neurulation is a complex developmental process involving elevation of the neural plate to form lateral folds, followed by
www.genesdev.org /cgi/content/full/11/16/2029   (5661 words)

 [No title]
Handout: Representative stages of neurulation in the frog embryo.
Neurulation begins with the first traces of development of the neural plate and ends with the closure of the neural tube.
The embryo left late gastrula stage at 42 hours, went into neurul plate formation (the neurula) at 50 hours, neural folds at 62 hours and has cilia rotation by 67 hours.
www.csc.edu /mathsci/akrejci/BIOL432-532/frog3.htm   (950 words)

 Mena and Vasodilator-Stimulated Phosphoprotein Are Required for Multiple Actin-Dependent Processes That Shape the ...
Neurulation defects are observed in several gene-targeted mutants
Morriss-Kay G, Tuckett F (1985) The role of microfilaments in cranial neurulation in rat embryos: effects of short-term exposure to cytochalasin D. J Embryol Exp Morphol 88: 333-348.
Ybot-Gonzalez P, Copp AJ (1999) Bending of the neural plate during mouse spinal neurulation is independent of actin microfilaments.
www.jneurosci.org /cgi/content/full/24/37/8029   (6497 words)

 Neural tube closure
Vertebrate neurulation involves a precisely orchestrated set of morphogenetic movements within the neural plate, including elongation and shaping of the neural plate; elevation and apposition of the neural folds; and fusion of the folds at the dorsal midline.
Because human embryos with craniorachischisis and mice in which PCP signaling has been disrupted also display shortened axes and broad, open neural tubes, our data suggest that this type of neural tube defect may result generally from a failure of convergent extension.
Axolotl neurulation is quite robust and closely resembles mammalian neurulation (time-lapse movies here).
www.zo.utexas.edu /faculty/wallingford/Pages/xdsh.ntd.html   (460 words)

 Folate, Homocysteine and Neural Tube Defects: An Overview -- van der Put et al. 226 (4): 243 -- Experimental Biology ...
Neurulation in humans occurs in two phases, a primary and a
(C) Neuroepithelial transformation during primary neurulation; ultimately, the cells acquire a wedge-shape by contraction of the apically arranged microfilament bundles.
after neurulation, one in 50 up to one in 10 embryos are affected.
www.ebmonline.org /cgi/content/full/226/4/243   (8968 words)

 Gastrulation and Neurulation
• The formation of the neural plate, the neural folds, and their closure to form the neural tube is called neurulation.
• Secondary neurulation is the development of the nervous system caudal to the site of closure of the caudal neuropore.
The primitive streak has regressed and forms a pluripotent mass of cells called the caudal eminance or end bud.
www.ucsf.edu /nreview/01-Embryology/GastruNeurulation.html   (873 words)

 neurulation - OneLook Dictionary Search
Tip: Click on the first link on a line below to go directly to a page where "neurulation" is defined.
neurulation : Stedman's Online Medical Dictionary, 27th Edition [home, info]
neurulation : Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary [home, info]
www.onelook.com /?w=neurulation   (107 words)

 Gastrulation Neurulation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The action be which the notochord instructs the ectoderm to become neural tube is called PRIMARY EMBRYONIC INDUCTION
Formation of the neural tube does not occur simultaneously throughout ectoderm
chick neurulation in head far advanced over that at level of tail
www.zoo.ufl.edu /ljg/gastrulation_neurulation.htm   (611 words)

Study of genes contributing to the morphogenetic movements of gastrulation and neurulation.
Chick and Drosophila Embryos, Developmental Biology, Embryonic Morphogenesis, Molecular Biology, Neurulation and Gastrulation, Vertebrate and Invertebrate Animal Models.
Colas JF, Schoenwolf GC, Localization of cartilage linking protein 1 during primary neurulation in the chick embryo, Brain Research.
myprofile.cos.com /jfcolas   (575 words)

 eMedicine - Neural Tube Defects : Article by George Jallo, MD   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Pathophysiology: Two distinct processes appear to be involved in the formation of the neural tube: primary neurulation and secondary neurulation (ie, canalization).
Parallel to this process, the cutaneous ectoderm separates from the neuroectoderm to form the overlying skin, while the lateral mesoderm migrates between the 2 ectodermal layers to form the posterior vertebral arches.
Another possible explanation is that open NTDs (spina bifida in particular) result from defects in either primary or secondary neurulation, depending on their site being cranial or caudal to the posterior neuropore (ie, upper and lower spina bifida, respectively).
www.emedicine.com /neuro/topic244.htm   (2853 words)

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