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Topic: Night watchman state

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  Night watchman state - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A night watchman state, or a minimal state, is a form of government in political philosophy where the government's responsibilities are so minimal they cannot be reduced much further without becoming a form of anarchy.
The responsibilities in a hypothetical night watchman state would include the police, judicial systems, prisons and the military, the minimum allegedly required to uphold the law, which is limited to protect individuals from coercion and theft, to remove criminals from society, and to defend the country from foreign aggression.
Minarchists propose to enforce a night watchman state with a clearly-defined constitution on the government's powers, and may also see it necessary to ensure the constitution cannot be amended after adoption.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Night-watchman_state   (768 words)

 Night watchman state biography .ms   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The night watchman state or the minimal state is the state with the least possible amount of powers; these powers cannot be reduced any further without abolishing the state altogether and instituting a form of anarchy.
Typically, a night watchman state would consist of the bare minimum that is required to uphold the law: the police, the judicial system, prisons and the army.
Popperian libertarians often see the night watchman state as the best tool to implement an open society, in the sense that the evolution of institutions and culture is left to its own devices, rather than being influenced by such things as liberal democracy.
www.biography.ms /Night-watchman_state.html   (312 words)

 The New Life of the Liberal State
Some government enterprises are legacies of state and nation building, inherited from distant absolutist regimes that used state monopolies as important sources of revenue or from more recent regimes that may have seized the enterprises from foreign owners or ethnic minorities in bursts of nationalism or racial suspicion.
These effects on state finance and changing conceptions of party and group interests were the proximate causes that put privatization on the agenda, but long-term processes at work also helped to destabilize the foundations of many public sector institutions.
But if states are adopting privatization for rational power-related reasons, they are often being forced to do so because of new conditions, such as the growth of the second economy, the transformation of state enterprises into political liabilities, the post-industrial transition, and new demands on organizations for flexibility.
www.princeton.edu /~starr/newstate.html   (12655 words)

 Night watchman state - Free Talk Live   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
A night watchman state is a state whose only job is to protect its citizens' negative rights.
A night watchman state is the type of government preferred by most libertarians.
The night watchman state can also be referred to as minarchy; an advocate of a night watchman state is called a minarchist, as opposed to an anarchist who rejects the legitimacy of government completely.
freetalklive.com /wiki/index.php?title=Night_watchman_state   (96 words)

 Liberalism, The State and Antisocial Conduct
The state is the apparatus of compulsion and coercion.
The state is neither cold nor warm, for it is an abstract concept in whose name living men—the organs of the state, the government—act.
Violent resistance against the power of the state is the last resort of the minority in its effort to break loose from the oppression of the majority.
www.mises.org /liberal/ch1sec13.asp   (802 words)

 Mises Supported Laissez Faire against Anarchism
If one looked upon the state, with Hegel, as "the self-conscious moral, substance," as the "Universal in and for itself, the rationality of the will," then, of course, one had to view as blasphemous any attempt to limit the function of the state to that of serving as a night watchman.
It is incorrect to represent the attitude of liberalism toward the state by saying that it wishes to restrict the latter's sphere of possible activity or that it abhors, in principle, all activity on the part of the state in relation to economic life.
For the liberal, the state is an absolute necessity, since the most important tasks are incumbent upon it: the protection not only of private property, but also of peace, for in the absence of the latter the full benefits of private property cannot be reaped.
monopoly-politics.com /MisesVAnarchism.htm   (1976 words)

 State: High court puts man's execution on hold
Bryan, 40, was sent to death row in 1986 for murdering a Mississippi night watchman who had loaned him some tools to fix a stolen boat.
Stokes wrote that the night before he put Bryan on the stand, he was "anxious and nervous" about his participation in his first capital trial.
In Sims' case, lawyers are arguing that they presented undisputed new testimony to a lower court that the state's key witness admitted lying in court when he pointed the finger at Sims and later told witnesses that another man committed the murder.
www.sptimes.com /News/102699/news_pf/State/High_court_puts_man_s.shtml   (701 words)

Radical minarchists usually agree that government should be restricted to its "minimal" or "night-watchman" state functions of government (courts, police, prisons, defence forces).
Minarchists usually justify their vision of the state by referring to basic principles rather than arguing in terms of pragmatic results.
Two noteworthy implications are that the state may not use its coercive apparatus for the purpose of getting some citizens to aid others, or in order to prohibit activities to people for their own good or protection."
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/mi/Minarchy.html   (270 words)

 The State as an Unavoidable Evil | Freedom Democrats   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The state, reduced to its smallest role, could be seen as a 'night-watchman state.' This is the state of the minarchist and some libertarians.
The state as a territorial monopolist is often displayed with the 'Love it or leave it' attitude that many red state conservatives have.
In a world in which all land is claimed by a state it is hard to imagine how one could exactly 'leave it.' While each state may have their own mechanisms for enforcing control, states as a whole have the powerful enforcement mechanism of having claimed all (or almost all) of the available land.
freedomdemocrats.org /node/542   (1311 words)

 FrontPage magazine.com :: What is American Corporatism? by Robert Locke
In classical capitalism, what has been called the "night-watchman" state, government's role in the economy is simply to prevent force or fraud from disrupting the autonomous operation of the free market.
It got its start from the realization, during the Progressive period around 1900, that the night-watchman state was too weak to make the large corporate actors of the economy play fair.
Lastly, Medicare and Medicaid will expand, with the help of state plans, to cover whomever is left, with a tacit subsidy to emergency rooms to cover the last dregs.
www.frontpagemag.com /articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=3054   (3114 words)

 Columbia College Today
The state, he wrote, is fine, as long as it is minimal, as long as it does not coerce the individual or usurp his rights —; something he argued that American government did on unexamined assumptions.
He began by defending the “night watchman” state of classical 19th century theory, or the state in which government does no more than protect its members from violence, theft and breach of contract.
In a caustic reference to the state’s power to protect, a witness to a murder is shown reading the book just as he learns from his wife that the mob boss Tony Soprano is the suspect.
www.college.columbia.edu /cct/may02/may02_obituaries1.html   (829 words)

 Brian Hull.net - A proclivity for verbosity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The United States has a long history of receiving and absorbing immigrants wishing to better their lives, and there is something positive to be said about the ambition and motivation of immigrants who climb over or cut through fences, cross through deserts and/or swim across rivers for a chance to earn a better living.
If the state fails to adequately fulfill the goals of the citizens, the citizens are free to rebel and force the governing officials to relinquish their authority to rule and/or dispose of the entire governing structure as they see fit.
The state entered into a new second public philosophy, coordinated pluralism, in which the role of the government was no longer that of a referee in the marketplace, but rather that of an agent which harmonized the political, the social and the economic systems, ensuring their stable functionality.
www.brianhull.net /writing   (6541 words)

 The Night Watchman
Night has fallen, and the darkness surrounding them is beginning to give way to the ominous moon rising up from behind the mountain of God.
Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years.
In the upcoming peace negotiations to create a Palestinian state, a buffer-zone or neutral territory will be added to the city of Jerusalem to maintain peace between Israel and the newly created Palestinian state.
abrieflookattomorrow.com /thenightwatchman.htm   (1547 words)

 Adam Smith's Lost Legacy: Mr Prime Minister: Sack Your Researchers!
Smith believed in a an expanded role for the 18th-century British state and one that was much bigger than the grossly over-interfering state he lived under.
In book V of ‘Wealth of Nations’ he went on to support the traditional role of the state in the defence of the people from the violent oppressions of neighbouring states, which cost 5 per cent of national income in Marlborough’s time and 15 per cent by the end of the 18th century.
To defence he added what would have been an enormous increase in government expenditure in his suggestion for the construction, staffing and maintenance of a school in every UK parish educate a literate and numerate population, even with a contribution levied on parents according to their income (from a penny per poor child upwards).
adamsmithslostlegacy.com /2006/04/mr-prime-minister-sack-your.html   (560 words)

 Defining the State and Society
Within classical liberalism, two theories of the origin of the State have struggled for domination: the naturalistic theory by which the State evolves from Society; and, the external conflict one by which the State may be considered to be a continuing act of war committed against Society by a separate group.
The conquest theory of the state stands in sharp contrast to the preceding Lockean model, and attempts to ground the primitive State in historical fact rather than political conjecture.
Thus the State that originated from external conquest evolves into one of continuing internal conquest by which one group -- or a coalition of groups -- use the political means to attain wealth and power at the expense of those who actually labor.
www.zetetics.com /mac/state.htm   (2970 words)

 Nozick, “The Minimal State”
Thus, while all the steps from the transition from the state of nature to protective associations are clearly morally permissible, the transitions to the ultraminimal and minimal states raise additional issues.
The problem that arises in connection with the justification of the minimal state is why valuable services must in effect be redistributed to non-members.
Nozick concludes that “the moral objections of the individualist anarchist to the minimal state are overcome.
home.myuw.net /himma/phil410/lect3.htm   (1025 words)

The term is perhaps most often used to differentiate libertarians that believe it is possible to have a state that protects individual liberty without violating it itself, from the anarchists who believe that any state is inherently a violation of individual liberty.
Britain's centralized state was smaller, less intrusive, and more reliant on local and voluntary supports, but -- for all that -- highly effective in maintaining social stability at home, and exploiting colonial interests abroad" (3).
Summarizing David Robert's Victorian Origins of the Modern Welfare State (1960), she points out that compared to France, the British government during the Victorian period was "'absurdly small.' In 1832 the entire British civil service numbered 21,300, while in 1846 its French counterpart numbered just under a million.
members.tripod.com /doggo/doggminiarch.html   (839 words)

 Diminished Capacity: What is the Role of the State?
The "state of nature" is the world before laws, institutions or agreements of any sort.
Note that this view of the minimal State cannot provide a justification for initiating warfare in distant lands which are not a threat its citizens' safety, regardless of how laudable it might be to re-arrange the social structures of those foreign places to suit enlightened tastes.
The distinction is merely that the minarchists feel that a night watchman State is required to enforce the truce, and the anarcho-capitalists believe that the same function can be provided without a monopoly enforcement mechanism.
www.piermont.com /blog/archives/permalinks/2004-08-28T12_54_13.html   (716 words)

Two people have a contract dispute.  The night-watchman state takes it upon itself to adjudicate.  For disputes it labels “criminal,” the NWS goes further by handling the prosecution.
Hard case for arbitration: complete strangers.  Night-watchman state could still minimize its role by compelling defendant to choose from an approved set of arbitrators.
It would be easy to drastically expand the role of the market in these areas, while leaving the state as the final authority.  Let us call this moderate privatization.
www.gmu.edu /departments/economics/bcaplan/e849/pf13.htm   (1428 words)

 Watchman, What of the Night?
In this prophetic scene, there is one from that country introduced, as addressing the prophet in great earnestness, about the state of the night, or that state of affliction and oppression, which both the JEWS and IDUMEANS were under.
The question is undoubtedly not about a natural but metaphorical night--that state of calamity and distress the Jews and Idumeans were under by the Assyrians or Babylonians; or, that dark dispensation of the Law, the end of which was then expected and earnestly desired.
But, though this night is evidently far spent, and the day draws near, yet it appears to me not improbable, that the darkest part of the night yet remains, and that the glorious times the church will enjoy in the latter day, will be preceded with a season of the sorest calamity and distress.
www.belcherfoundation.org /watchman_what_of_the_night.htm   (5451 words)

 The Partnership Dance Between Government and Business
The "night watchman" state that they thought necessary and optimal was in reality a very powerful and activist state.
Most states throughout history--many states today--are not powerful enough to carry out the taks of the night watchman "minimal" state, and commerce and industry suffer mightily as a result.
There were demands for corporations to serve as arms of the social insurance state, providing benefits to workers and their families.
www.j-bradford-delong.net /TotW/business_government_worldl.html   (1204 words)

 [No title]
The state will force me to do things in any case, so what does it matter whether it is legitimate or not?
Nozick does not address the possibility that people might favor joining a protective association that is democratically managed rather than one that is managed from the top down.
Since no one can justifiably be forced to join the minimal state, the possibility exists that some people will in fact refuse to join - what Nozick calls "independents".
www.csus.edu /indiv/a/andersonc/NozickquestionspartI.doc   (256 words)

 Iowa State University Department of Public Safety
During the 1930's, Iowa State College was adding more cinder parking lots to deal with the ever growing vehicular traffic on campus.
There is a story that came up through the years that the reason ISU Police lost the right to carry firearms is because an officer shot someone's dog that was running loose.
The person was a night watchman, not an officer and that is what prompted university officials to hire Ivan Walton to make a well organized department.
www.dps.iastate.edu /scrapbook.html   (538 words)

 Current Writing
In the ideal State, men of superior intelligence and character who become "kings" know justice from personal insight; the common citizenry learns it by education and embraces it by trust.
Other schools of political and economic thought readily agree with this definition of justice, but they strenuously disagree on the nature and measure of "that which is due." A few natural-rights philosophers, reflecting on the "night watchman's" innate inclination to seize power and privileges, would shun his services and instead rely on contractual arrangements.
While the crime rate has risen significantly throughout the growth of the "social justice" State, the envy and resentment which it breeds are directed primarily at businessmen.
www.sennholz.com /justice.html   (1880 words)

 Society, law and custom | Samizdata.net
Spontaneous order does not require a blithe belief in the 'goodness of man' or some Rousseau-esque drivel about noble savage, just the observation that order in one form or other is in fact man's 'natural' state and that chaos, not order, is the inherently unstable and unsupportable state of human affairs.
In much the same way, the customs of a society are not created by the state's fiat (customs are not laws), they evolve for complex and often poorly understood reasons.
To a minarchist like me, backing up that fact is why some sort of 'night watchman' state is required, but to a libertarian anarchist, protection agencies and mutated insurance companies take on that sort of role.
www.samizdata.net /blog/archives/001745.html   (601 words)

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