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Topic: Ninth Crusade


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In the News (Sun 21 Apr 19)

  
 Ninth Crusade   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Ninth Crusade is commonly considered to be the last of the medieval Crusades against the Muslims in the Holy Land.
Gregory called for a new ninth crusade, especially at the Council of Lyons in 1274, but nothing came of this.
Venice then suggested a ninth crusade be called against Constantinople, where Michael VIII had recently re-established the Byzantine Empire.
www.crusades-history.com /Ninth-Crusade.aspx   (390 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Crusade   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254.
The honour of initiating the crusade has also been attributed to Peter the Hermit, a recluse of Picardy, who, after a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and a vision in the church of the Holy Sepulchre, went to Urban II and was commissioned by him to preach the crusade.
Meanwhile the crusaders, revictualled by the Armenians of the Taurus region, made their way into Syria and on 20 October, 1097, reached the fortified city of Antioch, which was protected by a wall flanked with 450 towers, stocked by the Ameer Jagi-Sian with immense quantities of provisions.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Crusade   (1109 words)

  
 Crusade - Wikipedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Fourth Crusade was initiated by Pope Innocent III in 1202, but ended up in the sacking of Constantinople in 1204, as crusaders fought with Venetians and renegade Byzantines.
The vital crusading spirit was now dead, and the succeeding crusades are to be explained rather as arising from the efforts of the papacy in its struggle against the secular power, to divert the military energies of the European nations toward Syria.
A crusading force from Hungary, Austria, and Bavaria achieved a remarkable feat in the capture of Damietta[?] in Egypt in 1219, but under the urgent insistence of the papal legate[?], Pelagius[?], they proceeded to a foolhardy attack on Cairo, and an inundation of the Nile compelled them to choose between surrender and destruction.
wikipedia.findthelinks.com /cr/Crusade.html   (979 words)

  
 Crusade - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
When the First Crusade was preached in 1095, the Christian princes of northern Iberia had been fighting their way out of the mountains of Galicia and Asturias, the Basque Country and Navarre, with increasing success, for about a hundred years.
The eighth Crusade was organized by Louis IX in 1270, again sailing from Aigues-Mortes, initially to come to the aid of the remnants of the Crusader states in Syria.
The military experiences of the crusades also had their effects in Europe; for example, European castles became massive stone structures, as they were in the east, rather than smaller wooden buildings as they had typically been in the past.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Crusade   (4020 words)

  
 The Crusades - Simple English Wikipedia
The Children's Crusade is a possibly fictitious or misinterpreted crusade of 1212.
This was the first major crusade not initiated by the Papacy, a trend that was to continue for the rest of the century.
The eighth Crusade was organized by Louis IX in 1270, to help the Crusader states in Syria.
simple.wikipedia.org /wiki/The_Crusades   (823 words)

  
 First Crusade
The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II at Clermont, France with the explicit objective of regaining control of Jerusalem and the Holy land from the Muslims, and also helping the Byzantine Empire fight the Seljuk Turks.
The main Crusader army, meanwhile, marched on to Antioch, which was captured after a long siege on June 3, 1098, but only by deception - a former Christian guard in the city opened one of the gates for the Crusaders.
The new kingdom drew strength from the influx of new crusading forces in 1101, from the presence of the Italian merchants who established themselves in the Syrian ports, and from the religious and military orders of the Knights Templars and the Knights of St. John which were created during Baldwin I's reign.
www.brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/f/fi/first_crusade.html   (1802 words)

  
 Overview of the Crusades
On a popular level, the first crusades unleashed an unprecedented wave of impassioned, personally felt pious fury that was expressed in the massacres of Jews that accompanied the movement of mobs through Europe, and the violent treatment of "schismatic" Orthodox Christians of the east.
The crusades also aided the beginning of the Renaissance in Italy, as various Italian city-states from the very beginning had important and profitable trading colonies in the crusader states, both in the Holy Land and later in captured Byzantine territory.
Thus, in Western Europe, the Crusades have traditionally been regarded by laypeople as heroic adventures, though the mass enthusiasm of common people was largely expended in the First Crusade, from which so few of their class returned.
www.cbn.com /spirituallife/ChurchAndMinistry/ChurchHistory/Crusades_Wikipedia.asp?option=print   (3474 words)

  
 Crusades. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Crusaders, led mostly by French and Flemish nobles and spurred on by Fulk of Neuilly, assembled (1202) near Venice.
The Ninth Crusade, 1271–72, was led by Prince Edward (later Edward I of England).
The crusading period advanced the development of national monarchies in Europe, because secular leaders deprived the pope of the power of decision in what was to have been the highest Christian enterprise.
www.bartleby.com /65/cr/Crusades.html   (2318 words)

  
 Crusades on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The crusade was preached by Pope Gregory VIII but was directed by its leaders— Richard I of England, Philip II of France, and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I.
The Sixth Crusade, 1228-29, undertaken by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, was simply a peaceful visit, in the course of which the emperor made a truce with the Muslims, securing the partial surrender of Jerusalem and other holy places.
The Ninth Crusade, 1271-72, was led by Prince Edward (later Edward I of England).
www.encyclopedia.com /html/section/crusades_thelatercrusades.asp   (2910 words)

  
 Crusade - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Later crusades were called against the remaining pagan nations of Europe such as the Polabians and Lithuania, and against heresy, such as the crusade against Bohemia, 1418-1437 (see Northern Crusades).
The crusaders atrocities against Jews in the towns of Germany and Hungary, and in the massacres of non-combattants in Palestine and Syria have passed into Jewish popular history as a dark legend.
On a popular level, the first crusades unleashed an unprecedented wave of impassioned, personally felt pious fury that was expressed in the masssacres of Jews that accompanied the movement of mobs through Europe, and the violent treatment of "schismatic" Orthodox Christians of the east.
www.peacelink.de /keyword/Crusades.php   (1912 words)

  
 Second Crusade -   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Second Crusade was announced by Pope Eugenius III, and was the first of the crusades to be led by European kings, namely Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, with help from a number of other important European nobles.
After the First Crusade and the minor Crusade of 1101 there were three crusader states established in the east: the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Principality of Antioch, and the County of Edessa.
As in the First Crusade, the preaching inadvertently led to attacks on Jews; a fanatical German Cistercian monk named Rudolf was apparently inspiring massacres of Jews in the Rhineland, Cologne, Mainz, Worms, and Speyer, with Rudolf claiming Jews were not contributing financially to the rescue of the Holy Land.
psychcentral.com /psypsych/Second_Crusade   (3781 words)

  
 Crusades
Cynics have observed that Crusades were the papacy's way of keeping the knights and nobles distracted, les tthey decide to help themselves to the ever-growing wealth and property of the Church.
Ninth Crusade (1271-1272): never actually reached the Holy Land, despite being led by Prince Edward of England (later Edward I).
The most curious crusades were those preached against several enemies of the papacy, most notably against Frederick II von Hohenstaufen.
www.hyw.com /Books/History/Crusades.htm   (1037 words)

  
 chronological 1250 - 1299
Crusaders led by King Louis IX of France move from Damietta to Cairo along the Nile River until they meet Emir Fakr-ed-din at the head of a army of 70,000 at Ashmoun Canal by the town of al-Mansurah.
Crusade to Prussia of King Ottokar II of Bohemia, Rudolf of Habsburg and Otto of Brandenburg.
In the Seventh Crusade Louis sailed to Egypt in 1248 and recaptured Damietta, but after he and his army were routed he had to return it as well as a massive ransom just to get free.
www.allcrusades.com /CHRONOLOGICAL/chrono-1250-1299.html   (2712 words)

  
 eighth crusade
The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX of France in 1270.
The Eighth Crusade is sometimes counted as the Seventh crusade, if the Fifth crusade and Sixth Crusade of Frederick II are counted as a single crusade.
The Ninth Crusade is sometimes also counted as part of the Eighth Crusade.
www.crusades-history.com /Eighth-Crusade.aspx   (420 words)

  
 Crusades
The crusades took place through the 11th and 13th centuries A.D. The original intent of the crusades was to recapture “Christian” lands that had been invaded by Muslims.
First Crusade: The first crusade was launched by Pope Urban II after the Council of Clermont in 1095 A.D. The Eastern Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople sent a letter to Pope Urban II, asking for his assistance against the progressing Muslim invaders.
The Ninth Crusade: The Ninth Crusade was Led by King Edward I of England in 1271 A.D. It was an attempt to defeat the Mamluk sultan of Baibers.
www.allaboutgod.com /crusades.htm   (779 words)

  
 sixth crusade
The Sixth Crusade began in 1228 as an attempt to reconquer Jerusalem.
Gregory took this opportunity to excommunicate Frederick for breaking his crusader vow, though this was just an excuse, as Frederick had for years been trying to consolidate imperial power in Italy at the expense of the papacy.
The truce expired in 1239 and Jerusalem was taken by the Mamluks in 1244, but now that Frederick had set the precedent, further crusades would be launched by individual kings such as Louis IX of France (the Seventh and Eighth Crusades) and Edward I of England (the Ninth Crusade) without papal involvement.
www.crusades-history.com /Sixth-Crusade.aspx   (585 words)

  
 Bible Study - Crusaders
The Crusades were a series of military adventures carried out by Europeans through the 11th to 14th centuries.
The Eighth Crusade (1270) was cut short by the death of King Louis IX of France.
The Ninth Crusade (1271-1272) was led by Prince Edward (later King Edward I) of England.
www.keyway.ca /htm2001/20010923.htm   (370 words)

  
 CalendarHome.com - 1270s - Calendar Encyclopedia
Both the Eighth Crusade and Ninth Crusade were brief efforts that quickly ended in failure, with King Louis IX of France dying during the former.
The Mamluk sultanate of Egypt continued to expand its territory and dodge two crusades -- the Eighth Crusade never reached its intended target, and the Ninth rapidly became a failure.
1270 - Before August - King Louis IX of France launches the Eighth Crusade in an attempt to recapture the crusader states from the Mamluk sultan Baibars; the opening engagement is a siege of Tunis.
encyclopedia.calendarhome.com /1270s.htm   (2776 words)

  
 Wikinfo | Sixth Crusade   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
However, Frederick again promised to go on a crusade after his coronation as emperor in 1220 by Pope Honorius III, and he did send a small army to help the Fifth Crusade.
Gregory took this opportunity to excommunicate Frederick for breaking his crusader vow, though this was just an excuse, as Frederick had for years been trying to consolidate imperial power in Italy at the expense of the papacy.
The truce expired in 1239 and Jerusalem was taken by the Mamluks in 1244, but now that Frederick had set the precedent, further crusades would be launched by individual kings such as Louis IX of France (the Seventh and Eighth Crusades) and Edward I of England (the Ninth Crusade) without papal involvement.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Sixth_Crusade   (628 words)

  
 Article 10: Final Analysis
This is the final update for Ninth Art, and my final Article 10 column.
But it doesn't mean that I have an urge to crusade for comics to go in any particular direction, or to promote them to an indifferent mainstream audience.
Many campaigner types seem to have trouble getting their heads around that, but there are plenty of us who find comics intriguing without feeling driven to go out and change anything.
www.ninthart.com /a10   (1467 words)

  
 Arianna Online Forums - Caedite eos! Novit enim Dominus qui sunt eius   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The crusading efforts can be divided into a number of periods, the first from 1209 to 1215 was a series of great success for the crusaders in Languedoc.
In August the crusade proceeded to Termes and despite attacks from Pierre-Roger de Cabaret the siege was solid and in December the town fell.
In May the crusading force was directed against some revolters, the castle of Aimery de Montréal was retaken, he and his senior knights were hung and several hundred Cathars were burned.
www.ariannaonline.com /forums/printthread.php?t=2980   (4672 words)

  
 1100 - 1300
Urban II at the Council of Clermont in southern France near the end of 1095, preached the First Crusade to recapture the Holy Land.
Pope Gregory VIII preached a crusade, which was lead by several of Europe's most important leaders: Richard I of England, Philip II of France and Frederick I of the Holy Roman Empire.
Frederick drowned in Cicilia in 1190, leaving a unstable alliance between the English and the French.
faculty.ucc.edu /egh-damerow/1100_-_1300.htm   (806 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Since subverting vampires of the Camarilla is out, the attempt to subvert the Tremere Gregory Hastings a year ago led to the destruction of a pack and the Nosferatu are unshakably loyal to the Prince.
It is the belief of the Archbishop who will be leading the crusade that all previous crusades have failed because of a lack of information, infrastructure, initiative and Sabbat ready for the fight.
The Archbishop is being given all the time she needs to prepare for this crusade.
www.identicalsoftware.com /rpg/wod/settings/by_nights/washington_dc.txt   (2030 words)

  
 Events
Had the Western world adhered to Wilson’s admirable program, the Ninth Crusade against the Muslim would never have begun and there would be no war in the Middle East today.
History will attest that this is how the great powers started the Ninth Crusade to wrest control of the Holy Land from the infidels and divide and rule the Arab world.
With the resolution of these three issues, the demands of Al-Qaeda would be met, it’s raison d’etre would vanish, the Ninth Crusade would end, America would no longer be threatened, and the American people could regain their sense of security and their civil liberties.
www.voicesofpalestine.org /alertcomp.asp?id=50   (7246 words)

  
 The Ninth Crusade (by Henry H. Lindner) - Media Monitors Network
America’s religious prejudice has drawn it into the Ninth Crusade against Islam and all the inhabitants of the Holy Land.
Various wars fought by Arabs to reverse this aggression, return hundreds of thousands of refugees to their homes, and retake stolen land have failed due to the overwhelming military might of Israel—supplied and supported by the United States of America.
The end of the 55-year Crusade would permit the gradual democratization and liberalization of all governments in the area.
www.mediamonitors.net /henryhlindner3.html   (5828 words)

  
 Ninth Crusade - TIME
It was the Crusade of the Children, And they were marching with their songs and flowers To take Christ's Sepulchre!* American children by the thousand are being enlisted for the so-called Ninth Crusade.
Theirs is not to be a march over mountain and sea, but a "mental pilgrimage." They are to rescue the holy places by the nickels which they contribute through Sunday School agencies.
The organization of the Ninth Crusade—of the children—is a means of arousing enthusiasm for giving financial assistance to the Eastern Orthodox Patriarchate† of Jerusalem.
www.time.com /time/magazine/article/0,9171,717442,00.html   (503 words)

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