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Topic: Nixon Doctrine

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In the News (Tue 23 Apr 19)

  Richard Nixon - MSN Encarta
Nixon received an impressive vote in party primaries, and at the Republican National Convention, held in Chicago in July, he received all but ten of the delegates’ votes on the first ballot.
Nixon chose as his running mate the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts.
Nixon and Humphrey each gained about 43 percent of the popular vote, but the distribution of Nixon’s nearly 32 million votes gave him a clear majority in the electoral college.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761563374_2/Richard_Nixon.html   (1253 words)

 Untitled Document   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Nixon felt that the most effective way to deal with Soviet influence in the crisis was to imply that Soviet support for India could jeopardize U.S.-Soviet progress toward peace in the Middle East, forward movement on the European Security Conference, future trade negotiations and could push the U.S. closer to Peking.
Nixon even wrote to Indira Gandhi on May 28 saying specifically that the U.S. was using “quiet diplomacy” to address as fully as possible the needs of the refugees and urged her not to resort to war.
Nixon clearly understood the history and rivalries on the subcontinent and felt that a substantial improvement of the situation was unlikely.
www.auburn.edu /~markojm/nixon_paper_text.html   (4880 words)

 Nixon & the Imperial Presidency (5)
Nixon's Vice President, he was forced to resign when it was discovered that he had taken bribes from contractors when he was governor of Maryland and was still receiving "kick-backs" while Vice President.
President Nixon's policy of telling Asian countries that they would be responsible for their own military defense in the future.
Nixon's Attorney General and head of CREEP, he was later jailed for his role in Watergate.
www.historyteacher.net /USProjects/Quizzes5-6/Nixon5.htm   (374 words)

 Nixon   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Nixon finally began taking heat from Democrats for his actions, and when he refused to turn over the tapes it increased to some members of his own party.
Nixon hated the press and blamed them for his 1960 loss, but on becoming president, their relationship was quickly mended.
Nixon denied being personally involved, but the courts forced him to yield tape recordings which indicated that he had, in fact, tried to divert the investigation by using his executive powers.
www.tjhsst.edu /~nstroup/APX/Nixon.htm   (1003 words)

Nixon and Kissinger went to great lengths to link progress on détente and SALT to the Kremlin’s willingness to press its client in Hanoi to negotiate an end to the fighting in Vietnam.
Nixon, who hinted at such a concept on the campaign trail, articulated the doctrine during a background briefing for reporters in Guam, where he had traveled in July 1969 to witness the splashdown of the Apollo astronauts.
Kissinger and Nixon, who assumed that the United States was moving from a position of "predominance to one of partnership," used the doctrine to promote self-sufficiency among U.S. allies in Asia, Latin America, and Europe.
www.state.gov /r/pa/ho/frus/nixon/i/21100.htm   (2927 words)

 Nixon Doctrine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon.
The doctrine was also applied by the Nixon administration in the Persian Gulf region, with military aid to Iran and Saudi Arabia, so that these U.S. allies could undertake the responsibility of ensuring peace and stability in the region.
Nixon's Address to the Nation on the War in Vietnam, November 3, 1969
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Nixon_Doctrine   (331 words)

 USA-Presidents.Info - Richard Nixon
Nixon was elected to the Senate in 1950, defeating actress/congresswoman Helen Gahagan, who Nixon accused during the campaign of having communist sympathies.
Nixon was notable among Vice Presidents in having actually stepped up to run the government three times when Eisenhower was ill: on the occasions of Eisenhower's heart attack on September 24, 1955; his ileitis in June 1956 ; and his stroke in November 1957.
Nixon died on April 22, 1994, at the age of 81 from complications related to a stroke and was buried beside his wife Pat Nixon in the grounds of the Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Birthplace in Yorba Linda, California.
www.usa-presidents.info /nixon.htm   (1881 words)

 American Experience | The Presidents | Richard M. Nixon | PBS
On July 15, 1971, Nixon announced on national television that he would become the first president ever to visit the People's Republic of China, a nation which had remained isolated from the West since the Communist revolution in 1949.
As an alternative to the arms race, Nixon proposed to the Soviets that the two nations settle for a "strategic parity" in nuclear weapons.
Nixon had hoped that improved relations with the Chinese and the Soviets would spur a quick exit from Vietnam.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/amex/presidents/37_nixon/nixon_foreign.html   (1375 words)

 Michael Schaller: Working Paper No. 2
The Nixon Doctrine, the return of Okinawa to Japan, strategic arms control, the liquidation of the war in Vietnam, restricting imports, and cutting the dollar's link to gold were all attempts to assure an orderly transition as the United States entered a period of relative decline and began to reduce its military presence in Asia.
Nixon explained that the military, Congress, and other interest groups had objected to the nuclear-free return of Okinawa as a "give-away." As payback, the president wanted Sato to implement the synthetic textile restraint deal.
Nixon's gradual withdrawal of ground troops from Vietnam, his decisions to return Okinawa and encourage Japan to play a regional security role, the Nixon doctrine, and Washington's pursuit of detente with the Soviet Union left little doubt about the trend of American military strategy in the Asia/Pacific region.
www.gwu.edu /~nsarchiv/japan/schaller.htm   (9058 words)

 CNN.com - The Nixon-Bush doctrine - Feb 8, 2006
Richard Nixon probably put the case most clearly in an interview with David Frost back in 1977.
Nixon: "Well, when the president does it that means that it is not illegal."
President George W. Bush, commander in chief in the war against terror, is squarely in the Nixon camp.
www.cnn.com /2006/POLITICS/02/07/morton.power   (775 words)

 Wall Street Journal Articles   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The Powell Doctrine was little more than a "best-case scenario" for situations where the U.S. could respond at its own discretion, using a schedule of its choosing, against an enemy whose military makeup allowed such a response.
The Nixon Doctrine was based on three broad principles -- that we would provide a nuclear deterrent to hostile powers, that we would actively defend allies under external attack, and that we would provide military equipment and other assistance to friendly nations battling insurgents within their borders.
The great strength of the doctrine, which has not been fully superseded, was that it allowed discretion regarding whether to enter direct combat, while assuring friendly nations that we would not abandon them.
www.jameswebb.com /articles/wallstjrnl/newdoctrine.htm   (1231 words)

 SparkNotes: The Vietnam War (1945-1975): Nixon and Vietnamization: 1969–1975
Nixon did not intend to abandon Saigon fully—the United States would still fund, supply, and train the ARVN—but hoped that slow troop withdrawals would appease voters at home and reduce the number of troop casualties in the field.
Furthermore, Nixon and Kissinger used the lengthy withdrawal from Vietnam as part of a larger vision of détente, or thawing of tensions among the superpowers.
Nonetheless, Nixon did keep his promise of removing U.S. troops, and it is impressive that he and Kissinger were able to withdraw the United States thoroughly and relatively quickly from the Vietnam quagmire they had inherited from Johnson.
www.sparknotes.com /history/american/vietnamwar/section9.rhtml   (2225 words)

 Richard Nixon OTR MP3 List   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Nixon went on to be one of the youngest vice-presidents and served under Eisenhower in 1952 and 1956.
Although Nixon was said to win the debate amongst radio listeners, those who saw the televised version preferred Kennedy.
Nixon was reelected in 1972 against George McGovern, with 60% of the popular vote.
www.otrcat.com /nixon.htm   (525 words)

 Nixon Final Test
During Nixon's presidential campaign, he pledged to represent the nonshouters the nondemonstrators.
Nixon was the 1st American president since 1949 to recognize Communist China.
Nixon did not cooperate with authorities during the investigation and claimed
school.discovery.com /quizzes24/jnapoli/Nixon.html   (565 words)

 Docs 1-9
Nixon assumed office in 1969 as an established practitioner of foreign policy and Kissinger was a recognized authority on the foreign policy process.
A selection of speeches and writings by Nixon and Kissinger during the 2-year period prior to the assumption of office in 1969 is presented at the beginning of the volume to provide a background for the views developed during the initial 4 years of the administration.
Nixon notes in his memoirs that former President Herbert Hoover had regularly delivered the featured Lakeside address at the retreat, and after Hoover's death in 1964, Nixon was invited to deliver the 1967 address in Hoover's honor.
www.state.gov /r/pa/ho/frus/nixon/i/20700.htm   (19996 words)

 Workers World Feb. 24, 2000: U.S. strategy toward Iraq
Although it was bloody and aggressive, the Nixon Doctrine was essentially a defensive response by imperialism to the Arab revolutionary wave that swept through the Middle East and north Africa, starting with the Egyptian revolution that brought Gamal Abdel Nasser and other bourgeois nationalist and revolutionary forces to power.
The main feature of the Nixon Doctrine was reliance on proxy forces, principally Israel and Iran, to function as the gendarme for U.S. interests in the Gulf.
The Nixon Doctrine was based on the use of brute military force, but it was assumed that the military club would be wielded by proxy forces.
www.workers.org /ww/2000/iraq0224.php   (1401 words)

 Before the Holocaust: Nixon's War
In honor of the breakfast meeting at the Pentagon that led to Nixon's approval of the strike, the assault was codenamed Operation Breakfast.
As suggested by Kissenger, Nixon ordered that the attacks occur in secret, and all attempts to expose the bombing should be stopped.
The Nixon administration was morally quite comfortable with the decision; as Henry Kissinger has stated, "It was not a bombing of Cambodia, but it was a bombing of North Vietnamese in Cambodia." (Shawcross, p 28) Yet they still demanded secrecy, fearing the press would use it as a tool against them.
www.edwebproject.org /sideshow/history/nixon.html   (741 words)

 Uruguay - English
The documents show that Nixon was aware of — and may in fact have been complicit in — Brazilian efforts to influence the election results.
President Nixon is scheduled to meet twice with Brazilian President Emílio Garrastazu Médici - for an hour and a half on December 7 and for 45 minutes on December 9.
Nixon is worried that Great Britain's withdrawal from the Caribbean could affect the region economically and the governments might start moving to the left.
www.gwu.edu /~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB71   (2705 words)

 McNair Paper 33, Chapter 6, (Continuation)
Yet the Nixon Doctrine, while purporting to shift the responsibility for protecting friendly countries from the forces of United States to those of the endangered countries, continued to assert that the United States would be involved in the defense of allies and friends.
The full impact of the dangers of the Nixon Doctrine may be seen in light of U.S. actions to influence the Indo-Pakistani War beginning in December 1971.
In October 1973, President Nixon sent the carriers JOHN F., and INDEPENDENCE as mobile airfields for the short-range aircraft used to rearm Israel after that country was shocked and severely hurt by the surprise Egyptian attack of 6 October.
www.ndu.edu /inss/McNair/mcnair33/m33c6con.html   (4691 words)

 Remember the Nixon Doctrine
While the Balkan factions may be immersed in their struggle, and Europeans may feel threatened by it, for Americans it represents only one of many conflicts, real and potential, whose seriousness must be weighed, against one another, before allowing a commitment of lives, resources and national energy.
Those who aspire to the Presidency in I996 should use the coming debate to articulate a world view that would demonstrate to the world, as well as to Americans, an understanding of the uses and limitations - in a sense the human budgeting of our military assets.
Richard Nixon was the last President to clearly define how and when the United States would commit forces overseas, in 1969, he declared that our military policy should follow three basic tenets:
www.jameswebb.com /articles/nytimes/nixondoctrine.htm   (1319 words)

 The Nixon Doctrine   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
President Richard Nixon shakes the hand of PRC leader Mao Zedong during Nixon's famous China trip, 1972.
The release and transcription of Nixon tapes from 1971-1973, scheduled for the next decade, will no doubt alter the picture once again of this most unusual President.
The reading for today is all documents: we'll be going through two sessions between Nixon and Zhou En-lai during Nixon's China trip; then we'll look at another side of Nixon: his administration's involvement in the coup that toppled the democratically elected president of Chile, Salvador Allende.
academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu /history/johnson/417nixon.htm   (110 words)

 The American Enterprise: A Foreign Policy Needs a Domestic Policy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
In the context of the domestic political situation faced by Nixon and Kissinger, I didn’t question the need for such a public relations “doctrine,” at least in the short-term.
The contributors agree that the Bush Doctrine is about preempting potentially disastrous threats through force and preventing future ones by building more benign democratic states.
Notwithstanding the caricature of the Bush Doctrine, portrayed by its critics as a menacing unilateralism serving a crusade to impose democracy by force, Bush has correctly understood that the dictatorships and autocracies of the Middle East are the soil in which lethal extremism and the passion for holy war have taken root and spread.
www.taemag.com /issues/articleID.18822/article_detail.asp   (1558 words)

 The Nixon Doctrine. - By David Cole - Slate Magazine
This claim of uncheckable or "exclusive" constitutional authority amounts to nothing less than a modified version of President Nixon's infamous 1977 assertion that "when the president does it, that means that it is not illegal." President Bush has revived that discredited doctrine, with only a slight modification.
That doctrine holds that the president's power to act is directly affected by actions taken by Congress.
But the notion that Congress cannot protect the privacy of Americans during wartime by requiring the president to obtain a warrant before spying on Americans is entirely unprecedented—unless, that is, you consider the bare assertions of Richard Nixon a precedent.
www.slate.com /id/2136057   (1542 words)

 Moïse's Bibliography: U.S. Policy: Nixon & Ford Administrations
Henry Kissinger to President Nixon, "Meeting in Paris with North Vietnamese," 6 August 1969, with Memorandum of Conversation, 4 August 1969, attached.
Haig, a young Army officer, was in the Pentagon 1962-65, served in Vietnam with the 1st Infantry Division 1966-67, then became one of the crucial shapers of US military and diplomatic policy serving under Henry Kissinger in the White House 1969-73.
A vital source; Haldeman was Nixon's chief of staff in the White House.
www.clemson.edu /caah/history/facultypages/EdMoise/nixon.html   (2105 words)

 Channeling Nixon
Both Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and Vice President Dick Cheney are veterans of the Nixon White House, and it is tragic that they betrayed Nixon's sensible pursuit of detente with one's enemies, instead converting to the permanent stance of confrontation favored by the neoconservative cabal.
Yes, Nixon, the politician most responsible, in his early career, for stoking US hysteria about the menace of "Red China," but who later sharply reversed course as a President, traveling to Beijing to drink mai tais with the dreaded Mao Zedong.
That was the essence of the Nixon Doctrine.
www.thenation.com /doc/20060717/scheer0711   (1145 words)

 NSA Spying Myths
Nixon's approval of it was listed in the articles of impeachment.
Nixon learned the hard way that Presidents are not above the law.
This assertion of uncheckable executive power is just one of five myths the Administration has propagated in a PR blitz designed to convince the public of a transparently unconvincing argument.
www.thenation.com /doc/20060220/cole   (1276 words)

 Nixon & Vietnamization
Nixon's Pacific trip in July - met with Thieu, Marcos - "Nixon Doctrine" promised U.S. would honor treaties and extend nuclear shield to allies, but no U.S. troops - "Vietnamization" of ARVN with modern weapons
Nixon ultimatum to NV Dec. 14 to resume negotiations or "suffer the consequences"
Nixon and Detente - Nixon Era 1968-1974 - Nixon and Mideast
history.sandiego.edu /gen/20th/RN/page002.html   (1211 words)

 TIME.com: The Nixon Doctrine's Test in Indochina -- Apr. 13, 1970 -- Page 1   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The Nixon Administration now faces a period of high temperature and uncertain remedy.
Since the overthrow of Prince Norodom Sihanouk three weeks ago, the capital of Phnom-Penh has lived in fear that 40,000 North Vietnamese and Viet Cong troops in Cambodia might exploit confusion in the countryside to march on the capital and upset Premier General Lon Nol's government.
But to comply would violate the Nixon Doctrine, enunciated by the President on Guam last July, that the U.S. from then on would avoid military commitments that might lead to ground-combat interventions similar to Viet Nam.
www.time.com /time/magazine/article/0,9171,904265,00.html   (793 words)

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