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Topic: Nociceptor


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  Nociceptor
A nociceptor is a sensory receptor that sends signals that cause the perception of pain in response to potentially damaging stimulus.
Nociceptors are the nerve endings responsible for nociception, one of the two types of persistent pain (the other, neuropathic pain, occurs when nerves in the central or peripheral nervous system are damaged)..
Pain —; Pain's an unpleasant sensation which may be associated with actual or potential tissue damage and which may have physical and emotional components.
www.sciencedaily.com /articles/n/nociceptor.htm   (598 words)

  
 nociceptor - Search Results - MSN Encarta
A nociceptor is a sensory receptor that sends signals that cause the perception of pain in response to potentially damaging stimulus.
Nociceptors are the nerve endings responsible for nociception, one...
In medicine, the pupillary reflex or pupillary light reflex, is the reduction of pupil size in...
encarta.msn.com /nociceptor.html   (126 words)

  
 Society for Neuroscience | Nociceptors and Pain
Scientists are also beginning to understand the chemicals that affect transmission and regulation of nociceptor signals in the brain and spinal cord.
When special thin nerve fibers called nociceptors in the skin, muscle, and other body tissues are stimulated, they carry messages to the spinal cord and the brain, where pain signals are processed.
Nociceptors normally respond only to strong stimuli, but injured or inflamed tissues can produce chemicals that sensitize them and cause them to transmit pain signals in response to even gentle stimuli.
www.sfn.org /index.cfm?pagename=brainBriefings_nociceptorsAndPain&print=on   (616 words)

  
  Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Nociceptor
Nociceptors are the nerve endings responsible for nociception, one of the two types of persistent pain (the other, neuropathic pain, occurs when nerves in the central or peripheral nervous system are damaged).
Nociceptors are sensory neurons that are found in external tissues such as skin, cornea and mucosa as well as in internal organs, such as the muscle, joint, bladder and gut.
Together these nociceptors allow the organism to feel pain in response to damaging pressure, excessive heat, excessive cold and a range of chemicals, the majority of which are damaging to the tissue surrounding the nociceptor.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Nociceptor   (484 words)

  
 Nociceptor - Psychology Wiki
Nociceptors are sensory neurons that are found in external tissues such as skin, cornea and mucosa as well as in internal organs, such as the muscle, joint, bladder and gut.
Silent nociceptors do not usually fire action potentials, though they are much more likely to do so in the presence of inflammation or damaging chemicals (Kandel et al, 2000).
Together these nociceptors allow the organism to feel pain in response to damaging pressure, excessive heat, excessive cold and a range of chemicals, the majority of which are damaging to the tissue surrounding the nociceptor.
psychology.wikia.com /wiki/Nociceptor   (573 words)

  
 Nociceptor - TheBestLinks.com - Nervous system, Pain, Dendrites, Neurons, ...
A nociceptor is a sensory receptor that responds to pain.
Cutaneous mechanoreceptors with small, accurate receptor fields are found in areas needing accurate tactition (ie.
Mechanorecptors with large, unaccurate receptor fields are found in areas needing less precice taction (ie.
www.thebestlinks.com /Nociceptor.html   (119 words)

  
 Mechanisms
The second type of nociceptor, the Mechanoceptor, responds to mechanical stimuli that causes physical distortion in the skin, especially from sharp objects (Davies 2001).
The nociceptors associated with Aδ and C fibers, have the property of sensitization.
The cell bodies of the nociceptors are located in the dorsal root ganglion, and the primary afferent nociceptors end in the dorsal horn of the spinal chord (Fields 1987).
academic.uofs.edu /student/zanisc2/Mechanisms.html   (1615 words)

  
 Pain management
Nociceptors are distributed throughout the body and respond to different stimuli depending on their location.
For example, nociceptors that extend from the skin are stimulated by sensations such as pressure, temperature, and chemical changes.
The nociceptor transmits its signal to nerve cells within the spinal cord, which conveys the pain message to the thalamus, a specific region in the brain.
www.lifesteps.com /gm/Atoz/ency/pain_management.jsp   (2547 words)

  
 AMMA information article
Nociceptors are one of the two standard categories of biological sensors.
Nociceptors are stimulated by acute injuries (articular nociceptors) that involve the release of chemical “irritants” like bradykinin.
Nociceptors, as was previously mentioned inhibit mechanoreceptors and the converse is true as well, mechanoreceptors inhibit nociceptor activity.
www.americanmanualmedicine.com /education/a43z2.html   (7117 words)

  
 Nociception and Subluxation | David R. Seaman, DC, MS, DABCN
Clearly it is nociceptor irritation that causes pain, muscle spasm and vasoconstriction.
Nociceptors are located in nearly all spinal tissues except for the nucleus pulposus, the inner two-thirds of the annulus, and the articular cartilage of zygapohyseal joints.
Nociceptors are specialized sensory receptors that are designed to receive tissue damaging stimuli, i.e., trauma and the subsequent release of chemical mediators of inflammation.
www.chiroweb.com /archives/print_friendly.php?volume=12&issue=20&issue_date=September%2023%2C%201994&pr_file_name=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.chiroweb.com%2Farchives%2F12%2F20%2F11.html   (938 words)

  
 Pain Information on Healthline
Nociceptors are classified according to the stimulus that prompts them to transmit a pain signal.
Thermoreceptive nociceptors are stimulated by temperatures that are potentially tissue damaging.
Polymodal nociceptors also respond to chemicals released by the cells in the area from which the pain originates.
www.healthline.com /galecontent/pain-1   (827 words)

  
 Molecular Pain | Full text | Mechanically-evoked C-fiber activity in painful alcohol and AIDS therapy neuropathy in the ...
Alterations in primary afferent nociceptor function associated with enhanced pain are thought to be due to a decrease in threshold for nociceptor activation and an increase in number of action potentials fired.
While it is generally accepted that enhanced activity in primary afferent nociceptors plays an important role in the pain experienced by patients with peripheral neuropathy [6-10], changes in activity in primary afferent nociceptors have received little attention, including direct comparisons between changes in primary afferent nociceptor function in different forms of painful peripheral neuropathy.
This may be relevant to the function of nociceptors as afferent activity-dependent plasticity in spinal nociceptive pathways is thought to be a crucial feature of pain signaling [47], and may contribute to the progressive increase in pain during a prolonged stimulus, even while adaptation decreases the mean firing frequency of nociceptive nerve fibers [48].
www.molecularpain.com /content/3/1/5   (4693 words)

  
 Dysafferentation: A Novel Term
He described interstitial nociceptors as "a continuous tri-dimensional plexus of unmyelinated nerve fibers that weaves (like chicken-wire) in all directions throughout the tissue." A similar plexus of unmyelinated nerve fibers is -embedded in the adventitial sheath and encircles each blood vessel.
Nociceptors are classified as mechanical nociceptors, mechanothermal nociceptors and polymodal nociceptors, depending on the type of energy used to activate them in the nociceptive range.
Polymodal nociceptors are activated by noxious mechanical and thermal stimulation, as well as by chemical mediators released from the injured tissues (42).
www.chiro.org /ChiroZine/ABSTRACTS/Seaman_dysafferentiation.shtml   (10541 words)

  
 Getting to the Cause of Headache
The ends of these pain-sensitive nerves, called nociceptors, can be stimulated by stress, muscular tension, dilated blood vessels, and other triggers of headache.
Once stimulated, a nociceptor sends a message up the length of the nerve fiber to the nerve cells in the brain, signaling that a part of the body hurts.
A person who suddenly realizes "My toe hurts," is responding to nociceptors in the foot that have been stimulated by the stubbing of a toe.
healthlink.mcw.edu /article/923772797.html   (911 words)

  
 CSA Online CME Program - Module 4
Transducer receptor/ion channel complexes on peripheral nociceptor terminals respond to noxious stimuli from mechanical, chemical, or heat sources by generating depolarizing currents.
A-delta and C nociceptors are high threshold afferents in that they require a high intensity stimulus for activation.
It is the result of lowered pain thresholds to both thermal and mechanical stimuli and involves sensitization of the peripheral nociceptor as well as sensitization of the central nervous system.
www.csahq.org /xtpl.php?tpl=internal.xtpl§ion=cme&name=cme_page&idx=22   (2756 words)

  
 Tetrodotoxin-resistant impulses in single nociceptor nerve terminals in guinea-pig cornea -- Brock et al. 512 (1): 211 ...
Nociceptor neurones are sensory neurones that are activated by tissue damage and potentially noxious thermal stimuli.
The mechanisms by which tissue damage initiates action potentials in nociceptor terminals are largely a matter of speculation because of the small size of the terminals (<0ยท5 µm diameter) and their indeterminate location in intact tissues like skin.
For example, polymodal nociceptors similar to those in the cornea are found in joints, skeletal muscle and bladder mucosa (Kumazawa, 1996).
jp.physoc.org /cgi/content/full/512/1/211   (4592 words)

  
 Compounds which can block the response to chemical substances or thermal stimuli or mediators of inflammation of ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Nociceptor neurons transmit the information about the tissue damage to the centers processing the pain sensation in the spinal cord and the brain.
For example, it has been described that ion channels present on the nociceptor surface such as vanilloid receptor I, sodium channels, ionotropic glutamate receptors and purinergic receptors are actively modulated by pro-algesic agents.
Accordingly, a strategy to reduce peripheral pain transmission and sensation is to act by reducing the pro-algesic sensitization of the nociceptors by means of developing chemical compounds which specifically interact on excitatory mechanisms and/or molecules and increase the response thresholds of the nociceptors.
www.freshpatents.com /Compounds-which-can-block-the-response-to-chemical-substances-or-thermal-stimuli-or-mediators-of-inflammation-of-nociceptors-production-method-thereof-and-compositions-containing-same-dt20050616ptan20050130907.php?type=description   (6482 words)

  
 Faculty & Researcher Profiles - Stanford University Medical Center
Some of this work is done in rodents, wherein we perform both single unit nociceptor recordings, as well as recordings from nociceptive neurons in the spinal cord.
We are also using a combination of cortical evoked potential responses to laser pulsed pain stimuli as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brain of volunteers (and eventually patients) to determine the cortical representation of these A-delta and C fiber mediated pain.
For example, we have developed a recombinant vector which, when placed on or in tissue of rodents or monkeys, is picked up by the nociceptors innervating that tissue and transported along the peripheral nerve back to the cell bodies of these nerve fibers.
med.stanford.edu /profiles/frdActionServlet?choiceId=showFacRI&fid=3855   (610 words)

  
 Can we conquer pain? - Nature Neuroscience
Nociceptor function is substantially modified in response to tissue damage, inflammation or injury of the nervous system.
As a result, the threshold of activation of transducer receptors such as TRPV1 is reduced, and the excitability of the peripheral terminal membrane increases, producing a state of heightened sensitivity, termed 'peripheral sensitization'.
(c) After injury to nociceptor neurons, increases in transcription or altered trafficking of sodium channels as well as a reduction in potassium channels increases membrane excitability sufficiently so that action potentials are generated spontaneously (ectopic activity).
www.nature.com /cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/neuro/journal/v5/n11s/full/nn942.html   (3208 words)

  
 Dorlands Medical Dictionary
Most nociceptors are in either the skin (cutaneous n's) or the walls of viscera (visceral n's).
cutaneous n.’s nociceptors in the skin, responding to stimuli such as heat, chemicals, and mechanical displacement; the two most common kinds are polymodal nociceptors and mechanical nociceptors.
a nociceptor of unmyelinated nerve fibers, activated by several different types of stimuli such as heat, mechanical pressure, or chemical mediators of inflammation as a result of tissue injury.
www.mercksource.com /pp/us/cns/cns_hl_dorlands.jspzQzpgzEzzSzppdocszSzuszSzcommonzSzdorlandszSzdorlandzSzdmd_n_09zPzhtm   (3679 words)

  
 Ouch! The receptors mediating acidic pain sensation
These pain sensors — or nociceptors — often lie beneath the skin and detect and signal the presence of tissue-damaging stimuli or the existence of tissue damage.
One particular nociceptor, vanilloid receptor-1 (VR1), relays sensory messages to the brain in response to thermal and painful chemical stimuli and is generally regarded as the major pain sensor.
To determine which particular nociceptor was activated at each pH level, the authors systematically blocked ASICs-mediated pain perception with the ASICs inhibitor amiloride or VR1-mediated pain perception with the VR1-inhibitor capsazepine and then recorded the intensity of pain indicated by the subject in response to the solutions of various pH.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2002-10/joci-otr101402.php   (399 words)

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