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Topic: Nominalism

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  Nominalism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In philosophy, nominalism is the theory that abstract terms, general terms, or universals do not represent objective real existents, but are merely names, words, or vocal utterances (flatus vocis).
Nominalism arose in reaction to the problem of universals.
Another form of nominalist is one that attempts to build a theory of resemblance nominalism on a theory of tropes.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Nominalism   (1089 words)

 Nominalism, Realism, Conceptualism
Nominalism, on the contrary, models the concept on the external object, which it holds to be individual and particular.
Nominalism consequently denies the existence of abstract and universal concepts, and refuses to admit that the intellect has the power of engendering them.
Nominalism, which is irreconcilable with a spiritualistic philosophy and for that very reason with scholasticism as well, presupposes the ideological theory that the abstract concept does not differ essentially from sensation, of which it is only a transformation.
catholicity.com /encyclopedia/c/conceptualism,nominalism,realism.html   (3007 words)

 AllRefer.com - nominalism (Philosophy, Terms And Concepts) - Encyclopedia
Nominalism gained its name in the Middle Ages, when it was contrasted with realism.
Nominalism says that it does not, that it is just a name for a group of particular objects.
Nominalism is appropriate to materialist and empirical philosophy and hence has been popular in modern thought.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/N/nominali.html   (209 words)

 Untitled Document
Nominalism is growing in all families of the Christian faith, including Christian and Missionary Alliance churches.
Nominalism occurs when people identify themselves with a cause without clear understanding of it or serious commitment to it.
As a cause of nominalism, legalism is essentially an attempt to regulate social and religious conduct by setting up objective standards to be obeyed by everybody.
www.allianceworldfellowship.org /study_materials/nominalism.htm   (2102 words)

Nominalism is the designation usually applied to any philosophical system, ancient or modern, that denies all objectivity, whether actual or potential, to universals; in other words, nominalists grant no universality to mental concepts outside the mind.
Nominalism evolved from the thesis of Aristotle that all reality consists of individual things; the extreme theory of realism was first enunciated by Plato in his doctrine of universal archetypal ideas.
Nominalism is the theory of knowledge that maintains that "universals" (general concepts representing the common elements belonging to individuals of the same genus or species) are empty concepts that have no reality independent of their existence in the thought of an individual.
mb-soft.com /believe/txn/nominali.htm   (968 words)

 Read Me: Armstrong on Nominalism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
It states that for a token to have a specific type is merely to apply a predicate, a linguistic entity, to the token.
Concept nominalism, the view that for a thing to be have a property is merely for it to have a concept in people's minds apply to it, is also easily dismissed.
Class nominalism not surprisingly is the view that for a particular to have a property is for a particular to fall under a specific class.
readmejhb.blogspot.com /2006/03/armstrong-on-nominalism_29.html   (1150 words)

 Wikinfo | Nominalism
One way to be a nominalist without being an "ostrich nominalist" like the predicate nominalists ("ostrich" because they seem to simply stick their heads in the sand and pretend there isn't a problem--the phrase is D.
Armstrong's) is to build a theory of resemblance nominalism on a theory of tropes.
Images, some of which are used under the doctrine of Fair use or used with permission, may not be available.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Nominalism   (835 words)

 The History of Christian Thought
The immediate importance of nominalism was that it disrupted the universals, which were not only understood in terms of abstract concepts but which were also understood in terms of embracing groups — for instance, family, state, a group of friends, of craftsmen — where it is always the group which precedes the individual.
Therefore nominalism was an important reaction, so important that I would say that without the nominalistic reaction the estimation of the personality in the modern world, (this real basis of democracy), couldn't have developed.
So when you hear about nominalism and realism, and read about it in textbooks of logic, don't be betrayed into the belief that this is in itself a basically logical problem.
www.religion-online.org /showchapter.asp?title=2310&C=2326   (3419 words)

 Jonathan's Corner: The Watch
Nominalism is one of innumerable ideas that has survived, just as the custom of using pots and pans has survived.
Modernism and postmodernism are both nominalism writ large; nominalism is a seed, whose flower is modernism, and whose fruit is postmodernism.
But in fact nominalism has been seeping into our consciousness for centuries, so that we might not find the claim that nature is beautiful to be a mistake, but we see with nominalist eyes and hear with nominalist ears.
jonathanscorner.com /writings/watch/watch2.html   (1359 words)

 Cathy Legg -- Predication and the Problem of Realism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Nominalism is defined as the doctrine that everything there is is a particular and nothing but a particular.
According to Predicate Nominalism, an object's possession of (say) the property, being white, is completely determined by the fact that the predicate 'white' applies to this object.
By contrast the problem of realism and nominalism as Peirce conceives it arises precisely in situations where a decision needs to be made about whether to extend a given general predicate to a new particular or set of particulars.
members.door.net /arisbe/menu/library/aboutcsp/legg/realism.htm   (7772 words)

 The Summulae of John Buridan
In any case, whichever nominal form we use, the semantic function assigned to it by Buridan is clear: as a common term, it primarily has the function of referring materially to individual tokens of the corresponding proposition.
Instead, he argues that when these sentential nominalizations do not stand materially for the corresponding sentence-tokens, but are taken significatively, then they stand for those individuals of which their categorematic terms are jointly true, if they are true of anything; otherwise they just stand for nothing.
In that case they either appellate the ultimate significata of their nominative forms (i.e., the entities which would be their personal supposita of their nominative form if they were the subject or predicate of a proposition), or the immediate significata of their nominative forms, i.e., the concepts to which their nominative forms are subordinated.
www.fordham.edu /gsas/phil/klima/Intro.htm   (10163 words)

 NOMINALISM term papers, research papers on NOMINALISM, essays on NOMINALISM, Term Papers 2000, Term papers, 060707
This paper breaks down the process of judicial nominations in the senate, analyzes the system, relates it to current affairs and draws the conclusion that filibustering judicial nominations is an important right of the senate.
Owen's nomination, along with the nomination of a host of right-wing activist judges by the Bush Administration is causing a ruckus among Democrats, Greens and many special interest groups.
A sort of conventional nominalism chalks these rules up to "practice," while a stipulative nominalism would determine that the rules are handed down by an unknown source.
www.termpapers2000.com /lib/essay?A=type1&KEYW=Nominalism   (3278 words)

 Jody Azzouni - Deflating Existential Consequence: A Case for Nominalism - Reviewed by Joseph Melia, University of Leeds ...
Mathematics presents the nominalist with his biggest problem for, in its standard formulation, its truth seems to entail the existence of a large infinity of objects that cannot be fitted into the concrete world.
His conclusions go beyond strict nominalism: it is not only abstract objects that should be rejected from our ontology but, because of the role they turn out to play in our scientific theories, forces and space-time must also be rejected.
Despite these criticisms, such worries do not detract from the fact that this is an exciting and provocative book defending an original combination of views which deserves to stimulate discussion in foundational ontological issues and in the philosophy of mathematics.
ndpr.nd.edu /review.cfm?id=3621   (2090 words)

 [No title]
Different versions of nominalism are considered and criticized, together with the view that properties and relations are particulars, not universals.
The purpose of this article is to show the solution of nominalism to the problem of universals, the indefensibility of its theory, and the incompatibility of universals with individuals of basic particulars.
In Part I, I argue that ostrich nominalism is the most satisfactory position of these four, and that the realist view favored by Armstrong and many others is prone to the same fundamental difficulty as the other two varieties of nominalism.
fas-philosophy.rutgers.edu /sider/teaching/abstract_entities_bib.htm   (11757 words)

 Can the Nominalist Explain Metaphor?
In his recent paper, "Nominalism and Transference: Meditations on Goodman's Theory of Metaphor", Jonathan Cohen concludes that Goodman's metaphysical commitment to nominalism prevents him from giving a plausible account of metaphor.
Unfortunately, that conception of nominalism suffers from two drawbacks: it is incompatible with Goodman's conventionalism and it does not cogently explain how words get their meanings.
The second he calls 'conventional nominalism' according to which rules of association are determined by the practices of language users.
csmaclab-www.uchicago.edu /philosophyProject/goodman/metaphor.html   (2029 words)

 Nominalism and Transference
In section 3, I shall analyze the relationship between nominalism and transference, and conclude that the conventionalist reading of Goodman's nominalism is incompatible with his theory of transference.
It is this nominalism which lies at the heart of Goodman's explanation of metaphor as transference.
In the last section we saw how Goodman's nominalism is driven by the dual forces of convention and stipulation.
csmaclab-www.uchicago.edu /philosophyProject/goodman/nominalism.html   (3883 words)

 DarwinCatholic: Where Religion, Philosophy and Demographics Meet: Evolution, Speciation and Nominalism
And with time, comes difficulty in confirming if it really is speciation anyway, which is where nominalism comes into the equation.
Philosophically speaking, nominalism is a very problematic rabbit hole indeed.
Nominalism, in its purest form, leads to complete relativism, and as such orthodox Catholics avoid it like the plague.
darwincatholic.blogspot.com /2005/10/evolution-speciation-and-nominalism.html   (1427 words)

 Logic, Ontology, and Ockham's Christology
The two-name theory is theologically odious precisely because it engenders nominalism.
At this point Ockham's nominalism appears to have put him at a distinct disadvantage, since it keeps him from appealing to common natures when he sets out to formulate a definition of 'man' that is univocally applicable to Christ and other human beings.
It follows that the disjunctive formula under discussion is the nominal definition of the term 'man' only if it is impossible that someone should grasp both of them without believing them to apply to all and only the same things.
www.nd.edu /~afreddos/papers/looc.htm   (11332 words)

 MSpace at the University of Manitoba: Item 1993/173
According to natural class trope nominalism, properties are natural classes of tropes, where the "naturalness" of natural classes is taken to be primitive and unanalyzable.
In this thesis I defend natural class trope nominalism from two objections: i) that the naturalness of natural classes is analyzable, and ii) that natural class trope nominalism cannot account for certain modal facts (namely, that there could have been more or fewer tropes of any given type), an objection raised by Nicolas Wolterstorff.
I defend natural class trope nominalism from (i) indirectly by presenting several putative analyses (namely, those of D. Armstrong, Keith Campbell, and Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereya) of natural classes and arguing that they are all deficient, thereby undermining the claim that natural classes are analyzable.
hdl.handle.net /1993/173   (249 words)

 Nominalism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Nominalism is a philosophical position that regards the world as consisting of single things and knowledge and concepts as knowledge about single objects.
"It was the way in which nominalism obscures the importance of the interactions between organic beings, more than the issue of whether the uses of words (regarded as instruments) reveal universal characters in things, which formed the basis of Dewey's criticism of nominalism.
Nominalism invites us to consider the context in which humans use language in abstraction from all social interaction, to regard a linguistic act or its vehicle purely as a particular existence" (Tiles, 1990, p.
www.db.dk /jni/lifeboat/Positions/Nominalism.htm   (200 words)

 Encyclopedia Barfieldiana: Nominalism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Nominalism is a philosophical position which argues that abstract or general terms--"universals"--"are not real entities either in the world or in the mind, but names which refer to groups or classes of individual things" (DPR).
Thus nominalism represents but the latest, penultimate phase in a centuries long process:
Just as he made Mohammedanism out of the Jewish sacred traditions, he made Nominalism out of Greek philosophy.
www.owenbarfield.com /Encyclopedia_Barfieldiana/Ideas_Concepts/Nominalism.html   (301 words)

 Nominalism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Deflating Existential Consequence: A Case for Nominalism by Jody Azzouni (Oxford University Press) If we must take mathematical statements to be true, must we also believe in the existence of abstracter--eternal invisible mathematical objects accessible only by the power of pure thought?
Jody Azzouni says no, and he claims that the way to escape such commitments is to accept (as an essential part of scientific doctrine) true statements which are "about" objects that don't exist in any sense at all.
By contrast, my nominalism steals the best from both sides in this debate: I take true mathematical statements as literally true; I forgo at-tempts to show that such literally true mathematical statements are not indispensable to empirical science, and yet, nonetheless, I can describe mathematical terms as referring to nothing at all.
www.wordtrade.com /philosophy/nominalism.htm   (2652 words)

 Nominalism and Transference
In opposition to the claims of similarity theorists of metaphor, Goodman emphasizes that the propriety of a metaphorical application of a predicate does not depend on the literal application of the predicate.
Because there is no essence connecting a predicate to its extension, there is no possible theoretical reason to oppose either the separation of the label from its native realm or the reapplication of the label to objects of a foreign realm.
The result of this nominalism is a permanent inability to say what it is that (a) means.
csmaclab-www.cs.uchicago.edu /philosophyProject/goodman/nominalism.html   (3883 words)

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