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Topic: Nonalignment

  non-aligned movement
During the Cold War, members of the non-aligned movement were often the targets of US imperialism and Soviet imperialism, as both the USA and Soviet Union tried to attract non-aligned countries into their respective camps.
The non-aligned movement was not a strongly unified group like the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) or the Warsaw Pact, and its members were weaker economically and militarily than the superpower blocs.
Membership of the non-aligned movement grew from 25 states in 1961 to 113 members and 17 observer states in 2000.
www.tiscali.co.uk /reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0005012.html   (645 words)

  Cold War (1962-1991) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The diplomatic policy of nonalignment regarded the Cold War as a tragic and frustrating facet of international affairs, obstructing the overriding task of consolidating fledgling regimes and their all-out attack of economic backwardness, poverty, and disease.
Nonalignment held that peaceful coexistence with the great powers was both preferable and possible.
The next year the nonaligned bloc in the United Nations passed a resolution demanding the creation of a new international economic order in which resources, trade, and markets would be distributed fairly.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cold_War_(1962-1991)   (4762 words)

 A/43/341-S/18065 of 28 May 1986
Nonalignment involves the rejection of all forms of subjugation, dependence, interference or intervention, direct or indirect, overt or covert, and all pressures - political, diplomatic, economic, military and cultural - in international relations.
The Ministers reiterated the nonaligned countries' commitment to respect scrupulously the principles and objectives of nonalignment and expressed their determination to make every effort further to strengthen the Non-Aligned Movement's capacity for action and to develop concrete modalities to enhance the influence and impact of its decisions on world affairs.
The policy and the movement of nonalignment have exerted a significant influence in the evolution of international political and economic relations as a whole, thus expressing the need of the contemporary world for peace, freedom, independence, equality, development and prosperity for all.
domino.un.org /UNISPAL.NSF/0080ef30efce525585256c38006eacae/94ec6fa240bca03b852568b100754635!OpenDocument   (4169 words)

 India & Disarmament
It was natural for these nonaligned countries to come together, not to form another bloc but to raise the voices of the exploited millions through a moral and political movement.
Nonalignment is not vague, not negative, not neutral.
The limited economic viability, indeed the very survival of many of the nonaligned, especially those with small populations, is threatened through artificial barriers In trade, technology transfer and access to resources.
www.indianembassy.org /policy/Disarmament/disarm13.htm   (1059 words)

 Peace Begins at Home - John W. Burton
Returning to nonalignment and our false hypotheses, my colleagues in London and I eventually turned more and more to the fundamental problems underlying conflicts between persons and groups, meaning by this the nature of legitimised authorities and systems, and the institutions governing relationships.
The Greens, however, have not discovered a human needs philosophy that would take them out of their narrow focus, out of adversarial politics, and into a non-ideological problem solving approach to the conditions that destroy the environment, and also the quality of life and the development of peoples.
This was the mistake the nonalignment movement made: the focus was too narrow and goal oriented, without getting at the ultimate causes of their problems.
www.gmu.edu /academic/ijps/vol6_1/Burton.htm   (3281 words)

 The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - Opinions
The summit is of the nonaligned and not an anti-US one.
India was not happy about nonalignment having one of the two super powers as a natural ally and regarded the declaration as contrary to the spirit of nonalignment.
Nonalignment was a strategy in a bipolar world and it ceased to be functional when the bipolar system collapsed.
www.tribuneindia.com /2006/20060905/edit.htm   (5131 words)

 Foreign relations of Sweden - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sweden cooperates closely with its Nordic neighbors, formally in economic and social matters through the Nordic Council of Ministers and informally in political matters through direct consultation.
Swedish governments have not defined nonalignment as precluding outspoken positions in international affairs.
During the Cold War, Sweden was suspicious of the superpowers, which it saw as making decisions affecting small countries without always consulting those countries.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Foreign_relations_of_Sweden   (621 words)

 Friends Of India.net   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Nonalignment does not mean neutrality, it means a principled approach to international issues.
The relevance of nonalignment has not diminished in the post USSR era, but the movement has had to redefine its perspective in the context of increasing polarity between the affluent, developed nations of the North, and the economically developing nations of the South.
The main thrust of the movement now is to assert the independence of the South against the hegemony of the North, and to resist the interventionist political pressures of aid conditionalities.
www.friendsofindia.net /today.shtml   (415 words)

 The West Was Hostile to the Concept of Nonalignment
The first summit conference of the Non-Aligned Movement, the cluster of nations that attempted to form a Third World force through a policy of nonalignment with the United States and Soviet Union, was held in Bandung, Indonesia in 1955 and attended by 29 mainly developing nations from Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
Bandung conference’s objective was the creation of a movement with a common approach toward world affairs that distances itself from the polarizing policies of the two superpowers and that works for the establishment of a world order where the principles of independence, peace, justice and equality prevail.
The Bandung principles served as the intellectual foundation of the nonaligned movement officially launched in the 1961 Belgrade summit.
www.arabnews.com /?page=7§ion=0&article=62916&d=29&m=4&y=2005   (791 words)

 NewsRoom Finland
Chairman of the influental Foreign Affairs Committee of the Finnish Parliament, MP Liisa Jaakonsaari (soc dem)stirred a wasps' nest Sunday when she said nonalignment is devoid of any meaning, as far as Finland is concerned.
She added that she would be ready to bin the cherished concept of nonalignment from the formal definition of Finland's foreign and security policy, since Finland is already allied into the European Unions Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP).
Nonalignment coupled with an independent and credible regional defence system have been the kernel of post-war Finnish foreign and security policy.
newsroom.finland.fi /stt/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=4038&group=Politics   (552 words)

 The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - Opinions
Nonalignment implied the maximisation of India’s diplomatic options in a world dominated by two super powers at the time of India’s independence in 1947.
Nonalignment was conceived by Nehru as an assertion of India’s sovereignty — “sovereignty is above all sovereignty in foreign policy”.
Nonalignment, therefore, lost the connotations it had, as a force between, or as an alternative to, the Western and communist blocs, during the Cold War.
www.tribuneindia.com /2005/20051208/edit.htm   (5251 words)

 Non-Aligned Movement Summary
By the mid-1950s, however, many of the nonaligned were newly independent countries of Asia or Africa, numerous enough that they became known as the Third World.
Yet President Dwight D. Eisenhower understood that nonalignment was a way for some countries to preserve their independence in international affairs rather than a choice between "right and wrong." Eisenhower and other Cold War presidents engaged in complicated maneuvering with nonaligned nations to gain advantages, even if they could not secure allies.
Nonalignment complicated the Cold War, and American officials counted both successes and failures in dealing with it.
www.bookrags.com /Non-Aligned_Movement   (1493 words)

 AllRefer.com - Yugoslavia - Nonalignment | Yugoslavian or Yugoslav Information Resource
The official nonaligned position of Yugoslavia was declared at the Belgrade Conference of Nonaligned Nations in 1961.
Within the nonaligned group, Yugoslavia leaned strongly toward the Arab nations and supported the Palestine Liberation Organization against Israel--mainly because of Tito's friendship with Nasser and the influence of the large Yugoslav Muslim population.
In the 1980s, the main Yugoslav role in the Nonaligned Movement was using the provisions of the Helsinki Accords of 1975 to lobby for easing the Cold War tensions that flared in Europe, and mediating conflicts between Third World nations such as Iraq and Iran.
reference.allrefer.com /country-guide-study/yugoslavia/yugoslavia162.html   (745 words)

 India - Foreign Relations
In addition, globally India's nonaligned stance was not a viable substitute for the political and economic role it wished to play.
Although the prestige stemmed from India's nonaligned stance, the nation was unable to prevent Cold War politics from becoming intertwined with interstate relations in South Asia.
The hard, pragmatic considerations of the early 1990s were still viewed within the nonaligned framework of the past, but the disintegration of the Soviet Union removed much of India's international leverage, for which relations with Russia and the other post-Soviet states could not compensate.
countrystudies.us /india/122.htm   (2058 words)

 Politics Of Anglo-American Aid To Nonaligned India by Tracy Lee Steele
This time, however, independent India intended that nonalignment and neutrality would inhibit the ability of the great powers to ensnarl the subcontinent in 'a contest of economic and military aid, of alliance building, and of rhetoric and propaganda' even if it was not a shooting war between the United States and the Soviet Union.
In regard to India's policy of nonalignment, they wanted 'less a public change of policy than a change in emotional attitude.'[48] Their goal was not to destroy Indian nonalignment completely.
Nonalignment underscored the Indian preference that the superpowers should have only a minimum presence in South Asia, but this changed after the conflict when India gained the promise that its cities would be defended against a communist attack and American bilateral assistance became India's 'most important source of direct external assistance' until the late 1960s.
www.history.ac.uk /ejournal/art7.html   (9273 words)

 Press Conference by External Affairs Minister Natwar Singh
Nonalignment is not a dogma or a doctrine; nonalignment is a state of mind.
Nonalignment gives you the room to pursue your national interests and protect them in an independent manner, making decisions on its merits and what it’ll do for India.
Nonalignment is, as I said, how you look at the world and how you access it.
www.indianembassy.org /press_release/2005/April/14.htm   (2350 words)

 Jawaharlal Nehru Biography | Encyclopedia of World Biography
Nehru was the architect of nonalignment in foreign policy.
Nehru's nonalignment policy was criticized by many Westerners and some Indians as giving preference to totalitarian countries rather than to democracies.
Some held that nonalignment was a strategy for deterrence and peace, a force for protecting Indian independence and preservation of the international community on ethical grounds.
www.bookrags.com /biography/jawaharlal-nehru   (1394 words)

 South Asian Security in a Changing World
But nonalignment by itself could not protect them from the pull of the superpowers, as the leading states within the nonaligned group came to be regarded as the clients of superpowers.
In the context of superpower rivalries, nonalignment frequently became an instrument and a technique for gaining a moral stature and material gains.
This imposes a new responsibility on the ruling elite of the nonaligned states to provide fresh intellectual justifications, or a modification of the theoretical base of the concept.
www.acdis.uiuc.edu /Research/S&Ps/1991-Wi/S&P_V-2/changing_world.html   (3012 words)

 Cambodia - Nonaligned Foreign Policy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Sihanouk's nonaligned foreign policy, which emerged in the months following the Geneva Conference, cannot be understood without reference to Cambodia's past history of foreign subjugation and its very uncertain prospects for survival as the war between North Vietnam and South Vietnam intensified.
The Chinese, in turn, viewed Cambodia's nonalignment as vital in order to prevent the encirclement of their country by the United States and its allies.
In April 1969, Nixon sent a note to the prince affirming that the United States recognized and respected "the sovereignty, neutrality and territorial integrity of the Kingdom of Cambodia with its present frontiers." Shortly thereafter, in June 1969, full diplomatic relations were restored between Phnom Penh and Washington.
www.country-data.com /cgi-bin/query/r-2089.html   (1658 words)

 Zabeležka razgovora Mejaka s Petehom Danilom dne 23.04.1999 v prostorih Pharosa   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
It follows from the book’s contents that as a rule foreign policy in all new independent countries in Africa south of the Sahara was based on the struggle against apartheid and the remains of colonialism.
Its approach towards nonalignment was shaped in the Gaullist sense of the term whereby France was a natural leader of an independent Europe and the champion of the Third World, which opposes the domination of the two superpowers.
Being a sincere believer in the principles of nonalignment and having naive expectations that Tanzania could influence the international economic order has made Nyerere one of the main initiators of the New International Economic Order and the South-South Trade Union of the Poor.
www.fdv.uni-lj.si /JIRD/backissu/jird/vol3/mejak.htm   (2136 words)

 INDOlink - News & Analysis - Nathu La, China and India Mending Fences
There is a growing impression all over the world that India is moving away from its traditional policy of nonalignment and is leaning towards the west.
The policy of nonalignment is the most suitable policy for a diverse country like India.
India should try very hard to stick to this policy, one that is a very well thought of policy and has worked well for India during the last 50 years.
www.indolink.com /displayArticleS.php?id=071406052517   (716 words)

 Yugoslavia Nonalignment and Yugoslav-Soviet Rapprochement - Flags, Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural ...
Nonalignment became the keystone of Yugoslavia's foreign policy in the 1950s.
While isolated from the Great Powers, Yugoslavia strove to forge strong ties with Third World countries similarly interested in avoiding an alliance with East or West and the hard choice between communism and capitalism.
Tito found common ground with Egypt's president Gamal Abdel Nasser and India's prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and they worked together to organize a movement of Third World nations whose collective statements on international issues would carry greater weight than their individual voices.
workmall.com /wfb2001/yugoslavia/yugoslavia_history_nonalignment_and_yugoslav_soviet_rapprochement.html   (412 words)

 Nigeria the Gowon Regime
The FMG was committed to the principle of nonalignment, a policy initially established in the early years of independence.
The abrogation of the pact was a clear message of nonalignment.
United States ties with South Africa and Portugal caused some friction on the official level, and there was considerable criticism in the Nigerian press.
www.country-studies.com /nigeria/the-gowon-regime.html   (2250 words)

 Why We Go to War - Josip Broz Tito
He was the first Communist leader in power to defy Soviet hegemony, a backer of independent roads to socialism (sometimes referred to as "national communism"), and a promoter of the policy of nonalignment between the two hostile blocs in the Cold War.
Josip Broz was born to a large peasant family in Kumrovec, northwest of Zagreb, the capital of Croatia, of a Croat father and a Slovene mother.
From nonengagement evolved the concept of "active nonalignment"--that is, the promotion of alternatives to bloc politics, as opposed to mere neutrality.
faculty.virginia.edu /setear/courses/howweget/tito.htm   (2147 words)

 HIST 217 Modern South Asia: Nonalignment Speeches
The preservation of peace forms the central aim of India's policy.
It is in the pursuit of this policy that we have chosen the path of nonalignment in any military or like pact of alliance.
Nonalignment does not mean passivity of mind or action, lack of faith or conviction.
www.lclark.edu /~campion/hist217/nonalign.htm   (2805 words)

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