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Topic: Normal

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  Normal distribution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The normal distribution also arises in many areas of statistics: for example, the sampling distribution of the mean is approximately normal, even if the distribution of the population the sample is taken from is not normal.
In that case, the assumption of normality is not justified, and it is the logarithm of the variable of interest that is normally distributed.
Normality is the central assumption of the mathematical theory of errors.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Normal_distribution   (0 words)

 Normal Mapping Encyclopedia Article, Information, History and Biography @ EveryAvenue.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
But where a bump map is usually calculated based on a single-channel (interpreted as grayscale) image, the source for the normals in normal mapping is usually a multichannel image (that is, channels for "red", "green" and "blue" as opposed to just a single color) derived from a set of more detailed versions of the objects.
To calculate the lambertian (diffuse) lighting of a surface, the unit vector from the shading point to the light source is dotted with the unit vector normal to that surface, and the result is the intensity of the light on that surface.
Normal mapping's increasing popularity amongst video-game designers is due to its combination of excellent graphical quality and decreased processing requirements versus other methods of producing similar effects.
www.everyavenue.com /encyclopedia/Normal_mapping   (0 words)

 Normal Development of the Prepuce
The normal growth and development of the prepuce of the human male has been greatly misunderstood both by the medical community and by the public.
This normal developmental narrowness is sometimes improperly diagnosed as phimosis (a fairly rare pathological condition, characterized by hardening of the tip of the foreskin, and a whitish ring of hardened tissue).
This is a normal developmental physiological condition and is not a cause for concern.
www.cirp.org /library/normal   (0 words)

 Normal Distribution
The normal distribution is characterized by two parameters: the mean µ and the standard deviation sigma.
The standard (or canonical) normal distribution is a special member of the normal family that has a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1.
The standard normal distribution is important since the probabilities and quantiles of any normal distribution can be computed from the standard normal distribution—if µ and sigma are known.
www.stat.wvu.edu /SRS/Modules/Normal/normal.html   (0 words)

 PlanetMath: absolutely normal
Borel also proved that almost all real numbers are absolutely normal, in the sense that the numbers that are not absolutely normal form a set with Lebesgue measure zero.
Beyond that, it is extremely hard to prove or disprove normality of a given constant.
For instance, it has been conjectured that all irrational algebraic numbers are absolutely normal since no counterexamples are known; on the other hand, not a single irrational algebraic number has been proven normal in any base.
planetmath.org /encyclopedia/Normal7.html   (0 words)

 Normal - Uncyclopedia
The original source of normalness is widely questioned, as normal is still trying to find his biological parents.
Normal is running in a political election against Micheal Jackson and is hoping to rule the world.
Nobody yet understands Normal's artistically inclined self, yet he is known to be written in normal poetry from normal emo kids.
uncyclopedia.org /wiki/Normal   (0 words)

 Normal Tool
It is called unit normal or the standard normal or the z distribution.
The unit normal is simply a normal distribution which has a mean (mu) = 0, and a standard deviation (sigma) = 1.
The unit normal is the particular form of the normal that is found in z-tables in the back of stat books.
www.utah.edu /stat/bots/game7/Game7.html   (0 words) Normal Distribution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The normal survival function can be computed from the normal cumulative distribution function.
The normal inverse survival function can be computed from the normal percent point function.
The location and scale parameters of the normal distribution can be estimated with the sample mean and sample standard deviation, respectively.
www.itl.nist.gov /div898/handbook/eda/section3/eda3661.htm   (0 words)

 History - Town of Normal, Illinois   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Therefore, although Jesse Fell is referred to as the "founding father" of Normal, he was not involved in the original layout of the town, but he soon became a central figure in the town’s development.
The term "normal" was based on the French teaching schools and was the general name for all schools set up to be teachers’ colleges.
Nancy Mason, one of Normal’s early Methodist pioneer women, donated her home to the Baby Fold, a concept that was established at the same time through the Deaconess Society of the Methodist church.
www.normal.org /AboutNormal/History.htm   (0 words)

 Normal Mapping Tutorial by Ben Cloward - page 1   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Because normal mapping is a bit technical in its approach, I want to explain it in such a way as to allow game artists without a lot of technical background to understand the technique and be able to use it.
Before talking about normal maps specifically, it’s important that I give a general overview of the process of lighting a 3d model so you can have a good foundation for understanding what the normal maps are doing.
N is the direction that the surface is facing (the surface normal) and L is the line that we draw from the surface point to the light source (the light vector).
www.monitorstudios.com /bcloward/tutorials_normal_maps1.html   (0 words)

 Is Pi normal?
The idea of normality, first introduced by E. Borel in 1909, is an attempt to formalize the notion of a real number being random.
The question of Pi's normality only scratches the surface of the deeper question whether the digits of Pi are "random".
That normality is not sufficient follows from the observation that a truly random sequence of digits ought to be normal when only digits in positions corresponding to perfect squares are examined.
pi314.at /math/normal.html   (0 words)

 Normal Map   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Thus, each pixel in a normal map encodes which direction that particular point is facing - the "normal vector" of the surface.
The red channel is used to encode normal vectors in the X direction.
Normal maps don't contain values below 50% in the blue channel since these would be pointing behind the surface.
members.shaw.ca /jimht03/normal.html   (0 words)

 The Abnormal Normals
Normal men have killed perhaps 100,000,000 of their fellow normal men in the last 50 years.
Changing the world is of course a slow process, but by recognising that there is no such thing as a 'normal' then we can freely say what it is that we do want, and not just internalise our feelings in fear of being thought 'deviant'.
The craving to be normal is a craving to be average, to be a nonentity.
www.calresco.org /lucas/normal.htm   (0 words)

 SurfStat.australia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
A common function is the normal curve (bell-shaped curve).
The normal distribution has about 68% of the observations lying within one standard deviation of the mean, 95% within two standard deviations and 99.7% within 3 standard deviations.
The standard normal distribution has a mean of 0 and a variance of 1 and is shown below.
www.anu.edu.au /nceph/surfstat/surfstat-home/1-3-1.html   (0 words)

Hence, none of them is unique, so none of them are "normal." On the other hand, consider the group of all 4 of the 180 degree rotations of the cube around one of the 3 axes passing through the centers of opposing faces.
Normal subgroups of the above groups: 1) The group of all rotational symmetries of the tetrahedron such that each edge get mapped either onto itself or onto the opposing edge (This group of 4 rotations is isomorphic to Z/2 x Z/2 and is a normal subgroup of group 1 above.
N is a normal subgroup iff For every element n of N, there is no element in G which both lies outside of N and which "looks exactly like n does" if you view the polytope from the appropriate angle.
math.ucr.edu /home/baez/normal.html   (0 words)

 Normal curve
A Normal distribution with a mean of zero and a standard deviation of 1 is also known as the Standard Normal Distribution.
Comparing two normal curves, where the one on the right is done by the Plot Manager software, the uneven allocation of the data points becomes quite evident.
Exactly as in the case of the standard normal distribution, the numbers on the x-axis represent the standard deviations from the mean.
www.tushar-mehta.com /excel/charts/normal_distribution   (0 words)

 The Normal Distribution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The normality of the data may be evaluated by using the MINITAB "NSCORES" command to calculate the normal scores for the data, then plotting the observed data against the normal quantile values.
For example, the probability of observing a value less than or equal to zero on the standard normal density curve is 0.5, since exactly half of the area of the density curve lies to the left of zero.
Assuming that the temperature data are normally distributed, converting the data into standard normal, or "Z," values allows for the calculation of cumulative probabilities for the temperatures (the probability that a value less than or equal to the given value will be observed).
www.stat.yale.edu /Courses/1997-98/101/normal.htm   (0 words)

 Normal, Ohio | PopMatters Television Review
Since there is no "Normal, Ohio," we might assume that it is -- to some extent -- representative of this imagined "nation," at least for the show's creators.
Normal, Ohio counters such preconceived notions by presenting a stereotypically heterosexual character who happens to be gay.
It appears that the utopian fantasy in Normal, Ohio is that homosexuals are harmless to an established social order and will eventually assimilate into mainstream culture: they'll become as unthreatening as Butch, for instance.
popmatters.com /tv/reviews/n/normal-ohio.html   (0 words)

 The Normal Distribution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The normal (or Gaussian) distribution is one of the most commonly observed and is the starting point for modeling many natural processes.
In this case balls are dropped from the top and pass through a series of pins until they hit the bottom.
Well, the final position of each ball is determined by many (here only 8) independent, random events of whether to drop to the left or the right of the pin, thus the (approximate) normal distribution.
www.ms.uky.edu /~mai/java/stat/GaltonMachine.html   (0 words)

 No Title
All normal distributions are symmetric and have bell-shaped density curves with a single peak.
Although there are many normal curves, they all share an important property that allows us to treat them in a uniform fashion.
The distribution of heights of American women aged 18 to 24 is approximately normally distributed with mean 65.5 inches and standard deviation 2.5 inches.
www-stat.stanford.edu /~naras/jsm/NormalDensity/NormalDensity.html   (0 words)

 blender3d.org :: Normal Maps   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Normal maps are images that store normals directly in the RGB values of an image.
Using Normal Maps is as simple as setting the "Normal map" button in the Image Panel in the Texture buttons, and make sure you apply this in the Material buttons "Map To" panel on "Nor".
By only storing the normals in a map with a positive Z component, you can also wrap them around a model, where the map-normals will be applied (rotated) according to the orientation of the face.
www.blender3d.org /cms/Normal_Maps.491.0.html   (0 words)

 Average vs. normal
Whenever the weather exceeds someone's range of experience (and folks tend to have short memories, so their perception of their experience is often limited to the last few years), then it is loudly proclaimed as something "abnormal" or unusual, often tinged with dire forebodings about the future.
It is likely to be quite normal for noteworthy events (in terms of their departure from the average) to occur within a 30 year span, major (larger departures from the average) events to occur in every century, and even bigger events to happen in 1000 years.
What is termed "normal" rainfall on any given day is typically taken to mean the average of all the observed rainfall events on a particular date.
www.cimms.ou.edu /~doswell/Normals/normal.html   (0 words)

 Urban Dictionary: normal
Because the idea of such a state varies from being to being and any set standard is nonetheless someone elses idea of what it is this condition warrants satisfactory confirmation of being amongst the confirmed members of such class, by the individuals code.
Normal is about as concrete as the idea of "love".
Normal people never think for themselves, they play follow the leader their entire lives and freak out when confronted with any situation they were not trained to deal with.
www.urbandictionary.com /define.php?term=normal&r=f   (0 words)

 Normal Eating Support Forum -
Normal Eating makes the goal more accessible by breaking it up into stages - subgoals - with each stage building on the previous stage.
Normal Eating's stages mirror what happens naturally when people succeed in learning to eat according to body wisdom.
The four stages of Normal Eating, the learning goals at each stage, and the exercises for achieving these goals are laid out in the ebook that you have access to after
www.normaleating.com   (0 words)

 Normal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Surface normal — Line or vector perpendicular to a surface
Normal (movie) — 2003 film directed by Jane Anderson
Normal, Alabama — Home to Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Normal   (0 words)

 Normal Distribution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Normal distributions are a family of distributions that have the shape shown below.
Normal distributions are symmetric with scores more concentrated in the middle than in the tails.
Most of these tests work well even if the distribution is only approximately normal and in many cases as long as it does not deviate greatly from normality.
davidmlane.com /hyperstat/A6929.html   (0 words)

 Normal Breasts Gallery - pictures of different size and shape breasts
Women are caused to think that the pert big breasts are ideal and so many women (about 334,000 in the year 2004 according to American Society of Plastic Surgeons) opt for breast implants to 'correct' their breasts.
She got stretch marks in her breasts during her quick development in puberty but they are very faint and not visible in the photo.
That's not my only problem though, they sag (which I know is normal) but somehow my sag is strange it's like all the fat of my breast is like on the TOP of my breast not on the bottom where they're sopose to be.
www.007b.com /breast_gallery.php   (0 words)

 Distribution Fitting
For predictive purposes it is often desirable to understand the shape of the underlying distribution of the population.
The major distributions that have been proposed for modeling survival or failure times are the exponential (and linear exponential) distribution, the Weibull distribution of extreme events, and the Gompertz distribution.
The normal distribution (the "bell-shaped curve" which is symmetrical about the mean) is a theoretical function commonly used in inferential statistics as an approximation to sampling distributions (see also Elementary Concepts).
www.statsoftinc.com /textbook/stdisfit.html   (0 words)

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