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# Topic: Normal form game

###### In the News (Fri 24 May 13)

 PlanetMath: extensive form game A game in extensive form is one that can be represented as a tree, where each node corresponds to a choice by one of the players. Formally, an extensive form game is a set of nodes together with a function for each non-terminal node. This is version 2 of extensive form game, born on 2002-07-24, modified 2004-06-21. planetmath.org /encyclopedia/ExtensiveForm.html   (220 words)

 Game Theory: Basic Concepts The entirety of the game is defined by all the moves to that point, leading to an outcome. Moves are defined by the rules of the game and can be made in either alternating fashion, occur simultaneously for all players, or continuously for a single player until he reaches a certain state or declines to move further. A in extensive form game is characterized by a rules that dictate all possible moves in a state. library.thinkquest.org /26408/math/concepts.shtml   (482 words)

 PlanetMath: normal form game A normal form game is a game of complete information in which there is a list of Normal form games with two players and finite strategy sets can be represented in normal form, a matrix where the rows each stand for an element of This is version 3 of normal form game, born on 2002-07-23, modified 2006-12-17. planetmath.org /encyclopedia/NormalForm.html   (148 words)

 SFB 504 glossary: Game theory In a game, several agents strive to maximize their (expected) utility index by chosing particular courses of action, and each agent's final utility payoffs depend on the profile of courses of action chosen by all agents. Game theory provides general methods of dealing with interactive optimization problems; its methods and concepts, particularly the notion of strategy and strategic equilibrium find a vast number of applications throughout social sciences (including biology). For example, auction games for risk neutral bidders and a risk-neutral seller are constant-sum games, where a fixed social surplus from exchange is to be divided between the bidders and the bid-taker. www.sfb504.uni-mannheim.de /glossary/game.htm   (1533 words)

 The Game Theory Homepage   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20) Game theory is a branch of applied mathematics that studies strategic situations where players choose different actions in an attempt to maximize their returns. Normal form is used to represent simultaneous games, and extensive form is used to represent sequential ones. Game theory experienced a flurry of activity in the 1950s, during which time the concepts of the core, the extensive form game, fictitious play, repeated games, and the Shapley value were developed. www.camelbet.com   (3703 words)

 Normal form game - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Unlike extensive form, normal form representations are not graphical per se, but rather represents the game with a matrix. The normal form representation of game includes all strategies of each player and payoffs for each strategy profile are represented. In static games of complete, perfect information, a normal form representation of a game is a specification of players' strategy spaces and payoff functions. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Normal_form_game   (1016 words)

 Game theory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20) When a game is presented in normal form, it is presumed that each player acts simultaneously or, at least, without knowing the actions of the other. A symmetric game is a game where the payoffs for playing a particular strategy depend only on the other strategies employed, not on who is playing them. Games in one form or another are widely used in many different academic disciplines. www.casino-online-poker.net /pokergame/game_theory.htm   (3474 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20) A simple game is one in which the players engage in the game with a single known payoff at the end. In other words, the practice of Family law is playing the Court Game, which is in essence awarding the control and use of the property (the child) to the parties on a time share basis in a one time game (Normal Form Game). One could argue that the game is a finite extensive form game because it is limited by the child’s age (e.g. www.crnjapan.com /foreign_law/usa/en/game_theory_in_family_law.html   (6261 words)

 Detour on the question of the equivalence of the extensive form game and the normal form game Equivalence means that given a normal form game one can always derive an extensive form equivalent, and vice versa. Equilibria may be different in cases where the sequence of moves is important; extensive form games explicitly account for the sequence of moves (dynamic) Strategies in extensive form games can be interpreted as a complete plan of action, but now the player “waits” until his or her decision node is reached before having to make a decision www.csusm.edu /rrider/detour_games_417.htm   (184 words)

 Intentionality detection and "mindreading": Why does game form matter? -- McCabe et al. 97 (8): 4404 -- Proceedings of ... When the game is repeated in a series of trials with an unknown end point, we expect cooperation to increase in both games. repetition, coordination in the normal form is illusive and difficult. These data support the hypothesis that move information is used in the extensive form game to inform subjects' theory-of-mind reasoning about the intentions of their counterpart. www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/97/8/4404   (4580 words)

 [No title] Starfox, which was the later of their game watch games released in the 1990's is based off primarily the "Corneria" opening stage of the SuperNES game of which is it based off of. The game is a fair representation and even includes the nice little touches like the entering of the castle as the end of the levels. The game is Tetris and if you don't know it then you must have been living on Mars or something (so fix that stuff NASA crashed there for us ok?) Anyways, the game is at first deceptively easy. home.insightbb.com /~tanooki/gamewatch.htm   (821 words)

 [No title] A game expressed in extensive form is a sequence of nodes describing the information a player has when the player reaches a particular node and has to make a choice (see figure 2). A complete information game is when each player knows: the payoffs of all the players under all possible actions; all the nodes in the game; and all the structure of the game. Notice that the payoffs in the extensive form game correspond to the payoffs in the normal form game. socrates.berkeley.edu /~sgoldman/101a/Lectures/Docs/26.doc   (2835 words)

 Chris Yiu - Game Theory Lounge - Game Theory Basics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20) The basic goal of game theory is to be able to understand and predict the outcome of strategic interactions. For games with several stages of play, it is often more convenient to draw the game in extensive form. Careful inspection will reveal that this example is an extensive form version of the normal form game we met earlier. www.yiu.co.uk /gametheory/?page=basics   (800 words)

 Practice game theory problems Given these assumptions, we have the following normal form game, where the entries are the profits. Set up the game in terms of the normal form. Set up the extensive form of the game. www.csusm.edu /rrider/Games.htm   (356 words)

 [No title] A convenient way to describe the strategy spaces and payoff functions is to draw a matrix (this is harder with n-player games, of course), with each row corresponding to a strategy of player 1 and each column corresponding to a strategy of player 2. A formal definition: A game in normal form (also called strategic form) consists of a set of players, {1,2,,n}, strategy spaces for the players, S1, S2, , Sn, and payoff functions for the players, u1, u2, un. However, when players make all of their decisions before observing what other players do (as in one-shot or static games, for example), there is no discrepancy between the extensive form and the normal form. www.econ.ucsb.edu /~charness/econ171_winter2005/normal_form.doc   (284 words)

 Data types   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20) The extensive form and normal form types, and their related types, are detailed later in special sections. It is generally encouraged to label various elements of games in the command language for ease of identification; however it is not required. A NFOUTCOME is an outcome for a normal form game, and an NFSUPPORT represents a support for a normal form game, which is a collection of sets of admissible strategies, one for each player. econweb.tamu.edu /gambit/doc/manual-0.97.0.6/x456.html   (1547 words)

 Sequential game Information In game theory, a sequential game is a game where one player chooses his action before the others chooses theirs. Extensive form representations are usually used for sequential games, since they explicitly illustrate the sequential aspects of a game. Sequential games are often solved by backward induction. www.bookrags.com /wiki/Sequential_game   (179 words)

 MA 493B-003 - Game Theory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20) From a description of a situation, write an appropriate normal form game (problems 2.12 and 2.14) or extensive form game (problem 2.15a). Do iterated elimination of weakly dominated strategies in normal form games (problems 2.4a, 2.6c, 2.12 (use the normal form of the game), 2.13, 2.14). In particular, write an extensive form game in normal form, and find Nash equilibria other than those found by backward induction (problem 2.15c). www4.ncsu.edu /~schecter/ma_493_fa05/study_guides/test_1.html   (187 words)

 EconPort - Normal Form Game Software Traditional games - payoff tables specify stage game earnings; subjects' earnings are simply the payoffs accumulated over time. Match-play games - payoff tables specify a probability of winning a point; a match is won by the first player to accumulate the needed points. Read how to start the configured session, stop the server, drop users from the game, and about the Server, Game, and Results tags that appear on your screen when the server is running and the game is in progress. www.econport.org /econport/request?page=web_experiments_software_nfg   (244 words)

 Normal form games   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20) defines a new outcome in the normal form game. An error occurs if the file cannot be opened, or if the file does not contain a valid normal form savefile. In C++, this file is given as a gOutput stream object; in Python, the filename to be written is passed. econweb.tamu.edu /gambit/manual-0.97.1.0/apiref.nfg.html   (176 words)

 A Brief Introduction to NON-COOPERATIVE GAME THEORY A famous game is called "Chicken," named after a famous adolescent hot-rod ceremony from the United States of the 1950s. I can show that in a game like chess (constant sum, with two players) a perfectly rational player does not have to "worry" about whether or not his or her opponent is irrational. Analyzed as a "timeless" normal-form game (the matrix), there is no reason not to believe this threat. www.rh.edu /~stodder/BE/IntroGameT.htm   (1801 words)

 Normal Form - Game Theory .net The normal form is a matrix representation of a simultaneous game. Generally, such games are solved using the concept of a Nash equilibrium. Try the normal-form game solver to automatically calculate equilibria on the applets page. www.gametheory.net /Dictionary/NormalForm.html   (104 words)

 Game Theory Self Test: Finding Equilibria Two firms are involved in developing a new technology that will allow consumers to taste food over the Internet. By the wave of an economist's wand, their production decisions must be made simultaneously. Set up the above scenario as a normal form (simultaneous) game. www2.owen.vanderbilt.edu /mike.shor/Courses/game-theory/quiz/quiz1.html   (199 words)

 Game Theory and the Law Game Theory and the Law: Baird, Gertner and Picker Chapter 1: Simultaneous Decisionmaking and the Normal Form Game Chapter 2: Dynamic Interaction and the Extensive Form Game picker.uchicago.edu /agtl/gtltoc.html   (86 words)

 This page is for students in MBA684   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20) This page is for students in MBA684, a course in game theory for MBA students All my material is in Adobe Acrobat format and requires an Adobe Reader, which, if you do not the program, is freely available by clicking on this icon Here are links to playing the repeated prisoners' dilemma game at websites at Princeton University and Bryn Mawr College. www.ucc.ie /~sjostrom/mba/index.htm   (243 words)

 JARS.COM - The #1 Java Review Service - Normal Form Game Solver Jars > Science > Mathematics > Normal Form Game Solver This applet allows you to create a two-player normal-form (simultaneous move) game with up to four strategies for each player. After you enter the payoffs, the applet solves the game, finding all pure-strategy Nash equilibria (and a unique mixed-strategy equilibrium, if one exists, for two-by-two games). www.jars.com /science/mathematics/resource.php/25985   (456 words)

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