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Topic: Northern Crusades


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  crusades
When the First Crusade was preached in 1095, the Christian princes of northern Iberia had been fighting their way out of the mountains of Galicia and Asturias, the Basque country and Navarre, with increasing success, for about a hundred years.
On a popular level, the first crusades unleashed an unprecedented wave of impassioned, personally felt pious fury that was expressed in the massacres of Jews that accompanied the movement of mobs through Europe, and the violent treatment of "schismatic" Orthodox Christians of the east.
The 13th century crusades never expressed such a popular fever, and after Acre fell for the last time in 1291, and after the extermination of the Occitan Cathars in the Albigensian Crusade, the crusading ideal became devalued by Papal justifications of political and territorial aggressions within Catholic Europe.
www.crusades-history.com /Crusades.aspx   (0 words)

  
  Northern Crusades information - Search.com
The Northern Crusades, or Baltic Crusades, were crusades undertaken by the Catholic kings of Denmark and Sweden, the German Livonian and Teutonic military orders, and their allies against the pagan peoples of Northern Europe around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.
The Pope proclaimed a crusade against the Baltic heathens in 1193 and a crusading expedition led by Meinhard's successor, Bishop Berthold, landed in Livonia (part of present-day Latvia, surrounding the Gulf of Riga) in 1198.
The Northern Crusades provided a rationale for the growth and expansion of the Teutonic Order of German crusading knights which had been founded in Palestine at the end of the 12th century.
www.search.com /reference/Northern_Crusades   (1398 words)

  
  Crusade - Facts, Information, and Encyclopedia Reference article
The 13th century crusades never expressed such a popular fever, and after Acre fell for the last time in 1291, and after the extermination of the Occitan Cathars in the Albigensian Crusade, the crusading ideal became devalued by Papal justifications of political and territorial aggressions within Catholic Europe.
A crusading force from Hungary, Austria, and Bavaria achieved a remarkable feat in the capture of Damietta in Egypt in 1219, but under the urgent insistence of the papal legate, Pelagius, they proceeded to a foolhardy attack on Cairo, and an inundation of the Nile compelled them to choose between surrender and destruction.
The eighth Crusade was organized by Louis IX in 1270, again sailing from Aigues-Mortes, initially to come to the aid of the remnants of the Crusader states in Syria.
www.startsurfing.com /encyclopedia/c/r/u/Crusades.html   (3606 words)

  
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On a popular level, the first crusades unleashed an unprecedented wave of impassioned, personally felt pious fury that was expressed in the massacres of Jews that accompanied the movement of mobs through Europe, and the violent treatment of "schismatic" Orthodox Christians of the east.
The crusades also aided the beginning of the Renaissance in Italy, as various Italian city-states from the very beginning had important and profitable trading colonies in the crusader states, both in the Holy Land and later in captured Byzantine territory.
The crusades had a profound effect upon the Islamic world, where the equivalents of "Franks" and "crusaders" are still expressions of disdain for Western values.
www.cbn.com /spirituallife/ChurchAndMinistry/ChurchHistory/Crusades_Wikipedia.aspx   (3485 words)

  
 Crusades - MSN Encarta
The term Crusade was originally applied solely to European efforts to retake from the Muslims the city of Jerusalem, which was sacred to Christians as the site of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
As the Crusaders marched east, they were joined by thousands of men and even women, ranging from petty knights and their families, to peasants seeking freedom from their ties to the manor.
The Crusades of the 12th century, through the end of the Third Crusade in 1192, illustrate the tensions and problems that plagued the enterprise as a whole.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761561210/Crusades.html   (2660 words)

  
 Finance Choices - Personal Finance Wiki
A crusader would, after pronouncing a solemn vow, receive a cross from the hands of the pope or his legates, and was thenceforth considered a "soldier of the Church".
On a popular level, the first crusades unleashed a wave of impassioned, personally felt pious Christian fury that was expressed in the massacres of Jews that accompanied the movement of the Crusader mobs through Europe, as well as the violent treatment of "schismatic" Orthodox Christians of the east.
Crusading imagery could be found even in the Crimean War, in which the United Kingdom and France were allied with the Muslim Ottoman Empire, and in World War I, especially Allenby's capture of Jerusalem in 1917.
www.financechoices.co.uk /personal-finance-wiki.php?title=Crusade   (7524 words)

  
 ORB Bibliographies: Crusades
Latin Greece, the Hospitallers, and the Crusades, 1291-1440.
Papal crusading policy: the chief instruments of papal crusading policy and crusade to the Holy Land from the final loss of Jerusalem to the fall of Acre, 1244-1291.
The northern crusades: the Baltic and the Catholic frontier, 1100-1525.
www.the-orb.net /bibliographies/crusades.html   (2661 words)

  
 CalendarHome.com - - Calendar Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor and the Holy Land (ancient and modern Israel and Palestine).
The first Crusader state, the County of Edessa, was founded in 1098 and lasted until 1144.
Descendants of the Crusaders continued to rule in Athens and the Peloponnesus or Morea until the 15th century when the area was conquered by the Ottoman Empire.
encyclopedia.calendarhome.com /cgi-bin/encyclopedia.pl?p=Crusader_states   (669 words)

  
 Custom essay on History / Crusades - Essay Empire
The crusading movement had begun in the melodramatic fashion which was to be typical of it thereafter.
Crusades in the peninsula were preached in 1114, 1118, and 1122, when Pope Calixtus II proposed a war on two fronts with armed forces serving concurrently in
The Second Crusade was a fiasco, and although there were three further crusades in Spain before 1187, one in northern Europe, and a few expeditions, notably that of 1177, to Palestine, the thirty years that followed were in many ways the lowest point the movement reached before the fifteenth century.
www.essayempire.com /samples/history/crusades/142.html   (656 words)

  
 North Cyprus Estate Agent, Real Estate in Northern Cyprus Property
The history of Northern Cyprus and the forces who raged war upon war for this small island, offering a unique geographical possession in the Mediterranean, dates as far back as the Assyrian, Egyptian, Persian and Byzantine dynasties.
Within the last three years, established estate agents have seen a rise in TRNC property prices in the region of 50%; with a change like this, substantial growth is foreseeable.
Northern Cyprus has no natural resources of trade, agriculture or international business enterprise, its main resource until recently was tourism.
www.stringerestates.com /north-cyprus.php   (507 words)

  
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The Livonian Crusade succeeded where the crusade to the Holy Land had failed; though the two crusades shared several similarities, the most important was that both were expansive in their early years and evolved into defensive wars with significant periods of peace between conflicts.
Prussia and Spain were different from both in that the crusaders there settled peasants and burghers in the conquered areas, so that ultimately the immigrants merged with the conquered peoples to form a new nation; meanwhile, the colonists took upon themselves a significant part of the burden of defending themselves.
Northern Crusades, 200-206, provides an excellent overview of the peasantry throughout the Scandinavian Baltic.
department.monm.edu /history/urban/books/Livonian_Crusade_Summary.htm   (3448 words)

  
 Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The origins of the crusades lie in developments in Western Europe earlier in the Middle Ages, as well as the deteriorating situation of the Byzantine Empire in the east caused by a new wave of Turkish Muslim attacks.
Later on, Poles were themselves subject to conquest from the Crusaders and therefore championed the notion that pagans have the right to live in peace and have property rights to their lands.
The successful international coordination of Crusading forces from different countries, and the reduction (not cessation) in fighting between Christian monarchs that the crusading ideal encouraged, allowed Christian Europe to remain strong in the face of Muslim military expansionism.
www.goupstate.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=Crusades   (7076 words)

  
 Exercise in Futility
Touring northern Germany, Bishop Albert recruited a sufficient force with which to undertake his submission of the Livonians, including the creation of a new military order that came to be known as the Sword Brothers.
If the Crusades were really a counter-offensive, then ideally the lands recovered by the Crusaders should have been returned to their previous Christian rulers, the Byzantines.
For the popes, the Crusades were a great way to get the Christian powers of Western Europe to stop fighting each other and to instead channel their aggression to fight a far off enemy that posed no threat to them.
anexerciseinfutility.blogspot.com   (0 words)

  
 DragonBear History: All That: Baltic Crusades
But the institution of the crusade was applied at other times and places in the Middle Ages, such as the Albigensian Crusade, that wiped out the vibrant culture of Languedoc; or the crusades preached against German emperors, as they vied with the popes for dominance in Italian politics.
The Baltic Crusades started in the early 12th century, not as a planned and proclaimed holy war but only a general expansionist movement, as Denmark and various German states moved aggressively into the lands of the pagan, Slavic Wends (what's now the Baltic coast of Germany).
Threats to the missionaries led Pope Alexander III to preach a crusade against the Baltic pagans in 1171, a full crusade on the Outremer model, with remission of sins and everything, the first of a series that became almost continuous in the next two centuries.
www.dragonbear.com /baltic.html   (1410 words)

  
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The Northern Crusades, the period of the crusades that happened several years after the better-known Crusades where England took the holy land from the Muslims.
The Northern Crusades were against the Baltic Pagans, the last surviving pagans in Europe.
The intent of the Northern Crusades was not to convert the heathens, but to kill them, and take the land and goods within their tribal towns (users.erols.com).
members.tripod.com /aourai_henshi/religionessay.html   (1025 words)

  
 Unique Facts about the Middle East: Crusades
The Crusades were a series of several military campaigns — usually sanctioned by the Papacy— that took place during the 11th through 13th centuries.
Originally, they were Roman Catholic endeavors to re-capture the Holy Land from the Muslims, but some were directed against other Europeans, such as the Fourth Crusade against Constantinople, the Albigensian Crusade against the Cathars of southern France and the Northern Crusades.
Following this crusade there was a second, unsuccessful wave of crusaders.
www.sheppardsoftware.com /Middleeastweb/factfile/Unique-facts-MiddleEast14.htm   (2392 words)

  
 A WebsiteBuilder Website - Home
The Crusades were a series of military campaigns—usually sanctioned by the Papacy—that took place during the 11th through 13th centuries.
The origins of the crusades lie in developments in Western Europe earlier in the Middle Ages, as well as the deteriorating situation of the Byzantine Empire in the east.
The breakdown of the Carolingian Empire in the later 9th century, combined with the relative stabilisation of local European borders after the Christianisation of the Vikings, Slavs, and Magyars, meant that there was an entire class of warriors who now had very little to do but fight amongst themselves and terrorise the peasant population.
www.knightofibelin.com /index.html   (706 words)

  
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As Runciman says in his preface: 'Whether we regard the Crusades as the most tremendous and most romantic of Christian adventures, or as the last of the barbarian invasions, they form a central fact in medieval history.
The movement was finally smashed during the Crusades and the Inquisition.
In November 1095, Pope Blessed Urban II launched the First Crusade in the French city of Clermont, declaring that Christians had endured oppression and abuse at the hands of "their savage Muslim masters." He showed how Jerusalem, the epicenter of Christian tradition, lay in the grasp of Islam.
www.thedavincicodedemolished.com /The-Crusades.html   (1517 words)

  
 Medieval History: History Bookshop.com
To a large extent the current interest in the Crusades reflects the perceived threat of a so-called 'clash of civilisations'.
The Crusades, even excluding the Northern or Baltic Crusades, also involved an extraordinary array of states, ruling dynasties, ethnic or linguistic groups and the fighting forces associated with these disparate participants.
The Third Crusade of Richard the Lionheart is well known but the build-up to it less so.
www.historybookshop.com /medieval-history.asp   (0 words)

  
 Northern Crusades
Axel Ehlers The Crusade of the Teutonic Knights Reconsidered Chapter in Crusade and Conversion on the Baltic Frontier DeReMilitari.Org
William Urban Victims of the Baltic Crusade Monmouth College
Ruth Williamson The Baltic Crusade The Encyclopedia of Baltic History The University of Washington
www.crusades-encyclopedia.com /thenortherncrusades.html   (176 words)

  
 The Teutonic Knights   (Site not responding. Last check: )
She looks at the crusading literature of the Order and believes they were meant to restate the idea of the Christian knight and the holy war to provide new motivation for the Teutonic Knights.
In addition, she believes that crusading propaganda was reinterpreted by the Knights to fit their needs in the conquest of Prussia.
Urban asserts that the crusade in the Baltic region of Europe is an often-neglected part of the crusading movement.
www.adambennington.com /military_orders/teutonic_knights.html   (2661 words)

  
 Crusades Bibliography   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Queller, Donald E. The Fourth Crusade: the conquest of Constantinople, 1201-1204.
Jordan, William C. Louis IX and the challenge of the Crusade: a study in rulership.
Boase, Thomas S.R. Kingdoms and strongholds of the Crusaders.
crusades.boisestate.edu /admin/bibliography.shtml   (1527 words)

  
 Halsall/Introduction to the Medieval World/ Class 15
Crusades are part of purely political/booty expansion of feudal classes in Europe.
Response by 1096 Pope was surprised by response.
In short, the crusades became a small governing class in a basically Muslim/Arab Christian Country Lessons were taken to heart by modern Israelis.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/lect/med15.html   (2451 words)

  
 Medieval Knights Books
The members of these military religious Orders were usually noblemen vowed to poverty, chastity and obedience, living and working out of castles, or leading a monastic life in convents which were at the same time their barracks, and were devoted to spreading Christianity and waging war on the enemies of the Cross.
These German crusaders were feared by their enemies and respected by medieval Christendom.
These 'Northern Crusades' are less known and celebrated than those that took place in the Middle East, but they were also far more successful.
www.bouldercreektradingpost.com /books_knights.htm   (2151 words)

  
 Tin 54mm Toy/Figure#45/Soldier/Knight Northern Crusades - (eBay item 330173669117 end time Oct-14-07 01:37:17 PDT)
The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were crusades undertaken by the Catholic kings of Denmark and Sweden, the German Livonian and Teutonic military orders, and their allies against the pagan peoples of Northern Europe around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.
Swedish and German campaigns against Russian Eastern Orthodox Christians are also sometimes considered part of the Northern Crusades.
Some of these wars were called crusades during the Middle Ages, but others, including most of the Swedish ones, were first dubbed crusades by 19th century romantic nationalist historians.
cgi.ebay.com /Tin-54mm-Toy-Figure-45-Soldier-Knight-Northern-Crusades_W0QQitemZ330173669117QQihZ014QQcategoryZ2636QQcmdZViewItem   (0 words)

  
 Amazon.co.uk: The Northern Crusades: Books: Eric Christiansen
The Scandinavian Baltic Crusades 11th-15th Centuries (Men-at-arms) (Men-at-arms) by David Lindholm
Crusader Castles of the Teutonic Knights (2): Baltic Stone Castles 1184-1560 (Fortress) by Stephen Turnbull
The "Northern Crusades", inspired by the Pope's call for a Holy War, are less celebrated than those in the Middle East, but they were more successful - vast new territories became and remained Christian, such as Finland, Estonia and Prussia.
www.amazon.co.uk /Northern-Crusades-Eric-Christiansen/dp/0140266534   (0 words)

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