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Topic: The Nuclear Age

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 MSN Encarta - Warfare
A second important aspect of the nuclear balance of power was an effort to restrict the proliferation of nuclear weapons through bilateral and multilateral treaties limiting the further development and production of nuclear weapons and the devices, such as guided missiles, that deliver them to their targets.
The impetus behind these measures was not any desire to end for all time the use of nuclear weapons; rather, it was to perpetuate the existing balance of nuclear power and to avoid the ruinous economic competition of a full-scale nuclear arms race.
Today nuclear warheads can be delivered to their target by ordinary field artillery pieces, small nuclear bombs can be dropped by almost any type of aircraft, and nuclear-tipped depth charges can be used to destroy submarines.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761557207_4/Warfare.html   (1536 words)

 The Second Age of Nuclear Danger
Nuclear weapons shifted from an extreme response to a grave emergency to a normal part of the apparatus of force.
In short, in the new post-cold-war period, we are witnessing, in the absence of an effective movement to proceed toward the elimination of nuclear weapons, the emergence of an extremely volatile and dangerous second age of nuclear danger.
In this world, nuclear proliferation to new nations, the "nuclearism" of the present nuclear powers, and the serious prospect of major introduction of antinuclear defenses for the first time in the nuclear age form a vicious circle of pressures that is wreaking havoc with arms control.
www.bostonreview.net /BR25.2/schell.html   (2397 words)

 Einstein Exhibit -- Nuclear Age
Scientists in the 1930s, using machines that could break apart the nuclear cores of atoms, confirmed Einstein's formula E=mc².
The release of energy in a nuclear transformation was so great that it could cause a detectable change in the mass of the nucleus.
Nuclear physicists were gathering into ever-larger teams of scientists and technicians, heavily funded by governments and foundations, engaged in experiments using massive devices.
www.aip.org /history/einstein/nuclear1.htm   (321 words)

 BBC News | WORLD | The world's nuclear arsenal
The treaty obliges the nuclear powers never to transfer their nuclear technology to other countries, and forbids other countries from acquiring nuclear capability.
In turn, the nuclear powers are supposed to work towards the elimination of their stockpiles.
Unlike the other nuclear powers, neither country has signed the CTBT or the NPT, and they are therefore not considered to be official nuclear states by the original five nuclear powers.
news.bbc.co.uk /1/hi/world/733162.stm   (489 words)

 The Second Nuclear Age
The first half-century of the Nuclear Age was marked by a mad arms race between the United States and the former Soviet Union that resulted in the development and deployment of tens of thousands of nuclear weapons capable of destroying civilization and most life on Earth.
While the nuclear standoff between the US and former USSR is no longer the extraordinary danger it was, new nuclear dangers have arisen that have led many astute observers to the conclusion that we have entered a second Nuclear Age.
The starting point is the recognition that the Nuclear Age did not end with the fall of the Berlin Wall, and that we are now living in the second Nuclear Age.
www.rense.com /general42/second.htm   (1228 words)

 History of The Nuclear Age   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
The Discovery Of Radioactivity: The Dawn of the Nuclear Age - chronicles the birth of the atomic age.
The explosion ushered in the nuclear age, gave rise to New Mexico's modern economy, led to Japan's surrender and set off 50 years of debate about the morality of using such awesome force.
Nuclear Age Timeline - traces the history of nuclear energy from the discovery of x-rays and radioactivity to the explosion of the first atomic bomb through the Cold War and to the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex.
www.kent.k12.wa.us /KSD/KR/LIBRARY/SCIENCE/RESOURCES/NUKECHEM/history.html   (221 words)

 CNN - Ground Zero - The Nuclear Age: A Movie Gallery
The Nuclear Age has given birth to shapes and forms that have become icons for modern society.
Nuclear fusion: Most modern nuclear devices are hydrogen bombs, also known as thermonuclear weapons.
The Trinity Test: The birth of the Nuclear Age was carefully documented, beginning with the first nuclear test.
edition.cnn.com /SPECIALS/1998/06/ground.zero/video   (451 words)

 Facing a Second Nuclear Age
Welcome to the second nuclear age and the Bush administration's quiet responses to the age's perceived dangers.
Paul Bracken, a Yale political scientist who described the second nuclear age in "Fire in the East" (HarperCollins, 1999), argued that the danger lies not just in the spread of nuclear arms but in the culture of the second age.
Advocates say that relatively small nuclear weapons that burrowed deep into the ground to destroy enemy bunkers would cause reduced collateral damage - that is, less accidental destruction beyond the intended target.
www-personal.umich.edu /~sanders/214/other/news/080303NuclearNYT.html   (1258 words)

 The Structure of the Second Nuclear Age
The second reason for analyzing the structural features of the second nuclear age is the idea from management theory that changes in strategy are far more difficult to implement than most people imagine.
The second nuclear age is defined by the spread of nuclear weapons to countries for reasons other than the Soviet-American Cold War rivalry, which was the defining aspect of the first nuclear age.
In the first nuclear age, no states or institutions could retard the expansion of the Soviet and American nuclear arsenals.
web.mit.edu /ssp/fall03/bracken.htm   (1153 words)

 The Ambassadorss - OPINIONS [Nuclear] - Vol.3, Issue 2 (July 2000)
It is their interests, and those of the nuclear industry, to play down the health effects of radiation.
The nuclear industry uses the word “detriment” for the radiation damage which it considers to be important.
In order to estimate the real victims of the nuclear industry [as opposed to those figures enumerated by the ICRP, IAEA and other nuclear apologists] I will take the customary risk estimates, indicate their probable range of error, and then extend the definition to cover related events not recognized as 'detriments' by the regulators.
ambassadors.net /archives/issue8/opinions_nuclear.htm   (2548 words)

 Nuclear Age Peace Foundation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
SANTA BARBARA -- March 28 -- The Nuclear Age Peace Foundation is pleased to announce the opening of its Washington, DC office.
With a Washington, DC office, the Foundation will be able to respond more rapidly and effectively to national nuclear policy issues and work in collaboration with other non-governmental organizations at the national level for nuclear nonproliferation and disarmament.
The Nuclear Age Peace Foundation is a non-profit, non-partisan international organization with consultative status to the United Nations.
www.commondreams.org /cgi-bin/print.cgi?file=/news2005/0328-08.htm   (289 words)

 Nuclear Age   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
- The nuclear age began with the identification of the nucleus or nuclei of a cell and the discovery of large amounts energy released by the splitting of atoms.
Research in nuclear physics has also led to use of radioisotopes and new techniques for diagnosing and treating disease, sterilizing and preserving food, and exploring for oil.
This historical timeline traces the nuclear age from (1895-1993) the discovery of x-rays and radioactivity to the explosion of the first atomic bomb through the cold war to its thaw to the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex.
www.42explore2.com /nuclear.htm   (2601 words)

 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
Nuclear policies in several European countries and in Japan, as well as some phaseout scenarios advocated by civil society groups are discussed side by side with descriptions of some recent, serious accidents within power plants such as Tokai-mura in Japan and Chernobyl in the Ukraine.
While the nuclear bomb causes immediate, countless deaths, the deaths and injuries caused by anti-personnel mines are prolonged, because mines endanger peoples' lives for a lifetime.
An overview of the first 50 years of the of the atomic age and the partial arms control victories achieved by citizens is followed by a detailed description of the "dialogue approach to change" prepared by the Oxford Research Group.
www.ippnw.org /IPPNWBooks.html   (2510 words)

 Nuclear Files: Timeline of the Nuclear Age: 1994
19.75 ounces of a mixed-oxide uranium-plutonium nuclear reactor fuel are seized at Munich Airport from a flight originating in Moscow.
The nuclear material, enough to make 50 nuclear weapons, was considered not to be secure from terrorists in Kazakhstan.
The United Nations General Assembly votes to request an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice on the legality of the threat or use of nuclear weapons.
www.nuclearfiles.org /menu/timeline/1990/1994.htm   (375 words)

 Canadian Network to Abolish Nuclear Weapons   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
Canberra Commission on the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons, established by the Australian Government, proposed a series of practical steps toward a nuclear weapons-free world that could be started immediately.
Nuclear warheads and nuclear power reactors lie on the ocean floor and nuclear-armed and nuclear-powered submarines are prowling the seas.
In April 1996, the Canadian Network to Abolish Nuclear Weapons was created to facilitate Canadian work on the abolition of nuclear weapons, both within Canada and internationally in co-operation with the global Abolition 2000 campaign.
watserv1.uwaterloo.ca /~plough/cnanw/cnanw.html   (1110 words)

 Nuclear Age Peace Foundation--Ummah.comGeneral
The institute was established as a joint nuclear research institute for the Eastern Bloc countries, and nearly half of all Russian nuclear advances occurred at the Institute.
The facilities referred to by Boucher on 13 December, appear to be a heavy water nuclear plant and a uranium enrichment facility that have the potential to contribute to development of plutonium and uranium-based weapons, respectively.
Aleksandr Rumyantsey, Russia’s Minister for Nuclear Energy, announced on 6 December that Novaya Zemlya is not geographically suitable for the repository and that the project is economically unfeasible.
www.ummah.net /forum/showthread.php?t=12333   (3927 words)

 Nuclear Age Peace Foundation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
Inspired by the need for a new generation of leaders working toward a nuclear-free world, the participants agreed to establish a diverse network of individuals and organizations for the purpose of communication, interaction, support, and to collect and disseminate resources.
Nuclear weapons disable functional diplomacy and prevent the establishment of a just peace.
For more information on the “Think Outside the Bomb National Conference on Nuclear Issues” or the “Principles of Unity,” please contact the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation’s Director of Youth Programs, Michael Coffey, at (805) 452-1166 or by email at youth@napf.org.
www.commondreams.org /cgi-bin/newsprint.cgi?file=/news2005/0825-02.htm   (223 words)

 Alsos: The Nuclear Age Reader
This book is a reader which accompanies the Public Broadcasting System’s television series War and Peace in the Nuclear Age.
It examines the evolution of nuclear weapons, policy, arms control, and the competition between the Soviet Union and the United States.
A book by John Newhouse titled War and Peace in the Nuclear Age and a study guide also accompany the series.
alsos.wlu.edu /information.asp?id2=985&past=1   (110 words)

 NOW with Bill Moyers. Politics & Economy. A New Nuclear Age? Underground Testing | PBS
The United States has conducted more nuclear tests than the rest of the world, and was the first and only country to use a nuclear weapon in wartime.
With the explosion of Trinity — the first nuclear bomb — in Alamagordo, New Mexico on July 16, 1945, the U.S. began the "nuclear weapons age." In subsequent years, the Soviet Union, Britain, France, China and India all followed suit.
Testing of nuclear weapons has led to and would continue to cause damage to human health and the environment." In May of 1998, Pakistan announced that it had conducted five nuclear tests.
www.pbs.org /now/politics/newnukes.html   (711 words)

 Rise of the Nuclear Age of the Cold War
There are several ways how to get an old nuclear device from the old, dying Russian army and there are nations developing their nuclear potential.
Atomic bomb research and the later development of the nuclear capabilities of the superpowers is a good example for all those, who don't want to believe, that the secret services and good intelligence has changed the line of history in the Cold War.
You might be wondering, why didn't the US use their nuclear monopol in the post-war time to push the Soviets back to Siberia.
www.cold-war.info /atomic.html   (1073 words)

 atomicarchive.com: Exploring the History, Science, and Consequences of the Atomic Bomb
October 31 - U.S.S.R. explodes the largest nuclear bomb, with a yield of a 58 megatons.
We are pleased to annouce the greatly expanded section on the effects of nuclear weapons.
A comprehensive section chronicling the race for the atomic bomb, from the discovery of nuclear fission to the Trinity Test.
www.atomicarchive.com   (406 words)

 Toward a Plutonium Free Future
Since nuclear power plants are giant radiation-bombs-waiting-to-happen, it is probably only a matter to time before the security costs are shifted to the taxpayers also.
Not mentioned in the article are other costs of nuclear energy, such as cancer among uranium miners and the costs of decomissioning the giant plants when their 30 year life-span (governed by metal fatigue) is over.
Nuclear Age Peace Foundation (Santa Barbara, Calif.) features articles and position papers on nuclear weapons control and nuclear waste disposal.
www.nonukes.org   (1234 words)

 New Scientist Special Report on The Nuclear Age
The Earth exploded into the nuclear age on 16 July 1945.On that day, the US tested a completely new type of weapon in the New Mexico desert.
The first nuclear reactor to provide electricity to a national grid opened in England in 1956.
The global nuclear arms race remains a real and present danger, and more countries than ever are joining in.
www.newscientist.com /channel/mech-tech/nuclear   (1421 words)

 CNN - Cold War Experience: The Bomb
In 1961, an American president publicly warned his citizens that the possibility of nuclear war could not be ignored -- and urged citizens to do what they could to protect themselves.
An examination of the events that led to the discovery and perfection of nuclear weapons, and our animated look at what actually makes The Bomb tick.
For nearly as long as there have been nuclear weapons, there has been vocal opposition to them -- and attempts by some governments to use those anti-nuclear groups as Cold War weapons.
www.cnn.com /SPECIALS/cold.war/experience/the.bomb   (243 words)

 Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and Nuclear Weapons - Links
The Nuclear Files - Seeks to become a central repository of information about all aspects of the nuclear age.
Technology Review, August 1995 issue - The Atomic Age At 50 - Excerpts from a special issue of Technology Review in which 21 experts reflected on Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and the nuclear age.
Nuclear Treaties - Texts of some important nuclear treaties, including those on nuclear testing and non-proliferation.
www.dannen.com /moreinfo.html   (1121 words)

 THE NUCLEAR AGE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
In the memory of those who have died and for the thousands of people, young and old, who have experienced this disaster firsthand, the world community must act to ensure nuclear energy and its testing is controlled.
Across Canada, the story is much the same as many of our nuclear plants age.
The tragedy, the desolation and the human victims should serve as a constant reminder to Canadians of just how destructive uncontrolled nuclear power may be, and how easy it is to lose control.
www.cowac.org /nuclear.html   (460 words)

 Anti-Bases Campaign Coalition index page
It has taken over the role of early detection of missiles and is integral to the change from the nearly obsolete DSP (Defence Support Program) satellites to the Space Based Infra-Red System (SBIRS), which is a key element in missile defence.
Missile defence is not a benign, defensive nuclear umbrella.
The US fleet may also be carrying nuclear weapons, as well as depleted uranium munitions.
www.anti-bases.org   (1193 words)

 National Museum of Nuclear Science and History
The museum was established in 1969 as an intriguing place to learn the story of the Atomic Age, from early research of nuclear development through today's peaceful uses of nuclear technology.
The museum strives to present through permanent and changing exhibits and displays the diverse applications of nuclear energy and its pioneers.
Museum visitors can view and photograph displays presenting the development of the Atomic Age, including replicas of the world's first two atomic weapons, Little Boy and Fat Man, which were built and used at the end of World War II.
www.atomicmuseum.com   (500 words)

 Biographies of the Nuclear Age   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
This webpage is a companion to a 42eXplore project on the Nuclear Age from eduScapes.
Don't miss the other sites, Nuclear Age or Nuclear Events, Incidents and Disasters, where you can find lots more related information, resources, activities, lesson plans, and more.
Nuclear Files, (4) Klaus Fuchs from PBS's Citizen Kurchatov: Stalin's Bomb Maker, (5) Klaus Fuchs: Atom Bomb Spy by R. Aiuto, (6) Klaus Fuchs: German Scientist and Spy for Soviets (1911 - 1988), (7) Chronology of Soviet Espionage by T.M. Sanders, (8) Klaus Fuchs, (9) Biography of Klaus Fuchs
www.42explore2.com /nuclear3.htm   (2888 words)

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