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Topic: Nuclear arms race


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In the News (Mon 20 Nov 17)

  
  ::The Nuclear Arms Race::
The nuclear arms race was central to the Cold War.
However, it is possible that the sheer power of these weapons and the fear that they evoked, may have stopped a nuclear war.
By 1986, it is estimated that throughout the world there were 40,000 nuclear warheads - the equivalent of one million Hiroshima bombs.
www.historylearningsite.co.uk /nuclear_arms_race.htm   (579 words)

  
 Reference for Nuclear arms race - Search.com
The nuclear arms race was a competition for supremacy in nuclear weapons between the United States and Soviet Union during the Cold War.
During the Cold War, the French nuclear deterrent was centered around the Force de frappe, a nuclear triad consisting of Dassault Mirage IV bombers carrying such nuclear weapons as the AN-22 gravity bomb and the ASMP stand-off attack missile, Pluton and Hades ballistic missiles, and the Redoutable class submarine armed with strategic nuclear missiles.
Their arms race is somewhat analogous to the US/USSR race, except that both the amount of resources which each can devote to weapons and the distances to be traversed are far less.
domainhelp.search.com /reference/Nuclear_arms_race   (2770 words)

  
 Howstuffworks "How the Nuclear Arms Race Works"
Nuclear science is the study of sub-atomic particles and their application in various disciplines.
It was this kind of tension that sparked a nuclear arms race, a frantic era in which several nations tested a myriad of nuclear technology and stockpiled thousands of nuclear warheads in an effort to get ahead of one another.
Like the space race, whoever had the best technology had the most power, but this was a much more dangerous game -- the potential of an all-out nuclear war between nations always loomed, and the 20th century is littered with uneasy international policies and near catastrophes.
science.howstuffworks.com /nuclear-arms-race.htm   (536 words)

  
 Preventing a Nuclear Arms Race in South Asia: U.S. Policy Options
Since Pakistan's nuclear policy is India-centric and reactive in nature, the introduction of nuclear weapons and their delivery systems within the Indian armed forces would greatly increase the likelihood of a retaliatory Pakistani deployment.
Since a nuclear arms race between India and Pakistan will further destabilize a violent and conflict-prone region, there is a pressing need for the U.S. to dissuade India and Pakistan from deploying nuclear weapons and to reverse their nuclear course.
To prevent India and Pakistan from embarking on a nuclear arms race, it is indeed important to examine the previous shortcomings of U.S. nonproliferation policy in South Asia and to identify alternative policy options.
www.fourthfreedom.org /Applications/cms.php?page_id=54   (2129 words)

  
 OneWorld U.S. Home / Today's News - Experts Warn New U.S. Weapon Could Jumpstart Nuclear Arms Race
"Armed attacks on Iran would very likely lead to the results they were meant to avoid--the building of nuclear weapons in three years," Blix said in a foreword to the report.
Rather, adverse consequences obtain when nuclear powers seek to deny non-nuclear powers the capability of developing a nuclear deterrence and when nuclear powers seek to expand their nuclear arsenals beyond those types and numbers of weapons needed to maintain a credible deterrence.
It does not however bring out the greatest threat by far to the regime and possibility of nuclear arms control: US development of "small" "bunker buster" fission weapons for use in Iran, and the many indications that the US intends to wage war on Iran and may be planning to use these weapons.
us.oneworld.net /article/view/146853/1   (1590 words)

  
 Existential Risks: Analyzing Human Extinction Scenarios
An all-out nuclear war was a possibility with both a substantial probability and with consequences that might have been persistent enough to qualify as global and terminal.
Arms race instability means that there would be dominant incentives for each competitor to escalate its armaments, leading to a runaway arms race.
That the arms race could have been predicted is no guarantee that an international security system will be created ahead of time to prevent this disaster from happening.
www.nickbostrom.com /existential/risks.html   (12078 words)

  
 Arms and the men - The Boston Globe
And, as it turns out, the nuclear arms race is not so much over as proceeding in a new - and probably more dangerous - direction.
Bad as the consequences of a nuclear war were believed to be back then, the reality would almost certainly have been much worse.
It was not until the early 1980s that strategists realized how the dust and debris kicked up by nuclear explosions might enshroud the earth, bringing about a so-called nuclear winter and perhaps casting humanity into Stygian darkness.
www.boston.com /ae/books/articles/2007/11/18/arms_and_the_men/?page=full   (740 words)

  
 t r u t h o u t | Experts Warn New US Weapon Could Jumpstart Nuclear Arms Race
Other nuclear policy experts agree with Isaacs' view that the plan to build the new hydrogen bomb is unjustified.
In addition to the declared nuclear powers, India, Pakistan, and Israel are also believed to be in possession of hundreds of nuclear weapons and at this point, unlike Iran, which has joined international agreements against the spread of nuclear weapons, none of them seems willing to join the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
"Armed attacks on Iran would very likely lead to the results they were meant to avoid-the building of nuclear weapons in three years," Blix said in a foreword to the report.
www.truthout.org /docs_2006/030707N.shtml   (1085 words)

  
 CIA warns of new nuclear arms race - theage.com.au
The world is being confronted by a new nuclear arms race that threatens to dismantle more than three decades of non-proliferation efforts, CIA director George Tenet has warned.
The testimony also pointed to concerns about the enforcement abilities of UN arms control agencies, including the International Atomic Energy Agency, which are supposed to prevent the spread of nuclear technologies.
Mr Tenet traced the breakdown of the global nonproliferation system not to existing nuclear powers but to what he called "non-state purveyors", meaning private firms or in some cases rogue individuals in Europe and elsewhere who are selling "technology and equipment that previously could only be supplied by countries with established (nuclear) capabilities".
www.theage.com.au /articles/2003/02/12/1044927658518.html   (590 words)

  
 Mideast Nuclear Arms Race?
Yet since Israel’s nuclear weapons program was revealed by Mordechai Vanunu, a technician who worked at the Dimona nuclear plant in the Negev desert, 20 years have passed without as much as a word that she play her required role in preventing the proliferation of nuclear arms.
When comparing the existing nuclear powers that also include Israel, Olmert stated, “You are talking about civilized countries that do not threaten the foundations of the world that do not threaten other countries that they will use the nuclear weapons in order to destroy them.
Most alarming, though, as the possible Mideast nuclear arms race takes off, is that it has become apparent that the effects of a regional nuclear war will not be limited to the parties involved nor confined to the immediate affected area.
www.yoursdaily.com /analysis/mideast_nuclear_arms_race   (1082 words)

  
 ARMS TRADE TREATY, ‘NUCLEAR-WEAPON-FREE WORLD’, OUTER SPACE ARMS RACE AMONG ISSUES, AS GENERAL ASSEMBLY ADOPTS 54 ...
Against an international backdrop of renewed threats to the nuclear non-proliferation regime, including the 9 October nuclear-weapon test by the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, as well as heightened concern about the threats posed by conventional weapons, the General Assembly today adopted 54 texts, on the recommendation of its First Committee (Disarmament and International Security).
The Assembly extended the call to place all nuclear activities under IAEA safeguards to all countries in the region, by the terms of a resolution on a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East, which was approved by consensus.
The draft resolution on the prevention of an arms race in outer space (document A/61/393) was adopted by a recorded vote of 178 in favour to 1 against, with 1 abstention, as follows:
www.un.org /News/Press/docs/2006/ga10547.doc.htm   (5551 words)

  
 North Korea nuke test fans fears of East Asian nuclear arms race - iht,asia,Asia Nuclear Dominos - Asia - Pacific - ...
While an arms race is unlikely to dawn the day after a test, long term anxiety abounds.
Abhorrence of nuclear weapons runs deep in Japan, where memories of the U.S. atomic attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki are burned into the collective consciousness.
Fearful of a regional nuclear arms race, however, the United States forced then-dictator Park Chung-hee to drop the plan, partly by threatening economic penalties for a nation that was then poor and still recovering from the 1950-53 Korean War.
www.iht.com /articles/ap/2006/10/08/asia/AS_GEN_Asia_Nuclear_Dominos.php   (953 words)

  
 TomPaine.com - Fueling The Arms Race
The U.S. should not be aiding a nuclear arms race in one of the most unstable parts of the world.
The Pakistani scientist who sold top-secret nuclear technology to North Korea, Libya, and Iran several years ago, A.Q. Khan, remains sheltered in Pakistan, and international inspectors are unable to determine the extent of his dealings.
As the Bush administration tries to halt the nuclear program in Iran (a signer of the NPT), Iranians are galvanized in support of their nuclear program as the Bush administration says one thing but then does the opposite by providing a non-NPT country with nuclear know-how.
www.tompaine.com /articles/2006/08/01/fueling_the_arms_race.php   (957 words)

  
 NUCLEAR ARMS RACE IN SOUTH ASIA (Senate - November 17, 1989)
The Congress should be aware that as Pakistan's nuclear capabilities grow, and if evidence about its activities continues to accumulate, this process of annual certification will require the President to reach judgments about the status of Pakistani nuclear activities that may be difficult or impossible to make with any degree of certainty.
As Gerard Smith, one of America's foremost authorities on nuclear arms control issues, stated in the summer 1989 issue of the journal Foreign Affairs, we must not turn a `blind eye' to proliferation.
We recognize that, as important as preventing the actual testing of a nuclear explosive may be for preventing a destabilizing nuclear arms race in the region, our efforts must address the earlier stages of possible explosives development.
www.fas.org /news/pakistan/1989/891117.htm   (8026 words)

  
 Never Again? How the War in Iraq Spurred a New Nuclear Arms Race
In the light of the war on Iraq, which did not have nuclear weapons, second-tier nations have judged that North Korea was spared invasion because of its nuclear deterrent, and drawn their own strategic conclusions.
The review of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) by 189 states collapsed two months ago amid recriminations and accusations that the nuclear five had no intention of living up to their treaty commitments to pursue nuclear disarmament.
In return, the non-nuclear states gave up any ambition to develop nuclear weapons; they agreed to open up all their facilities to inspection; and in return they were guaranteed the benefits of peaceful nuclear technology.
www.commondreams.org /headlines05/0805-05.htm   (1570 words)

  
 BBC ON THIS DAY | 8 | 1987: Superpowers to reverse arms race
After a three-day summit in Washington, US President Ronald Reagan and his Soviet counterpart Mikhail Gorbachev put their names to the Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty in a first attempt to reverse the nuclear arms race.
One of the reasons the US and the USSR became confident enough to agree a reduction in nuclear weapons was because both countries were working on their own defence systems that aimed to destroy incoming nuclear missiles in space.
The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces agreement was followed by the first Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (Start I) in 1991, which cut the numbers of long-range nuclear weapons by roughly half.
news.bbc.co.uk /onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/8/newsid_3283000/3283817.stm   (616 words)

  
  The Nuclear Arms Race and National Sovereignty
But to avoid a dangerous proliferation of nuclear arms, many nations chose not to have them and elected instead to rely on international law to preserve national sovereignties.
These so-called NSG members, including the United States, are expected to forgo nuclear trade with governments that do not subject themselves to the International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards regime, while the IAEA has the responsibility for verifying that these countries' exports are not used by the importing state for any military purpose.
Without such a bold move, the nuclear arms race will only intensify in the coming years, significantly raising the risk of a nuclear conflagration.
www.globalresearch.ca /index.php?context=viewArticle&code=20061022&articleId=3556   (1390 words)

  
  Kroc Institute : Policy Brief #2 : Preventing a Nuclear Arms Race in South Asia: U.S. Policy Options
Since Pakistan's nuclear policy is India-centric and reactive in nature, the introduction of nuclear weapons and their delivery systems within the Indian armed forces would greatly increase the likelihood of a retaliatory Pakistani deployment.
Since a nuclear arms race between India and Pakistan will further destabilize a violent and conflict-prone region, there is a pressing need for the U.S. to dissuade India and Pakistan from deploying nuclear weapons and to reverse their nuclear course.
To prevent India and Pakistan from embarking on a nuclear arms race, it is indeed important to examine the previous shortcomings of U.S. nonproliferation policy in South Asia and to identify alternative policy options.
www.nd.edu /~krocinst/polbriefs/pbrief2.shtml   (1975 words)

  
 Why Capitalism Can't Freeze the Arms Race
And because each considers arms superiority vital for the protection of the interests of its ruling class, the arms race cannot be legislated away.
Both sides value nuclear weapons not only as the ultimate defense of their respective established spheres of influence, but also because they each wish to gain a decisive advantage over the other in order to be able to force the other to back off when their vital interests clash.
When in the past the United States held a clear advantage in nuclear arms, it was able to force the U.S.S.R. to back off at the time of the Suez crisis in 1956, the Lebanon showdown in 1958 and during the Cuban missile crisis in 1962.
www.slp.org /res_state_htm/arms_race82.html   (1763 words)

  
 Arms Race
The nuclear arms race began during World War II when the United States were informed that the Nazi's may be building a weapon of mass destruction, the atom bomb.
The modern nuclear arms race, that is the race between the US, under Harry Truman, and the USSR, under Joseph Stalin, began in 1946, when the American representative the newly formed United Nations (UN), Bernard Baruch, proposed that nuclear weapons be eliminated.
Some potential nuclear nations, that is nations with the capability to develop a nuclear weapons program, did not agree to the terms of this treaty, as it meant giving up an opportunity to become a nuclear power.
www.pwc.k12.nf.ca /coldwar/plain/armsrace.html   (1424 words)

  
 Arms race - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
More generically, the term "arms race" is also used to describe any competition where there is no absolute goal, only the relative goal of staying ahead of the other competitors.
In technology, there are close analogues to the arms races between parasites and hosts, such as the arms race between computer virus writers and anti-virus software writers, or spammers against Internet Service Providers and E-mail software writers.
Lewis Fry Richardson made an arms race model, trying to retrodict World War I, where he showed how two countries would go to war if more money was spent in the arms race than in trade.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Arms_race   (284 words)

  
 1977 Scientists' Declaration on the Nuclear Arms Race
The strategic arms race stimulates the proliferation of nuclear weapons among nations some of which may be weak or irresponsible, and thus more likely to resort to the use of nuclear weapons in a local war.
More than ever it is urgent now to slow down and ultimately to stop the nuclear arms race, thus improving the stability of the nuclear stand off and setting the stage for reduction of the great inventories of weapons.
The 1960 treaty to demilitarize the Antarctic continent, the partial nuclear test ban of 1963 and the later treaties not to deploy nuclear warheads on the ocean bottoms and in outer space are but peripheral to the nuclear arms race.
www.ucsusa.org /ucs/about/1977-scientists-declaration-on-the-nuclear-arms-race.html   (1667 words)

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