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Topic: Nuclear explosion

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  Nuclear explosion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Atmospheric nuclear explosions are associated with "mushroom clouds" although mushroom clouds can occur with large chemical explosions and it is possible to have an air burst nuclear explosion without these clouds.
The dominant effects of a nuclear weapon (the blast and thermal radiation) are the same physical damage mechanisms as conventional explosives, but the energy produced by a nuclear explosive is millions of times more per gram and the temperatures reached are in the tens of millions of degrees.
The energy of a nuclear explosive is initially released in the form of gamma rays and neutrons.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Nuclear_explosion   (2961 words)

 Nuclear weapon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Although a nuclear weapon is capable of causing the same destruction as conventional explosives through the effects of blast and thermal radiation, it does so by releasing much larger amounts of energy in a much shorter period of time.
Nuclear weapons were symbols of military and national power, and nuclear testing was often used both to test new designs as well as to send political messages.
Nuclear weapons have been at the heart of many national and international political disputes, and have played a major part in popular culture since their dramatic public debut in the 1940s, and have usually symbolized the ultimate ability of mankind to utilize the strength of nature for destruction.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Nuclear_weapon   (2843 words)

 USGS Earthquake Hazards Program-FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions
In a nuclear test, all of the energy is suddenly (within milliseconds) released in the form of heat from a relatively small volume surrounding the thermo- nuclear device.
Nuclear tests are also very shallow sources with the depth of burial generally less than a few hundred meters (the depth of burial is typically proportional to the cube root of the expected yield).
The rock in the vicinity of the thermonuclear device is shattered by the passage of the explosions shock wave.
earthquake.usgs.gov /faq/nuclear.html   (1178 words)

 Encyclopedia: Nuclear explosion
An artists conception of a spacecraft powered by nuclear pulse propulsion Nuclear pulse propulsion (or External Pulsed Plasma Propulsion, as it is termed in one recent NASA document) is a proposed method of spacecraft propulsion that uses nuclear explosions for thrust.
The third nuclear explosion in connection with seismic gauging was performed in 1988 south-east of the town of Kotlas.
In 1981, a nuclear bomb was detonated in the Nenets Autonomous Region in the far north of the county of Arkhangel’sk.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Nuclear-explosion   (752 words)

 Nuclear testing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nuclear weapons tests are generally classified as being either "atmospheric" (in or above the atmosphere), "underground," or "underwater." Of these, underground testing contained in deep shafts poses the least health risk in terms of fallout.
From the first nuclear test in 1945 until the latest tests by Pakistan in 1998, there was never a period of more than 22 months with no nuclear testing.
Planned as a method to dispel doubts about whether the USA's nuclear missiles would actually function in practice, it had less effect than was hoped, as the stockpile warhead was substantially modified prior to testing, and the missile tested was a relatively low-flying SLBM and not a high-flying ICBM.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Nuclear_testing   (1264 words)

 ipedia.com: Nuclear weapon Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Nuclear weapons are often described as either fission or fusion devices based on the dominant source of the weapon's energy.
The dominant effects of a nuclear weapon (the blast and thermal radiation) are the same physical damage mechanisms as conventional explosives.
The residual radioactive contamination hazard from a nuclear explosion is in the form of radioactive fallout and neutron-induced activity.
www.ipedia.com /nuclear_weapon.html   (3542 words)

 Nuclear Weapon Effects
The energy of a nuclear explosion is transferred to the surrounding medium in three distinct forms: blast; thermal radiation; and nuclear radiation.
Nuclear explosions are generally classified as air bursts, surface bursts, subsurface bursts, or high altitude bursts.
Nuclear effects on electromagnetic signal propagation, which affects command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C 4 I), are of concern to countries expected to use nuclear weapons, particularly those which intend to explode a weapon at great altitudes or those which expect to have to defend against such a nuclear attack.
www.fas.org /nuke/intro/nuke/effects.htm   (1748 words)

 Nuclear Explosion Facts
When a nuclear weapon explodes, in about a millionth of a second a temperature of up to eighteen million degrees Fahrenheit, comparable to that inside the sun, is produced.
It should be noted that all nuclear weapons detonated in the air give rise to fallout, but where and when it occurs depends primarily on the altitude of the explosion.
With explosions in the air at altitudes such that the fireball does not touch the ground, the fission products, which are initially in gaseous form, rise with the fireball to great heights into the troposphere or stratosphere.
www.geocities.com /CapeCanaveral/Lab/2742/numbers.htm   (3025 words)

 Effects of Nuclear Explosions
The larger the explosion, the higher and faster the fallout is lofted, and the smaller the proportion that is deposited in the lower atmosphere.
The release of ionizing radiation, both at the instant of explosion and delayed radiation from fallout, is governed by the physics of the nuclear reactions involved and how the weapon is constructed, and is thus very dependent on both weapon type and design.
Nuclear weapons can cause acute radiation sickness either from prompt exposure at the time of detonation, or from the intense radiation emitted by early fallout in the first few days afterward.
nuclearweaponarchive.org /Nwfaq/Nfaq5.html   (14567 words)

 [No title]
4 The 100 KT Sedan nuclear explosion, one of the Plowshares excavation tests, was buried at a depth of 635 feet.
The major nuclear powers continue to abide by the world moratorium on nuclear testing, and even India and Pakistan appear to have joined the moratorium after their May 1998 nuclear tests.
Since the natural energy scale for a fission nuclear weapon is of order 10 KT, much lower yield weapons must be sensitive to exacting design tolerances; the final yield is determined by an exponentially growing number of fission-produced neutrons, so the total number of neutron generations must be finely-tuned.
www.fas.org /faspir/2001/v54n1/weapons.htm   (2753 words)

 Ripple Rock Explosion, Vancouver Island
Norman Hacking, Vancouver Province marine editor during that time, witnessed the explosion and wrote, "We saw a few bug-eyed snapper but that was all." And in fact, there was a very small number of fish casualties.
For residents of Campbell River, the nearest town to Seymour Narrows, the explosion was anti-climactic.
Hunkered safely in the bunker, witnesses were privy to the entire explosion that was accompanied by a thunderous boom.
www.vancouverislandabound.com /tamingof.htm   (1639 words)

 History of Nuclear Weapons Testing
The average pace of nuclear weapons testing is remarkable: Since 16 July 1945 there have been 2,044 tests worldwide, the equivalent of one test occurring somewhere in the world every nine days for the last fifty years.
Of the 2,044 nuclear weapons tests worldwide, there have been 711 in the atmosphere or underwater: 215 by the U.S., 207 by the Soviet Union, 21 by Britain, 45 by France and, 23 by China.
Radioactivity has leaked into the environment from underground nuclear tests, large areas of land are uninhabitable as a result of atmospheric and underground nuclear testing, and indigenous people, their children and their children's children's health and livelihoods have been affected by nuclear weapons tests.
archive.greenpeace.org /comms/nukes/ctbt/read9.html   (950 words)

 Security: Effects of a Nuclear Explosion
Despite the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the threat of nuclear war persists, particularly in the event of accidental or unauthorized launch -- a possibility that has grown larger with the deterioration of Russia's nuclear command and control system.
Changes in nuclear weapons targeting strategy make it more likely that a number of smaller-yield weapons - with possibly even greater cumulative destructive impact - would be used in the event of a modern-day nuclear strike.
Shortly after the explosion, there would be added to this list of casualties tens of thousands of others suffering from a unique form of injury: radiation sickness.
www.psr.org /home.cfm?id=disarmament22   (2166 words)

 Home -- NNSA   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Nuclear weapons continue to play an essential role ensuring the nation's security, but with the end of the Cold War have come some significant changes in nuclear policy.
Not only has the Bush Administration significantly cut back the number of deployed nuclear weapons (the Moscow Treaty), but it has embarked on a bold plan to reduce the total number of nuclear weapons in the nation's stockpile nearly by half by 2012, giving the United States its smallest nuclear weapons stockpile since the 1950s.
The National Nuclear Security Administration faces the twin challenges of ensuring the safety, security and reliability of an aging nuclear weapons stockpile and determining how to maintain the nation's nuclear deterrent into the future.
www.nnsa.doe.gov   (290 words)

 Energy of a Nuclear Explosion.
Nuclear energy, often mistakenly called atomic energy, is the most powerful kind of energy known.
Nuclear weapons are far more destructive than any conventional (non-nuclear) weapon.
Nuclear weapons have a large variety of energy yields.
www.freerepublic.com /focus/news/770203/posts   (1656 words)

 USNews.com: News: Q and A with Scott Kirsch: Digging with bombs (1/6/06)
When the nuclear bomb was still young, weapons scientists dreamed that the doomsday devices could peacefully reshape the world.
In the 1950s and 1960s, there was pressure on the nuclear weapons labs to find peaceful uses for their explosives.
The plan was to do a small—and I do hesitate to use that word—experiment with a nuclear explosion to create a small harbor in northern Alaska.
www.usnews.com /usnews/news/articles/060106/6kirsch.htm?track=rss   (530 words)

 An End to the Nuclear Threat? - Jehovah's Witnesses Official Web Site
With the nuclear "Armageddon" seemingly called off, or at least postponed, the world heaved a long-awaited sigh of relief.
In addition, experts fear that it is only a matter of time before some terrorist group get their hands on radioactive material and build a crude atom bomb.
According to a research group called the Committee on Nuclear Policy, some 5,000 nuclear weapons are currently on hair-trigger alert.
www.watchtower.org /library/g/1999/8/22/article_01.htm   (358 words)

 Code Validation Experiments -a Key to Predictive Science | Fall 2002 | Los Alamos National Laboratory
Using models of the physical processes that occur in a nuclear detonation, a computer can calculate variables such as temperature and pressure for any point in the calculational space of the simulated explosion with high spatial resolution—from the time the virtual bomb goes off (or before) to any time later.
To fully validate a weapon code also requires the use of data from nuclear tests performed before the test ban went into effect as well as data from other experiments, as we discuss later in the article.
The goal of stockpile stewardship is to ensure that the weapons in the enduring nuclear stockpile, both today and in the future, are safe and reliable and will perform as expected—including those weapons that may have undergone changes due to aging, refurbishment, or other required modification.
www.lanl.gov /quarterly/q_fall02/code.shtml   (2852 words)

 Terrorism: Q & A | "Dirty Bombs"
No. Nuclear weapons involve a complex nuclear-fission reaction and are thousands of times more devastating.
Depending on the sophistication of the bomb, wind conditions, and the speed with which the area of the attack was evacuated, the number of deaths and injuries from a dirty bomb explosion might not be substantially greater than from a conventional bomb explosion.
Weapons-grade plutonium or uranium, as well as freshly spent nuclear fuel, would be the most deadly, but these are also the most difficult to obtain and handle.
cfrterrorism.org /weapons/dirtybomb.html   (703 words)

 Cold Fusion
It would probably be examined mainly by nuclear physicists -- the men who had grown grey in the service of 'hot' fusion.
This is approaching the sort of power output of the fuel rods in a conventional nuclear fission reactor.
The measure of MIT's success in killing off cold fusion is that still today, the U.S. Department of Energy refuses to fund any research into it while the U.S. Patent Office relies on the MIT report to refuse any patents based on or relating to cold fusion processes even though hundreds have been submitted.
www.alternativescience.com /cold_fusion.htm   (2745 words)

 Remarkable Three-Hour Nuclear Explosion On Neutron Star Details Unimagined Fury   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
As if daily nuclear explosions on neutron stars releasing more energy in 10 seconds than the Sun does in a week weren't fantastic enough, a NASA astronomer observed a far more powerful blast lasting 1,000 times longer.
Strohmayer's results, which may mark the first observation of a carbon-fueled thermonuclear explosion on a neutron star, are presented today at the meeting of the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society in Honolulu, Hawaii.
The explosion itself is interesting to scientists because (1) it lasted so long, providing plenty of X-ray photons to analyze, and (2) it showed such unique fluctuations or patterns during those three hours, providing the meat for in-depth analysis of the physics of neutron stars, accretion, and thermonuclear reactions.
www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2000/11/001122182124.htm   (1265 words)

 atomicarchive.com: Exploring the History, Science, and Consequences of the Atomic Bomb
A comprehensive section chronicling the race for the atomic bomb, from the discovery of nuclear fission to the Trinity Test.
Explore our nuclear world with an extensive collection of data and interactive maps about nuclear stockpiles, facilities, and forces.
We are pleased to annouce the greatly expanded section on the effects of nuclear weapons.
www.atomicarchive.com   (397 words)

 Bush: Baghdad Nuclear Explosion "Sign of Coalition Success", by David Albrecht - Democratic Underground
Baghdad, the heart of Middle Eastern civilization for thousands of years, was largely obliterated by a thermonuclear explosion yesterday.
Experts believe that the death toll may rise to one million or more in the first use of nuclear weapons by a terrorist group, and emphasize that these are conservative casualty estimates.
The flash of the explosion, which came at 9:54 AM local time, was seen as far away as Tikrit and Kuwait City, at which time all communications with Baghdad stopped.
www.democraticunderground.com /articles/03/10/30_nuclear.html   (719 words)

 CBC News: U.S. says 'no indication' North Korean explosion was nuclear
An explosion on Thursday in Yanggang province, near the Chinese border, was reported in South Korea to have caused a huge mushroom cloud, causing speculation it could have been atomic.
North Korea, which is believed to have an advanced nuclear weapons program, has not commented on the occurrence at all.
In April, an explosion at a railway station in Ryongchong killed more than 150 people, but secretive North Korea took three days to admit it happened.
www.cbc.ca /story/world/national/2004/09/12/mushroomcloud040912.html   (423 words)

 United Press International - International - US investigating whether nukes in country   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Jim Ford, a former Department of Energy intelligence official who dealt with nuclear smuggling, said: "The big, big fear is that nuclear weapons have been sold" to terrorists or nation states that sponsor terror.
The Soviet nuclear backpack system was made in the 1960s for use against NATO targets in time of war, U.S. intelligence sources said.
A nuclear suitcase bomb is "as large as two footlockers," said former CIA countererrorism chief Vincent Cannistraro.
www.upi.com /view.cfm?StoryID=20122001-044449-5310r   (2411 words)

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