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Topic: Nuclear fuel cycle

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In the News (Wed 21 Aug 19)

  Electrical Engineering Tutorials: The Nuclear Fuel Cycle
Fuel removed from a reactor, after it has reached the end of its useful life, can be reprocessed to produce new fuel.
The main hazard of this stage of the fuel cycle is the use of hydrogen fluoride.
The fissioning of uranium is used as a source of heat in a nuclear power station in the same way that the burning of coal, gas or oil is used as a source of heat in a fossil fuel power plant.
powerelectrical.blogspot.com /2007/04/nuclear-fuel-cycle.html   (2084 words)

 Cameco Corporation --- Uranium - Fuel - Electricity - Mining - Milling - Refining
Fuel fabrication is the last stage of the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle before the uranium fuel is ready for use in a reactor.
After being in a nuclear reactor for several months, a portion of the nuclear fuel must be replaced with new fuel.
After receiving input from various stakeholders and the public, the federal government introduced nuclear fuel waste legislation in April 2001, requiring nuclear utilities to establish a separate waste management organization to manage the disposal of nuclear fuel waste.
www.cameco.com /uranium_101/uranium_science/nuclear_fuel   (3086 words)

 Nuclear Fuel Cycle - BERR
A fuel assembly remains within an AGR for a period of typically four to eight years, after which it is removed from the reactor using the fuelling machine and moved to a store for up to a month to allow some of its radioactivity to decay.
The fuel elements are then passed to water tanks called cooling ponds, where they remain for a minimum period of 60 days and typically for between three to six months, before being loaded into specially designed flasks and transported off site for reprocessing or long term storage.
Approximately two thirds of the discharged fuel and one third of new fuel is then returned to the reactor vessel and the structure is reassembled.
www.berr.gov.uk /energy/sources/nuclear/technology/fuel-cycle/page17921.html   (726 words)

 Nuclear fuel cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth
The fissioning of uranium is used as a source of heat in a nuclear power plant in the same way that the burning of coal, gas or oil is used as a source of heat in a fossil fuel power plant.
There is also a reluctance to dispose of used fuel because it represents a significant energy resource that could be reprocessed at a later date to allow recycling of the uranium and plutonium.
Wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle are categorized as high-, medium- or low-level wastes by the amount of radiation that they emit.
www.eoearth.org /article/Nuclear_fuel_cycle   (2902 words)

 Nuclear Files: Key Issues: Nuclear Weapons: Issues: Proliferation: Nuclear Fuel Cycle
Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology: The nuclear fuel cycle is the complex process of preparing uranium for fuel use in nuclear power reactors, also called the “front end” of the fuel cycle.
The “back end” of the fuel cycle refers to the storage, reprocessing and disposal of the uranium after its use in the reactor.
After its use in nuclear power reactors, the uranium, which includes 1% plutonium as a by-product, is taken out of the reactor, stored, and possibly reprocessed to separate the fuel from nuclear waste.
www.nuclearfiles.org /menu/key-issues/nuclear-weapons/issues/proliferation/fuel-cycle   (2381 words)

 Disarmament Diplomacy: The Nuclear Fuel Cycle:
No nuclear fuel cycle is entirely free of some proliferation risk, but the level of nuclear activity in virtually all the non-nuclear weapon states was generally regarded, until the early 1970s, as fitting within the capabilities of IAEA safeguards.
Nuclear energy was one of the centerpieces of efforts to diversify the energy resource base, and Secretary of State Kissinger stressed American readiness to explore the sharing of enrichment technologies, and the establishment of multinational arrangements to that end.
Control of nuclear technology had largely been based on political commitments that were monitored and verified by international safeguards, designed to detect any illicit effort to divert material from the peaceful nuclear fuel cycle.
www.acronym.org.uk /dd/dd76/76ls.htm   (9745 words)

 Reaching Critical Will
Uranium is the principal fuel for nuclear reactors and the main raw material for nuclear weapons.
For the common nuclear reactor (light-water) yellowcake is enriched to 3% uranium-235.
Another relationship between nuclear energy and nuclear weapons is the ability to “recycle” spent atomic fuel, in the form of plutonium, into weapons technology.
www.reachingcriticalwill.org /resources/factsheets/fuelcycle.html   (2800 words)

 BBC NEWS | In Depth | 2003 | Nuclear fuel cycle | mining
Nuclear fission works best if isotopes - atoms with the same atomic number, but different numbers of neutrons - of uranium 235 (or plutonium 239) are used.
Uranium-235 is known as a "fissile isotope" because of its propensity to split in a chain reaction, releasing energy in the form of heat.
A nuclear reaction will only take place if there are enough u-235 atoms present to allow this process to continue as a self-sustaining chain reaction.
news.bbc.co.uk /1/hi/in_depth/world/2003/nuclear_fuel_cycle/mining/default.stm   (223 words)

 World Nuclear Association
Each fuel has its own distinctive fuel cycle: however the uranium or 'nuclear fuel cycle' is more complex than the others.
This is as far as the nuclear fuel cycle goes at present.
Safeguards are accounting and auditing procedures applied to all nuclear materials in NPT countries, so that when they are used or traded their civil use can be verified.* It follows that uranium cannot be traded with any country which does not permit it to remain under NPT safeguards**.
world-nuclear.org /education/nfc.htm   (2594 words)

 Completing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle
At the beginning of the nuclear age, it was assumed that nations would complete the fuel cycle—including the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel from reactors, to get as near to 100% use of the uranium fuel as possible.
Fuel rods are used for about four and a half years before replacement, and usually a reactor replaces about a third of its fuel at one time.
The spent fuel from a single 1,000-megawatt nuclear plant, operated over 40 years, is equal to the energy in 130 million barrels of oil, or 37 million tons of coal.
www.schillerinstitute.org /economy/phys_econ/2006/beaut_nuke_cycle.html   (2597 words)

 The Nuclear Fuel Cycle
These operations are : uranium mining, conversion and enrichment of the uranium to produce fuel for reactors, fission of uranium in reactors to liberate heat, the generation of electricity by steam turbines, reprocessing of spent fuel to isolate plutonium and 'unburned' uranium and storing the radioactive wastes.
The nuclear energy system is called a cycle because the plutonium and unused uranium isolated by reprocessing the wastes at the 'back end' of the cycle can be returned to the 'front end' as fuel.
Although the operations of the nuclear industry can be represented as a cycle, it's various operations are not carried out in one place but are scattered all over the worod.
www.sea-us.org.au /nuke-cycle.html   (1081 words)

 2. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle — Australia and the Nuclear Industry
Fuel Fabrication: The enriched uranium is sent to a fuel fabrication plant where it is changed into a uranium dioxide powder and compacted into small pellets.
The fuel rods are put together to form a fuel assembly.
Nuclear Power Plants: The fuel assemblies are inserted into the core of the nuclear power reactor.
www.nuclearfreeaustralia.com.au /articles/2-the-nuclear-fuel-cycle-in-brief   (439 words)

  Nuclear Fuel Cycle Topical Reports
Public acceptance of nuclear power has been on the increase in many parts of the world and booming economic growth in asia suggests that some countries may have to rely on nuclear power to meet increasing energy needs.
A look at the Russian nuclear fuel industry ten years after the end of the Communist era.
Russia's enrichment, fuel fabrication, conversion, and uranium industries are examined in detail.
www.nacworldwide.com /Topicals.htm   (842 words)

  Nuclear fuel cycle
All activities relating to treatment, reprocessing and disposal of fuel elements are summarized under the term waste management.
In the case of the direct ultimate waste disposal, the entire fuel element including the valuable substances uranium and plutonium is disposed of as radioactive waste following an interim storage period to allow the short-lived radionuclides to decay and thus the heat development conditional on the decay to decline.
For this purpose the fuel elements are sectioned in a conditioning plant, packed in containers suitable for final storage before being stored in a repository.
www.euronuclear.org /info/encyclopedia/n/nuclear-fuel-cycle.htm   (683 words)

 TradeTech-Uranium.Info - Uranium Market - Nuclear Fuel Cycle
The cycle consists of a "front end" that comprises the steps necessary to prepare nuclear fuel for reactor operation and a "back end" that comprises the steps necessary to manage the spent nuclear fuel, which is highly radioactive.
It is possible to extract the unused uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel through chemical reprocessing and to recycle the recovered uranium and plutonium as nuclear fuel, as shown.
The spent fuel rods are usually stored in water, which provides both cooling (the spent fuel continues to generate heat as a result of residual radioactive decay) and shielding (to protect the environment from residual ionizing radiation).
www.uranium.info /uranium/cycle.html   (657 words)

 Corporation TVEL :: Nuclear fuel cycle :: Nuclear fuel cycle
Nuclear fuel cycle is a combination of techniques for mining uranium, nuclear reactor fuel production and preparing the fuel for the use and after-use disposal.
The notion “fuel cycle” specifies the fact that spent or irradiated nuclear fuel (SNF) can be regenerated after special treatment.
Nuclear power fuel cycle can be divided into three phases.
www.tvel.ru /en/nuclear_power/nuclear_fuel_cycle   (312 words)

 Research | Fission Engineering and Fuel Cycle | Nuclear Science and Engineering Department @ MIT
Nuclear power plants in the US have achieved record high capacity in recent years, while the performance of plants in other nations has been relatively stagnant.
Other anticipated outcomes are reduction in fuel cycle electricity costs, along with improved resource utilization, reduction in the volume and hazard of high level waste, and increased proliferation resistance.
The reactor is part of the MIT Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, an interdepartmental laboratory that functions as an educational and research center for many MIT departments, as well as local universities and hospitals.
web.mit.edu /nse/research/fission/fission_fuelcycle.html   (1879 words)

 Russian nuclear fuel cycle   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Russian nuclear fuel cycle incorporates all of those element in the industry aimed at producing nuclear fuel.
The closed fuel cycle, which Russian uses, recycles SNF for fuel usable material such as uranium and plutonium.
Fuel that can be recycled is reprocessed at the Mayak Chemical Combine in the southern Urals, widely considered the most radioactively contaminated spot in Russia.
www.bellona.org /subjects/Russian_nuclear_fuel_cycle   (362 words)

 Arms Control Association: Arms Control Today: NEWS ANALYSIS: The Growing Nuclear Fuel-Cycle Debate
Fuel assemblies are manufactured to the specifications of every reactor type and sometimes specifically for each reactor, making a fuel bank containing nuclear fuel for all possible recipients impractical.
In a Sept. 20 statement to the IAEA general conference, Daud Mohamad, director-general of the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, cautioned that a multilateral approach to the nuclear fuel cycle should not be discriminatory.
The recent interest of some states in expanding the scope of their nuclear activities has been explained by a desire to join the club of states operating a nuclear fuel cycle before membership is closed.
www.armscontrol.org /act/2006_11/NAFuel.asp?print   (2563 words)

 Nuclear Fuel Cycle
Apart from the reactor technology, India has acquired comprehensive capability in the design, construction and operation of associated plants/facilities covering the entire fuel cycle, starting from mining, milling and concentration of ore, through fabrication of fuel to reprocessing and management of waste.
The DAE-organisations contributing to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Programme, are the Atomic Minerals Directorate for Research and Exploration (AMD)-Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh), Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL)-Jaduguda (Jharkand), Indian Rare Earths Ltd. (IRE)-Mumbai, Heavy Water Board (HWB)-Mumbai, Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC)-Hyderabad, BARC and IGCAR.
The mined natural uranium is processed as yellow cake and sent to the Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) at Hyderabad for fabrication of PHWR fuel.
www.dae.gov.in /publ/persp/perspold/nfc3.htm   (1379 words)

 UIC - Nuclear Fuel Cycle
Enriched UF is transported to a fuel fabrication plant where it is converted to uranium dioxide (UO) powder and pressed into small pellets.
The rods are then sealed and assembled in clusters to form fuel assemblies for use in the core of the nuclear reactor.
Safeguards are accounting and auditing procedures applied to all nuclear materials in NPT countries, so that when they are used or traded their civil use can be verified.* It follows that uranium cannot be traded with any country which does not permit it to remain under NPT safeguards**.
www.uic.com.au /nfc.htm   (2590 words)

 Nuclear fuel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned to derive energy.
H (tritium) are used as fuel for nuclear fusion.
The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, is a U.S. plan to form an international partnership to see spent nuclear fuel reprocessed in a way that renders the plutonium in it usable for nuclear fuel but not for nuclear weapons.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Nuclear_fuel   (3716 words)

 Reactor Analysis and Engineering: Projects: Advanced Fuel Cycle Program
Argonne National Laboratory has been working together with the international research community to explore the potential of advanced nuclear technologies that can significantly reduce the difficulty of disposing of spent nuclear fuel from power plants.
Separations technologies based on pyrochemical and aqueous approaches are being developed for existing spent nuclear fuel and specialized transmutation fuels.
Fuels are being developed for transmuting transuranics in reactors that would be used for transmutation.
www.rae.anl.gov /research/afc   (300 words)

 Iran Building Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities
Iran is a signatory of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and has committed to renouncing the possession of nuclear weapons and permitting inspections by the IAEA of all its nuclear activities.
Iran stated at the IAEA General Conference in September 2002 in Vienna that it was pursuing a "long term plan" to construct "nuclear power plants and the associated technologies such as fuel cycle" facilities.
There is concern that this effort to obtain a complete fuel cycle is aimed at developing the capability to make separated plutonium and highly enriched uranium, the two main nuclear explosive materials.
www.isis-online.org /publications/iran/iranimages.html   (811 words)

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