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Topic: Nuclear material

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In the News (Sat 15 Jun 19)

  Daily NK - North Korean Nuclear Test 101 – Introduction to NK’s Nuclear Weapon in Technical Perse
Nuclear bomb is consisted of Uranium bomb and Plutonium bomb depending on the type of element.
It is highly probable that North Korea’s nuclear material is the Plutonium that is reprocessed from spent fuel rods in nuclear reactor.
Nuclear bomb is developed with a huge amount of time and money, and it is not developed to be kept carefully in garage.
www.dailynk.com /english/read.php?cataId=nk00100&num=1021   (2384 words)

  Nuclear medicine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nuclear medicine is a branch of medicine and medical imaging that uses unsealed radioactive substances in diagnosis and therapy.
Nuclear medicine diagnostic tests are usually provided by a dedicated department within a hospital and may include facilities for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals.
Since each nuclear medicine radionuclide has a unique gamma-ray emission energy spectrum, and since the energy of a gamma-ray is detected in a gamma-camera by the brightness of the scintillation associated with an event, gamma-cameras employ energy 'windows' to gate or limit the imaging process to gamma-ray events of particular energies.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Nuclear_medicine   (1453 words)

 Nuclear fuel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned to derive energy.
The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, is a U.S. plan to form an international partnership to see spent nuclear fuel reprocessed in a way that renders the plutonium in it usable for nuclear fuel but not for nuclear weapons.
The terms atomic battery, nuclear battery and radioisotope battery are used to describe a device which uses the radioactive decay to generate electricity.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Nuclear_fuel   (3622 words)

 World Nuclear Association | Nuclear Energy Made Simple | Nuclear Electricity | Chapter 7   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Nuclear weapons are now in the possession of several nations,* and during the "Cold War" (1950s to 1980s) there was a massive build-up of nuclear armaments, particularly by the USA and the Soviet Union.
Nuclear reactor exports are also placed under tight control by this agreement which stipulates the need for government assurances regarding peaceful use, together with acceptance by customer countries of full-scope safeguards inspections on all present and future nuclear activities.
The United Nations imposed a nuclear "freeze" on the country's reactors and facilities under a 1994 Agreed Framework which led to the country bowing to international pressure so that the IAEA could reassure the UN that all nuclear materials were safeguarded and that North Korea was moving towards full compliance with its IAEA safeguards agreement.
www.world-nuclear.org /education/ne/ne7.htm   (4454 words)

 Turkey Detects Nuclear Material Trafficking
Material originating from Kazakstan was brought to Turkey by sea from Romania and Bulgaria for shipment, and material also crossed from northern Iraq through the Habur border post, to Turkey.
In the same period, 16 cases of nuclear material and radioactive source smuggling were verified, although none of the incidents involved significantly enriched uranium for weapons use.
Turkey is a party to various treaties including the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons ratified on 29 March, 1979, and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials ratified in 1984.
www.freerepublic.com /focus/news/729744/posts   (1833 words)

 Nuclear Terrorism   (Site not responding. Last check: )
In fact, a replica — with proxy nuclear material and conventional explosives in place of the real stuff — was disguised as a briefcase, and actually hand-carried on commercial airline flights from California to Washington in the early 1980s.
A prime example is the transfer of nuclear materials detectors to Russia, which were then emplaced at strategic border crossings, ports and airports to detect diversion.
For a nuclear device, a set of options for disabling the weapon are available including using explosives to wreck the bomb's wiring to prevent the triggering of the nuclear detonators.
www.cdi.org /terrorism/nuclear.cfm   (2515 words)

 UNODC - Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materia
"nuclear material" means plutonium except that with isotopic concentration exceeding 80% in plutonium-238; uranium-233; uranium enriched in the isotopes 235 or 233; uranium containing the mixture of isotopes as occurring in nature other than in the form of ore or ore-residue; any material containing one or more of the foregoing;
In the case of theft, robbery or any other unlawful taking of nuclear material or of credible threat thereof, States Parties shall, in accordance with their national law, provide co-operation and assistance to the maximum feasible extent in the recovery and protection of such material to any State that so requests.
Material not irradiated in a reactor or material irradiated in a reactor but with a radiation level equal to or less than 100 reds/hour at one metre unshielded.
www.unodc.org /unodc/terrorism_convention_nuclear_material.html   (3152 words)

 NRC: Special Nuclear Materials
"Special nuclear material" (SNM) is defined by Title I of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 as plutonium, uranium-233, or uranium enriched in the isotopes uranium-233 or uranium-235.
The definition includes any other material that the Commission determines to be special nuclear material, but does not include source material.
Special nuclear material is only mildly radioactive, but it includes some fissile material -- uranium-233, uranium-235, and plutonium-239 -- that, in concentrated form, can be the primary ingredients of nuclear explosives.
www.nrc.gov /materials/sp-nucmaterials.html   (326 words)

 Nuclear Bomb Material Removed from Czech Research Reactor
The nuclear fuel was originally supplied to the Czech Republic by the Soviet Union for use in the Soviet-designed 10 megawatt LVR-15 multi-purpose research reactor, located in Rez near the Czech capital, Prague.
The nuclear fuel was airlifted under guard from an airport near Riga to a secure facility, NPO Luch, in Podol'sk, Russia.
The program's aim is to identify, secure and recover high-risk vulnerable nuclear and radiological materials around the world so as to minimize as quickly as possible the amount of nuclear material at large that could be used for nuclear weapons.
www.ens-newswire.com /ens/oct2005/2005-10-06-02.asp   (1046 words)

 Arms Control Association: Arms Control Today: Guarding Nuclear Reactors and Material From Terrorists and Thieves
But, when the NPT was drafted, nuclear terrorism was not perceived as a significant threat, and the safeguards consist of monitoring and accounting measures designed to prevent non-nuclear-weapon states from diverting nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to weapons programs.
The safeguards are not intended to prevent theft of nuclear material by outsiders or the bombing of reactors and spent fuel by terrorists.
Many countries provide some form of physical protection for their nuclear material, but because there is no international standard or requirement for physical protection of civilian nuclear material (as there is for safeguards), countries’ protections vary widely and are often inadequate.
www.armscontrol.org /act/2001_10/bunnoct01.asp   (3542 words)

 Database exposes threat from 'lost' nuclear material: 3/02
Nuclear physicist Friedrich Steinhausler is the driving force behind the new IIS Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO).
The 1980 Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material is weak, he said, because it requires international standards only for transporting nuclear materials from one country to another.
The convention should be strengthened to include domestic storage and domestic use of nuclear materials, and to establish specific standards for protection, he added.
news-service.stanford.edu /news/march6/database-36.html   (1683 words)

 Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material
Further, the Convention lists certain serious offenses involving nuclear material which state parties are to make punishable and for which offenders shall be subject to a system of extradition or submission for prosecution.
Material not irradiated in a reactor or material irradiated in a reactor but with a radiation level equal to or less than 100 rads/hour at one metre unshielded.
Other fuel which by virtue of its original fissile material content is classified as Category I and II before irradiation may be reduced one category level while the radiation level from the fuel exceeds 100 rads/hour at one metre unshielded.
www.state.gov /t/ac/trt/5079.htm   (3401 words)

 CNN - U.S. removing nuclear material from Georgia - April 21, 1998
The material -- which consists of 9.5 pounds of highly enriched uranium-235 and two pounds of spent nuclear fuel -- will be sent to Scotland, where it will be broken down for civilian use, a British government statement said Tuesday.
But officials at the Institute of Physics say the material is sufficient to build a nuclear bomb, and the Times reported that private experts say a skilled bomb maker could use it to make a weapon with a yield equivalent to 1,000 tons of TNT.
Britain said the material will be processed at the Dounreay nuclear complex in Scotland, adding that its decision to handle the material underlines its commitment to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons.
www.cnn.com /WORLD/europe/9804/21/georgia.nuclear/index.html   (813 words)

 BBC News | AMERICAS | Fears over missing nuclear material
The Stanford Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) was released as US senators warned that the so-called "dirty" bombs made of discarded radioactive material could have a significant psycho-social effect and cause mass panic among the population.
It said that while most of that material had been later retrieved, two kilograms of highly enriched uranium from a reactor in Georgia was still missing.
Another member of the research team, nuclear physicist Friedrich Steinhausler, said the biggest hole in the database was that no one knew where the smuggled material has gone.
news.bbc.co.uk /1/hi/world/americas/1859560.stm   (491 words)

 Lost Halliburton Nuclear Material Found   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The material — two sources of the element americium, used in oil well exploration — was found intact at a freight facility after an intense search by federal authorities.
Hall said the material was encased in a double-walled stainless steel cylinder that was locked in a steel transport container designed to protect workers.
The NRC report indicates the material was trucked to Massachusetts after a Boston label was inadvertently placed on the package at the freight company's Newark, N.J., facility.
www.sfgate.com /cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/news/archive/2005/02/10/national/w153100S29.DTL   (514 words)

 NRDC: The ABC News Nuclear Smuggling Experiment: The Sequel
Most nuclear reactor fuel and nuclear weapon components are made with uranium in which the U-235 concentration has been increased by a process called enrichment.
Had the 15-pound uranium cylinder been weapon-grade highly enriched uranium instead of depleted uranium (which is not suitable for nuclear weapons), the dose rate at the surface of the highly enriched uranium would have been more than 100 times higher.
Consequently, the administration is spending millions of dollars in a futile effort to detect weapon-usable material at U.S. borders, rather securing the material at its source or eliminating it altogether.
www.nrdc.org /nuclear/furanium.asp   (1693 words)

 CNS - Sustainability: A Vital Component of Nuclear Material Security in Russia
With this in mind, this viewpoint describes the impediments to sustainable nuclear material safeguards in Russia and suggests both general strategies and specific measures to overcome these obstacles.
Other institutional impediments include poor material accounting practices (reliance on manual and book inventories, acceptance of unverified book values, and limited performance of material balances) and the diminished prestige of the nuclear industry, which limits the recruitment and retention of bright, young specialists.
Nuclear material security must be elevated to the top of the US-Russian nonproliferation agenda.
cns.miis.edu /pubs/npr/vol07/71/potweh71.htm   (4484 words)

 NTI: Securing the Bomb: Securing Nuclear Warheads and Materials
Ensuring that every nuclear warhead and every kilogram of nuclear material worldwide is secure and accounted for is the most important step in preventing nuclear weapons terrorism, and a key element in the global struggle to stop the spread of nuclear weapons.
Keeping these weapons and materials from being stolen in the first place is the key to keeping these items out of the hands of terrorists and hostile states, as finding them or blocking them from being smuggled after they are stolen is an extraordinarily difficult task.
In the aftermath of September 11, the program is seeking to expand to secure nuclear material in other parts of the world, and to improve controls on the most dangerous radiological sources that might be used in “dirty bombs” as well.
www.nti.org /e_research/cnwm/securing/index.asp   (1359 words)

 Nuclear Terrorism (Index)
Of all the terrorist threats facing the United States and the world, perhaps the gravest is the possibility of terrorists obtaining a nuclear weapon and detonating it in a city.
This is due to the sheer quantities of these materials Russia has produced, the large number of non-military sites with inadequate protection where these materials are stored, and the persistent poverty afflicting much of the population.
Thousands of so-called tactical nuclear weapons—many of which are quite small and do not have electronic locks to prevent their unauthorized use—are stored in Russia, some in poorly secured locations.
www.ucsusa.org /global_security/nuclear_terrorism/index.cfm   (897 words)

 USATODAY.com - What happened to looted Iraqi nuclear material?   (Site not responding. Last check: )
It wasn't until seven of Iraq's main nuclear facilities were extensively looted that the true magnitude of the administration's strategic blunder came into focus.
The White House knew all along, for example, that enormous quantities of dangerous nuclear materials were at the Tuwaitha nuclear storage facility near Baghdad, sealed and accounted for by the United Nations' International Atomic Energy Agency.
While their destructive capacity pales in comparison to that of actual nuclear bombs, a dirty bomb's capacity to inflict terror should never be underestimated.
www.usatoday.com /news/opinion/editorials/2003-10-05-wagner_x.htm   (700 words)

 NTI: Securing the Bomb
The latest report in our series finds that even though the gap between the threat of nuclear terrorism and the response has narrowed in recent years, there remains an unacceptable danger that terrorists might succeed in their quest to get and use a nuclear bomb, turning a modern city into a smoking ruin.
The possibility that nuclear weapons or the materials needed to make them could be stolen and fall into the hands of terrorists or hostile states poses among the most urgent threats to U.S. and international security.
Fortunately, a nuclear bomb cannot be made without nuclear material, and making such material is beyond the reach of terrorists.
www.nti.org /e_research/cnwm/overview/cnwm_home.asp   (2017 words)

 Press Release -- Tbilisi: The Tip of the Nuclear Iceberg   (Site not responding. Last check: )
For most nuclear aspirants, the acquisition of weapons-grade nuclear material -- HEU or plutonium -- remains the largest technical barrier to building a nuclear weapon.
In this sense, the material recovered from Georgia represents the tip of the iceberg in terms of nuclear material needing protection.
Many more cases of nuclear materials diversion from Russian facilities have been reported, but the lack of concrete evidence surrounding these cases has made their resolution impossible.
www.ceip.org /programs/npp/nppbrf1.htm   (653 words)

 NRC: Nuclear Materials Quick Links
Risk Assessment and Management in Nuclear Materials Regulation
NMSS Policy and Procedure Letter 1-82, 10 CFR 70.76 Backfit Guidance for Public Comment
Consolidated Guidance About Material Licenses, NUREG 1556, Volumes 1-20
www.nrc.gov /materials/ql-materials.html   (142 words)

 US Certifies Theft Of Russian Nuclear Material Has Occurred
A total of 23 attempts to steal fissile materials, which can be found in Russia in more than 300 buildings at over 40 locations across the country, were uncovered and thwarted by Russian authorities between 1991 and 1999, according to the document.
Even sites storing nuclear weapons, which are surrounded by layers of security, cannot be seen as problem-free because of drug and discipline problems among the servicemen, and their low pay, the report said.
In May 2000, two students at a training center that prepares guards for nuclear weapons facilities were expelled because they had failed their drug tests.
www.spacedaily.com /news/nuclear-blackmarket-02a.html   (1071 words)

 CNN - Inspection team ends check of Iraqi nuclear material - January 25, 2000
Iraq had allowed the IAEA inspections under the terms of a 1968 nuclear non-proliferation treaty, of which it is a signatory.
The team's objective was to verify that the nuclear stocks are not being used for military purposes.
Abu-Zahra and his inspectors spent most of their five days at the nuclear facility of Tuweitha, 25 kilometers (16 miles) east of Baghdad, where Iraq's remaining quantities of low-grade uranium are stored.
archives.cnn.com /2000/WORLD/meast/01/25/iraq.inspections/index.html   (668 words)

 BCSIA - Publication - Pace of Securing Nuclear Weapons Material Has Slowed Since 9/11
Enough HEU for hundreds of nuclear weapons--some 20 metric tons--exists as fuel for civilian research reactors in more than 130 research reactors in more than 40 countries around the world, many of them guarded by no more than a night watchman and a chain-link fence.
The $20 billion Group of Eight (G8) “Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction,” despite its promise, has so far focused only a small fraction of its effort on the urgent task of securing the world’s nuclear stockpiles—and is still struggling to move from pledges and words to action.
Russian President Putin should make clear that nuclear security is a critical priority for Russia’s own national security, devote sufficient resources to the task, direct his government to remove the obstacles slowing U.S.-Russian and global cooperation, and appoint a full-time official to lead the effort.
bcsia.ksg.harvard.edu /publication.cfm?ctype=media_feature&item_id=374   (882 words)

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