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Topic: Nuclear proliferation

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  The Online NewsHour: Tracking Nuclear Proliferation | PBS
Since 1945 when the United States detonated the world's first atomic bomb, eight other nations have built nuclear weapons and nearly two dozen others are suspected of seeking nuclear technology.
Evidence that al-Qaida leader Osama bin Laden may have tried to acquire nuclear weapons for use on targets in the United States has led to an increased urgency to track atomic weapons and material.
The global watchdog against nuclear proliferation, the International Atomic Energy Agency, has used its diplomatic sway to varying success in its fight to limit the spread of atomic weapons of mass destruction.
www.pbs.org /newshour/indepth_coverage/military/proliferation/index.html   (148 words)

  Nuclear Chemistry - Nuclear Proliferation
Nuclear proliferation means the uncontrolled spread of the technology, equipment and fissile materials that would alllow national or terroroist groups to fabricate and deliver nuclear weapons.
Nuclear proliferation was more a theory and concern for many years until the revelations in 2003 that Dr. A.
Khan, the leading nuclear weapons researcher in Pakistan was singlehandedly suppplying the information and equipment that moved North Korea, Libya and perhaps Iran much closer to their own nuclear arsenal.
chemcases.com /nuclear/nc-12.htm   (798 words)

 Nuclear Proliferation Links
Nuclear Control Institute (NCI) is an independent research and advocacy center specializing in problems of nuclear proliferation.
Nuclear Watch of New Mexico - seeks to promote greater safety and environmental protection at regional nuclear facilities and federal policy changes to curb the proliferation of nuclear weapons.
Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Nuclear Balance Joseph Cirincione, executive director of the Stimson Center's Campaign for the NPT, argues that the treaty is vital for global security.
www.nacworldwide.com /Links/Nuclear-Proliferation.htm   (601 words)

 NRDC: The Bush-Putin Treaty: An Orwellian Approach to Nuclear Arms Control
This May 2002 analysis by NRDC's nuclear program finds that the treaty proposed by President Bush to cut U.S. and Russian strategic nuclear arsenals would actually prolong the U.S.-Russian nuclear standoff and encourage nuclear proliferation.
Thus, the Bush administration assumes that we will continue to live in a world in which nuclear threats and counter-threats are the ultimate arbiters of national security, and it is obsessed with securing U.S. nuclear superiority to dominate such a world.
In the interests of capping and ultimately reversing the proliferation of nuclear weapons, the nuclear weapon states pledged in the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty of 1968 to negotiate "effective measures" leading toward the elimination of nuclear arsenals.
www.nrdc.org /nuclear/atreaty02.asp   (830 words)

 nuclear proliferation special - news @ nature.com - science news
The technology to make nuclear weapons has become easier to get and easier to hide, scientists have been caught trading in nuclear secrets, and many say the treaties written to stop the spread of warheads around the globe are now out of date.
Nuclear proliferation remains a potent threat — and scientists' active engagement is essential if it is to be effectively addressed.
Nuclear watchdogs and former weapons scientists are taking issue with a proposal to use weapons-grade uranium and plutonium at the US National Ignition Facility.
www.nature.com /news/specials/nuclear/index.html   (472 words)

 Nuclear Proliferation
With eight or more nuclear nations, the reliabilities placed on each nation to achieve a given median years of nuclear peace are much greater (to the point of exceeding human and technological capacity in some instances) than when there were fewer nuclear nations.
In Nukefix, activate the "P" (proliferation) command and RIGHT click on the nations window and you will be well on your way to making a sophisticated analysis of the consequences of nuclear proliferation.
Kenneth Waltz, a past president of the American Political Science Association and a major figure in the field, is one of the chief proponents of nuclear deterrence and gradual nuclear proliferation.
www.nukefix.org /prolif.html   (295 words)

 Nuclear Weapons - Global Issues
The NPT is seen by some critics as a means for the five nuclear powers at that time to retain their weapons while telling others not to develop them, and thus allow these five to remain militarily more powerful than other nations.
While the major nuclear powers have agreed to eliminate their nuclear arsenal at a UN review of the NPT, it remains to be seen how much of that will be rhetoric and how much real political will there will be to follow it through.
For countries such as the US that wish to dissuade others from pursuing nuclear weapons development, a negotiated approach that is also backed by real commitments where powerful countries live up to their parts of nuclear non proliferation treaties would go a long way towards achieving a more agreeable and peaceful future.
www.globalissues.org /Geopolitics/ArmsControl/Nuclear.asp   (1663 words)

 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)
There is a strong international consensus that the further spread of nuclear weapons would endanger the security of all countries, threaten global and regional stability, and undermine efforts to achieve peaceful solutions to existing problems among states.
Under Article I, the nuclear weapon states undertake not to transfer to any recipient whatsoever nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices, and not to assist encourage or induce any non-nuclear-weapon state to manufacture or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices.
Under Article IV, parties may engage in peaceful nuclear programs in a manner consistent with Articles I and II and are expected to assist the nuclear programs of other parties, with special attention to the needs of developing countries.
www.state.gov /t/isn/trty/16281.htm   (3609 words)

 NTI: Nuclear Threat Initiative
With terrorists actively seeking nuclear weapons and the materials to make them, urgent measures and high-level leadership are needed to prevent a nuclear 9/11, according to two new reports released on the eve of the G8 summit in St. Petersburg.
"North Korea's Nuclear Weapons Program and the Six-party Talks" The major obstacles to restarting the Six-party Talks include Pyongyang's insistence on its right to use peaceful nuclear technology, and Washington's efforts to address North Korea's alleged illicit activities such as counterfeiting, narcotics trafficking, and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and missiles.
Securing the Bomb Overviews of the global threat posed by inadequately managed nuclear weapons and materials; what is being done now to address that threat; and what should be done to prevent nuclear terrorism from ever occurring.
www.nti.org   (1006 words)

 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty -   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Since very few of the nuclear weapons states and states using nuclear reactions for energy generation are willing to completely abandon possession of nuclear fuel, the third pillar of the NPT provides other states with the possibility to do the same, but under conditions intended to make it difficult to develop nuclear weapons.
However the treaty gives every state the inalienable right to use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, and as the commercially popular light water reactor nuclear power station designs use enriched uranium fuel, it follows that states must be allowed to enrich uranium or purchase it on an international market.
These countries argue that the NPT creates a club of "nuclear haves" and a larger group of "nuclear have-nots" by restricting the legal possession of nuclear weapons to those states that tested them before 1967, but the treaty never explains on what ethical grounds such a distinction is valid.
www.aljazeera.com /me.asp?service_ID=10317   (2314 words)

 Safeguards to Prevent Nuclear Proliferation
The aim of traditional IAEA safeguards is to deter the diversion of nuclear material from peaceful use by maximising the risk of early detection.
However, of 71 countries with significant nuclear activities, four NPT parties have not yet signed the Additional Protocol and another ten have not fully ratified it (another four of the 71 are outside the NPT).
In the case of nuclear weapons States, which must also be parties to the NPT, sales require an assurance that uranium will not be diverted to military or explosive purposes and that it will be subject to IAEA safeguards.
www.uic.com.au /nip05.htm   (3653 words)

 Nuclear Proliferation, 1949-present
In 1952, Britain became the next nation to join the "nuclear club." This was not surprising, as the Manhattan Project had essentially been a joint Anglo-American program, especially once the British Mission of scientists arrived at Los Alamos in 1943 and 1944.
On July 1, 1968, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty was signed by the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and 59 other nations.
The nuclear weapons programs of the original five nuclear powers were driven primarily by Cold War concerns.
www.cfo.doe.gov /me70/manhattan/proliferation.htm   (648 words)

 Arms Control Association: Fact Sheets: The State of Nuclear Proliferation 2001
The nuclear-weapon states (NWS) are recognized as such by the 1968 nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in accordance with the treaty's categorical restriction of NWS status to those nations that "manufactured and exploded a nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive device prior to 1 January 1967" (Article IX, Section 3).
Estimates of the current arsenals of the de facto nuclear powers based on the known amount of fissile material are: India (45 to 95 warheads), Israel (75 to 125 warheads), and Pakistan (30 to 50 warheads).
All three states have returned to Russia the Soviet nuclear weapons previously based on their territory, and under the provisions of the Lisbon Protocol to the START I accord, have acceded to the NPT (Belarus, November 1996; Kazakhstan, April 1995; and Ukraine, June 1996).
www.armscontrol.org /factsheets/statefct.asp   (1576 words)

 Tackling the Hard Cases in Nuclear Proliferation
Despite this history of concealment, Iran continues to deny that it is seeking a nuclear weapons capability, and insists instead that it merely is seeking to exercise its "right" as a party to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) to peacefully use nuclear energy.
To tackle the hardest cases of nuclear proliferation, we have been developing and exercising a number of robust nonproliferation and counterproliferation tools.
The Proliferation Security Initiative, or PSI, is an important counter-proliferation initiative through which we seek to disrupt illicit WMD and missile-related trade to state and non-state actors of proliferation concern.
www.state.gov /t/isn/rls/rm/63780.htm   (2205 words)

 Carnegie Endowment for International Peace   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Several nations in this category had, or were believed to have had, active nuclear-weapon programs during the 1980¹s, but recently renounced such activities by opening all of their nuclear facilities to international inspection and by joining the non-proliferation regime.
Following the Soviet breakup, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine acceded to the NPT as non-nuclear-weapon states, and cooperated in the removal of all remaining nuclear weapons to Russia.
These nations (India, Israel, and Pakistan) are believed to be able to deploy one or more nuclear weapons rapidly or to have deployed them already.
www.ceip.org /files/nonprolif/map/default.asp   (157 words)

 Nuclear proliferation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The greatest risk from nuclear weapons proliferation comes from countries which have not joined the NPT and which have significant unsafeguarded nuclear activities; India, Pakistan, and Israel fall within this category.
A further concern is that countries may develop various sensitive nuclear fuel cycle facilities and research reactors under full safeguards and then subsequently opt out of the NPT.
In 2003, Libya admitted that the nuclear weapons-related material including these centrifuges were acquired from Pakistan.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Nuclear_proliferation   (6990 words)

 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Five states are permitted by the NPT to own nuclear weapons: France (signed 1992), the People's Republic of China (1992), the Soviet Union (1968; obligations and rights now assumed by Russia), the United Kingdom (1968), and the United States (1968).
South Africa undertook a nuclear weapons program, allegedly with the assistance of Israel in the 70s, and may have conducted a nuclear test over the Atlantic in 1979, but has since renounced its nuclear program and signed the treaty in 1991 after destroying its small nuclear arsenal.
The inclusion of (civilian) nuclear power in the July 2005 Asia-Pacific Partnership for Clean Development and Climate is politically sensitive, as India, which tested its first atomic bomb in 1974, refuses to sign the NPT.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Nuclear_Non-Proliferation_Treaty   (3696 words)

 Nuclear Files - From nuclear proliferation to nuclear testing, from Hiroshima to North Korea, Nuclear Files offers the ...
Nuclear Files - From nuclear proliferation to nuclear testing, from Hiroshima to North Korea, Nuclear Files offers the A to Z on nuclear issues.
November 21, 1995 – France conducts a 40 kiloton nuclear weapons test.
November 23, 1983 – U.S. deployment of nuclear missiles begins in Germany.
www.nuclearfiles.org   (133 words)

 Tracking Nuclear Proliferation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
The nature of the nuclear proliferation danger has changed dramatically in recent years.
Equally threatening is the prospect of an international fl market in nuclear materials--a prospect made much more likely with the collapse of the Soviet Union and possible political instability looming in China.
This is the seventh survey in the Carnegie Endowment's series on nuclear proliferation prepared under the direction of Carnegie Endowment senior associate Leonard S. Spector.
www.brookings.edu /press/books/clientpr/carnegie/tracking.htm   (235 words)

 Nuclear Non-Proliferation, 1945-1990
Document: Released to the Archive February 1991, this secret/sensitive memorandum to Dr. Henry Kissinger is the first verifiable source of U.S. government assessments confirming the non-proliferation community's suspicions regarding Pakistan's nuclear capability.
Most recently, exposure of Iraq's nuclear capabilities has led the non-proliferation community to reassess the impact of the U.S. government's policies throughout the nuclear age.
Nuclear Non-Proliferation, 1945-1990 provides a comprehensive documentary record of U.S. nuclear non-proliferation policy from the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki through the recent IAEA inspections of Iraq's nuclear program.
www.gwu.edu /~nsarchiv/nsa/publications/nnp/nuclear.html   (1177 words)

Presents differing opinions on the threat of nuclear proliferation, the need for arms control,the elimination of nuclear weapons and other related topics.
Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Weapons and Ballistic Missiles: the State of Proliferation.
Zimmerman, Craig L. Nuclear Proliferation from the Former Soviet Union and the Effects of U.S. Economic Incentives.
www.au.af.mil /au/aul/bibs/nuc/nuclear.htm   (1077 words)

 Asia Times Online - The best news coverage from South Asia
The fear is that this may turn out to be a precursor to a wider sanctions regime on the unsubstantiated excuse of Indian nuclear proliferation based on US intelligence reports - some of which have proved to be laughably outlandish in Iraq.
US officials also claimed that the Indian scientists' so-called proliferation activities were discussed with the government in New Delhi in advance and sanctions imposed only after New Delhi failed to take action.
One of the reasons the US and other nuclear powers are wary of India on the nuclear front, however, is that it was not party to any aspect of the international non-proliferation regime until 1997, when it signed the Chemical Weapons Convention.
www.atimes.com /atimes/South_Asia/FJ08Df05.html   (2042 words)

 Programme for Promoting Nuclear Non-Proliferation
In conjunction with the launch of its Study, "Putting the Final Document into Practice", the Programme for Promoting Nuclear Non-Proliferation (PPNN) and the Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute for International Studies (CNS) convened a meeting with Ambassadors from the Conference on Disarmament, Geneva on 8 and 9 March 2002 in Annecy, France.
PPNN is an international non-governmental networking organisation structured around a Core Group of acknowledged authorities in the field of nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament.
Following a policy of strict objectivity in respect of the political issues involved, PPNN seeks to make diplomats, government officials, the academic community, industry and public media, more aware of the nature and causes of the proliferation of nuclear weapons, the need to deter it, and the factors that might advance nuclear disarmament.
www.ppnn.soton.ac.uk   (514 words)

 The Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
Take on the mission to disarm the world of nuclear weapons!
You have eight "Peace Doves" to help you, each able to disarm one of the eight countries possessing nuclear weapons.
The Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is presented with
nobelprize.org /redirect/goto.php?url=/educational_games/peace/nuclear_weapons   (100 words)

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