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Topic: Nuclear strategy

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In the News (Mon 17 Jun 19)

  Nuclear testing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nuclear weapons tests are generally classified as being either "atmospheric" (in or above the atmosphere), "underground," or "underwater." Of these, underground testing contained in deep shafts poses the least health risk in terms of fallout.
From the first nuclear test in 1945 until the latest tests by Pakistan in 1998, there was never a period of more than 22 months with no nuclear testing.
Planned as a method to dispel doubts about whether the USA's nuclear missiles would actually function in practice, it had less effect than was hoped, as the stockpile warhead was substantially modified prior to testing, and the missile tested was a relatively low-flying SLBM and not a high-flying ICBM.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Nuclear_testing   (1186 words)

 Nuclear strategy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nuclear strategy involves the development of doctrines and strategies for the production and use of nuclear weapons.
Nuclear strategy, as a sub-branch of military strategy, attempts to match nuclear weapons as means to political ends.
Nuclear strategy differs from many other forms of military strategy because the immense and terrifying power of the weapons makes their use (to many if not all strategists) in seeking victory in a traditional military sense impossible.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Nuclear_strategy   (187 words)

 AllRefer.com - nuclear strategy (Military Affairs (nonnaval)) - Encyclopedia
nuclear strategy, a policy for the use of nuclear weapons.
During the cold war, the nuclear strategies of the United States and the USSR ranged from straightforward deterrence to the threat of massive retaliation during the early 1950s, to limited forward deployment in the late 1950s, to various forms of flexible response in the 1960s.
Opponents of nuclear war have popularized the theory that it could trigger a climatic disaster (see nuclear winter); pacifists consider nuclear weapons the ultimate argument against war.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/N/nuclstra.html   (645 words)

 Nuclear Strategy and the Modern Middle East   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The nuclear and conventional components together are presented as tools both to deter the spread of WMD to non-state actors and also to deny those states with WMD the advantages that these capabilities might present in an actual conflict.
In his view, nuclear weapons could play a role in limiting the scope of armed conflict once begun, since the "escalation dominance" it afforded could convince an adversary of the futility of continuing the conflict, and hence bring the action to a close on favorable terms.
Strategies of deterrence, compellance and coercion, Schelling argued, could be placed into a framework of game theory called "a theory of interdependent decision." His theory posited that deterrence, compellance and coercion could be applied to achieve objectives as part of the interstate bargaining process.
www.mepc.org /public_asp/journal_vol11/0409_russell.asp   (9558 words)

 Chirac planning new nuclear strategy against rogue states: report
President Jacques Chirac is planning to revamp France's nuclear strategy in order to address the threat posed by so-called "rogue states", the Liberation newspaper reported Monday.
Since 2001, France has invested heavily in its nuclear arsenal to counter such threats "with the development of new missiles and warheads," the paper reported, citing the figure of 17 billion euros (20 billion dollars) over six years.
France became a nuclear power in 1960 under then president Charles de Gaulle, making it at the time one of five recognized nuclear powers, along with Britain, China, Russia and the United States.
www.spacewar.com /2003/031027183600.px2agbgz.html   (446 words)

 America's Nuclear Strategy: Defensive or First Strike?
We are told these weapons are only a defensive hedge against any aspiring nuclear power – we are not told that more effective means of preventing international rivalry are going untried.
We are assured that nuclear weapons are no longer aimed at cities – we are not told it takes only minutes to switch the targets back again.
We are told that nuclear weapons safeguard America’s interest – we are not told those interests are exploiting the valuable resources, the best land, and the cheap wages from which the richest countries prosper while unrest grows among the poorer.
www.antiwar.com /orig/aldridge1.html   (434 words)

 Reassessing Pakistan’s Nuclear Strategy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Nuclear deterrence remains the foundation of Pakistan’s defence strategy.
The officially stated purpose of the exercise was to evaluate concepts and practice battle procedures during offensive and defensive operations on the future battlefield, with a nuclear backdrop.
The decision to respond promptly to the nuclear tests that India carried out in May 1998, and to its Agni-II Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM) test-firing in April 1999, demonstrated Pakistan’s ability to cope with complex technological and strategic issues pertaining to nuclear weapons and their delivery systems development.
www.defencejournal.com /2001/july/reassessing.htm   (1032 words)

 The Oslo Accords and Israel's Nuclear Strategy
Although nuclear deterrence might have been unnecessary for Israel to prevent large conventional attacks by enemy states prior to the so-called Middle East Peace Process (because of the pre-Oslo maintenance of minimum strategic depth), it now appears indispensable vis-a-vis this particular threat.
With nuclear weapons and appropriate nuclear strategy, Israel could maintain, implicitly or explicitly, a credible threat of nuclear counterretaliation.
The elements of nuclear strategy, especially in the Middle East, are remarkably subtle and complex.
www.gamla.org.il /english/article/2000/dec/ber1.htm   (2571 words)

 CNS - Thoughts about an Integrated Strategy for Nuclear Cooperation with Russia
Nuclear cooperation with Russia to prevent inadvertent launches and improve the safety and security of the Russian nuclear arsenal must be integrated into the U.S. political and military framework.
Nuclear weapons were consolidated at a smaller number of sites, and the military units responsible for them, although economically stressed, have maintained remarkable discipline.
Most Russian nuclear workers were buffered somewhat from the shock resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union and subsequent economic chaos in Russia by the government's decision to keep the principal nuclear defense cities closed.
cns.miis.edu /pubs/npr/vol08/82/heck82.htm   (15381 words)

 Amazon.com: Books: Modern Strategy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The book is a major contribution to the general theory of strategy; it makes sense of the strategic history of the twentieth century, and provides understanding of what that strategic history implies for the century to come.
He uses Clausewitz's method, defining strategy as `the use that is made of force and the threat of force for the ends of policy': it is about objectives, effects.
Second, and this is the point that hit me hardest, it is clear that security strategy requires a holistic approach and the rather renaissance capability of managing a multiplicity of capabilities-diplomatic, economic, cultural, military, psychological, information-in a balanced manner and under the over-arching umbrella of a strategy.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0198782519?v=glance   (2149 words)

 France says nuclear defence strategy not changing, just context   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
France's nuclear defense strategy has not changed since 2001 but the context in which it is applied has altered due to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the defense ministry said Thursday.
Liberation said the Cold War logic of possessing nuclear weapons -- so France could maintain independence from the United States in the face of the Soviet threat -- appeared to have lived its day.
Chirac said in the speech the deterrence theory, under which atomic weapons ensure peace through the threat of devastating retaliation, allowed France "to face threats which might be brought to bear on our vital interests from regional powers armed with weapons of mass destruction".
www.spacewar.com /2003/031030203925.hoibf15k.html   (331 words)

 The Manila Times Internet Edition | OPINION > US nuclear strategy calls for outsourcing strikes–analysts   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Washington, D.C.: US nuclear strategy calls for outsourcing nuclear strikes, in case of a major conflict in Europe, to NATO allies that do not have such weapons, in what experts view as an attempt to skirt international law, according to an authoritative report made public here.
The weapons are part of a 480-warhead nuclear arsenal the United States kept in Europe in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.
The arrangement, the council insists, “skirts international law” because the Nonproliferation Treaty prohibits a nuclear state from transferring nuclear weapons to a nonweapon state, and prohibits a non-nuclear state from receiving such weapons.
www.manilatimes.net /national/2005/feb/11/yehey/opinion/20050211opi6.html   (631 words)

 Pentagon broadens nuclear strategy / Bush lists 7 nations as potential targets
Arms control advocates said the report's directives on development of smaller nuclear weapons could signal that the Bush administration is more willing to overlook a long-standing taboo against the use of nuclear weapons except as a last resort.
The report says the Pentagon should be prepared to use nuclear weapons in an Arab-Israeli conflict, in a war between China and Taiwan, or in an attack from North Korea on the south.
Officials argue that large nuclear arms have so many destructive side effects, from blast to heat and radiation, that they become "self deterring." They contend that the Pentagon needs "full spectrum deterrence" -- that is, a full range of weapons that potential enemies believe might actually be used against them.
www.sfgate.com /cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2002/03/09/MN124394.DTL   (931 words)

 Arms Control Association: Arms Control Today
A U.S. program to develop new nuclear weapons could prompt other nations to do the same, either through the perceived need to match or deter any new technologies, or as a means to maintain their prestige in the “nuclear club.” A new arms race would be the result.
Proponents of this new nuclear policy, with its “bias in favor of things that are usable,” argue that arms control and nonproliferation have failed, and therefore new nuclear weapons concepts and weapons are needed.
Arms control and nonproliferation strategies have, however, succeeded in ensuring that fewer states acquired nuclear weapons, and established a global norm against the possession and use of nuclear weapons.
www.armscontrol.org /act/2004_01-02/LevinReed.asp   (3900 words)

 THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Because of their pinpoint accuracy the new MX ballistic missiles and the land- and sea-based cruise missiles are touted as the linchpins of this new strategy.
Indeed US nuclear forces have always been designed against military targets as well as those comprising the war-supporting industry and recovery resources." General Dougherty, former head of the Strategic Air Command, has claimed that we never have targeted cities per se.
Most important, the new strategy perpetuates and spreads the dangerous myth that a nuclear war can be kept limited, that precision weapons will reduce casualties, and that we can fight a nuclear war and survive.
www.clw.org /pub/clw/scoville/csm-091180.html   (827 words)

 Outline the main features of Russian nuclear strategy in the post-Cold War era
Belorus (1997) suggests that this summit helped both countries to solve the number of sensitive problems, such as the restructuring of SNF (Strategic Nuclear Forces), the number on nuclear warheads on strategic delivering vehicles (assigned to 2000-2500 units) and the reduction time was extended to 31.
In terms of nuclear strategy, this was a clear indication that East-West antagonism was disappearing and it reduced the pressure on Russia in following rapid military and technological developments of United States.
This phase in Russian nuclear and military strategy was an important point in the domain of arms control issue, because it demonstrated that tense Russo-American relationships were eased and the countries were working together towards a global disarmament.
www.coursework.info /i/12430.html   (648 words)

 Atomic Audit: Box 2-1: Europe and American Nuclear Strategy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Western Europe figured heavily in American nuclear strategy and nuclear deployments during the Cold War, primarily because American leaders were convinced that West European security was a vital national interest; for them, what happened in Europe was laden with implications for the world balance of power and the future of American political and economic institutions.
As the Soviet Union became a nuclear power during the 1950s, American policymakers took it for granted that Western Europe's confidence depended upon U.S. military strength and pledges that Washington would use nuclear weapons in a crisis.
During the decades of the cold war, confidence building measures included dispersing thousands of tactical nuclear weapons across Europe, establishing NATO stockpiles, temporarily deploying Jupiter missiles in Italy and Turkey and Thor missiles in Great Britain, enduring deployments of Pershing missiles in Germany, forming nuclear planning committees, and embracing a nuclear first-use policy.
www.brook.edu /dybdocroot/fp/projects/nucwcost/box2-1.htm   (1000 words)

 New Nuclear Weapons & Strategy
is seeking to develop a range of new nuclear weapons in implementation of their new policies.
Moreover, the nuclear proponents seek a resumption of nuclear testing to prepare these new weapons for the arsenal.
At the same time the administration has abandoned the ABM Treaty, is opposed to the nuclear testing ban, and in general takes a stand against negotiated disarmament, arms control and non-proliferation treaties.
www.psr.org /home.cfm?id=nuclear_weapons   (292 words)

 Alsos: A Nuclear Strategy for India
Written by a former Rear Admiral of the Indian Navy, this book is a comprehensive examination of what nuclear weapons mean to India’s defense strategy.
The author begins by arguing for a clear joining of nuclear strategy and diplomacy.
The book also discusses the history of the Indian nuclear project and different strategies that a country that has nuclear weapons can employ.
alsos.wlu.edu /information.aspx?id=2109   (127 words)

 Bernard Brodie and the Foundations of American Nuclear Strategy
Despite glasnost and the unexpected thaw in East-West relations, American foreign policy continues to evolve within the shadow of a nuclear strategy profoundly shaped by the writings of Bernard Brodie.
Renowned as "the American Clausewitz," Bernard Brodie (1910-1978) was one of the premier architects and proponents of the strategy of deterrence and one of the most articulate voices in the debate over the role of nuclear weapons.
His writings reflect his struggle with the dramatic shift in defense strategy brought about by "the bomb" and his unswerving belief that nuclear weapons had made total war obsolete.
www.kansaspress.ku.edu /steber.html   (437 words)

 NUCLEAR STRATEGY OF NATO IS ILLEGAL   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Anti-nuclear activists and international lawyers claim that, in practice, existing nuclear weapons could not be used without violating international law.
Crucially, the Court declared that an obligation exists on all states "to pursue in good faith and bring to a conclusion negotiations leading to nuclear disarmament..." Twelve months after the Court's judgment, there is no evidence that NATO has responded to its implications.
Thus it is the duty of citizens to uphold the law relating to nuclear weapons and of military personnel to obey it even if given a contrary order by a superior or by his or her national government;
canterbury.cyberplace.org.nz /peace/nuclear.html   (1039 words)

 Amazon.ca: Books: Moving Targets: Nuclear Strategy and National Security   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Sagan's critique of U.S. nuclear doctrine is highly intelligent and informative.
No one who reads this book could fail to emerge much better informed regarding current U.S. nuclear strategy, and why the strategy has developed along the lines it has taken.
Such a reader would be much better equipped to understand many aspects of the current nuclear debate, and would be much less prone to reach for sloganistic formulas for change.
www.amazon.ca /exec/obidos/ASIN/0691023263   (309 words)

 MacAvoy, P.W. and Rosenthal, J.: Corporate Profit and Nuclear Safety: Strategy at Northeast Utilities in the 1990s.
Northeast Utilities Company adopted an ambitious new competitive strategy in the mid-1980s, seeking to become the low-cost supplier in New England electric power markets bracing for deregulation.
Though management achieved many of its goals, curtailing outlays on nuclear operations meant high risk that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission would close the plants because of frequent, prolonged outages.
Their discussion of the increasing risk of outages raises the issue of the tradeoff of profit and conservative management of hazard operations.
www.pupress.princeton.edu /titles/7831.html   (463 words)

 WWW Virtual Library: International Affairs Resources--Peace, Conflict Resolution, and Security
Federation of American Scientists-- A policy organization whose Board of Sponsors includes over 55 American Nobel Laureates, AFS is engaged in analysis and advocacy on science, technology, and public policy for global security.
Institute for Science and International Security-- Non-partisan research organization that provides technical analyses of nuclear weapons programs around the world, promoting nuclear transparency and government accountability, and strengthening international efforts to stop the spread of nuclear weapons.
Nuclear Threat Initiative-- Founded by Ted Turner and former U.S. Senator Sam Nunn, "to strengthen global security by reducing the risk of use and preventing the spread of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons." Large site posts a WMD news service, tutorials, country surveys, maps, policy papers, documents, media materials, and databases.
www.etown.edu /vl/peace.html   (3437 words)

 ABC News: Diplomats at Odds Over Nuclear Strategy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Under the 1970 treaty, 183 nations renounce nuclear arms forever, in exchange for a pledge by five nuclear-weapon states the United States, Russia, Britain, France and China to move toward disarmament.
The nonweapon states, meanwhile, are guaranteed access to peaceful nuclear technology.
North Korea announced its withdrawal from the treaty in 2003 and claims to have built nuclear bombs all without penalty under the nonproliferation pact.
abcnews.go.com /US/wireStory?id=780567   (348 words)

 The Nautilus Institute: The Nuclear Strategy Project
The Nuclear Strategy Project is a public education project that examines the status and development of nuclear policy and doctrine in the United States and other nuclear-armed and nuclear-aspiring countries.
Through publication of hard-to-get information about nuclear weapons and nuclear strategy, the project aspires to increase government accountability and empower those who argue for true reform of nuclear strategy and much deeper cuts in nuclear weapons.
The items listed in the bar to the right provide links to groups of documents about specific aspects of nuclear weapons and nuclear policy.
nautilus.org /archives/nukestrat/index.html   (202 words)

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