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Topic: Nucleic acid

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  Incomplete nucleic acid sequences
With the introduction of methods of rapid nucleic acid sequence determination, synthesis of mixed oligonucleotide probes and computer-assisted analysis of nucleic acid sequences, the use of a single symbol to designate a variety of possible nucleotides at a single position has become widespread over the last few years.
For double-stranded nucleic acids Table 2 permits the allocation of symbols to the complementary strand.
Examples are given whereby the nomenclature is applied to sequences recognised by certain type II restriction endonucleases (Table 3) and to uncertainties in deriving a nucleic acid sequence from the corresponding amino acid sequence (Table 4).
www.chem.qmul.ac.uk /iubmb/misc/naseq.html   (2915 words)

  Nucleic acid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nucleic acids are found in all living cells and viruses.
Likewise, the nitrogenous bases possible in the two nucleic acids are different: adenine, cytosine, and guanine are possible in both RNA and DNA, while thymine is possible only in DNA and uracil is possible only in RNA.
Nucleic acids are primarily biology's means of storing and transmitting genetic information, though RNA is also capable of acting as an enzyme.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Nucleic_acid   (390 words)

 nucleic acid. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
In most organisms, nucleic acids occur in combination with proteins; the combined substances are called nucleoproteins.
Nucleic acid molecules are complex chains of varying length.
The two chief types of nucleic acids are DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), which carries the hereditary information from generation to generation, and RNA (ribonucleic acid), which delivers the instructions coded in this information to the cell’s protein manufacturing sites.
www.bartleby.com /65/nu/nucleica.html   (1261 words)

 Nucleic acid - EvoWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
A nucleic acid is a biochemical polymer made of nitrogenous organic base monomers.
The most common nucleic acids are deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) and ribose nucleic acid (RNA), named after the molecules which hold the organic bases together, to form the "backbone" of the polymer.
Nucleic acids are best known as the heritable molecules of digitally encoded instructions for life, though they may act as ribozymes, a type of molecular machinery.
wiki.cotch.net /index.php/Nucleic_acid   (104 words)

 DNA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid —usually in the form of a double helix— that contains the genetic instructions specifying the biological development of all cellular forms of life, and many viruses.
DNA is a long polymer of nucleotides (a polynucleotide) and encodes the sequence of the amino acid residues in proteins using the genetic code, a triplet code of nucleotides.
They were relatively quick to appreciate the polymeric nature of their "nucleic acid" isolates, but realized only later that nucleotides were of two types--one containing ribose and the other deoxyribose.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/DNA   (6212 words)

 [3] The Nucleic Acid Chain   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
In a nucleic acid chain, two nucleotides are linked by a phosphodiester bond, which may be formed by the condensation reaction (Figure 3-A-5) similar to the formation of the peptide bond.
However, the whole nucleic acid chain is usually synthesized by RNA polymerase or DNA polymerase.
In the case of a double-stranded nucleic acid, bases are paired between two strands.
www.web-books.com /MoBio/Free/Ch3A5.htm   (252 words)

 HighBeam Encyclopedia - nucleic acid
NUCLEIC ACID [nucleic acid] any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis.
Role of clinical judgment in the application of a nucleic acid amplification test for the rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis *.(clinical investigations)
Nucleic acid biosensor technology in clinical diagnosis, pathogen detection and drug discovery.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/n1/nucleica.asp   (1427 words)

 Proteomics - Protein:Nucleic Acid Conjugates
Protein:nucleic acid interactions are most often stabilized by linkage with heterobifunctional cross-linkers that have a photoreactive aryl azide as one of the two reactive groups.
The ability to conjugate proteins to nucleic acids, including RNA and DNA, is important in a number of life science applications.
Nucleic acid molecules also can be biotinylated by a number of chemical methods.
www.piercenet.com /Proteomics/browse.cfm?fldID=DBC2389E-F13B-4093-BE21-B37942A06A43   (1005 words)

 Page: Nucleic Acid Purification
Nucleic acids may be collected on DEAE paper by inserting a section of DEAE paper below the band of interest on an agarose gel.
Nucleic acids are applied to porous beads that exclude the nucleic acid while trapping smaller salts, nucleotides and derivatization reagents in the internal pores of the beads.
Nucleic acids may be extracted from agarose by electroelution using dialysis membrane or membrane devices; ion exchange by electrophoresis onto anion paper; liquification by phenol or chaotrophic salts followed by phenol or silica purification methods, respectively or purification by centrifugation with homemade (Figure 1) or commercial devices.
www.piercenet.com /Objects/View.cfm?type=Page&ID=C6F0F5F2-8424-4B68-9EFC-CD6EACEC46F1   (2153 words)

 Invitrogen - Molecular Probes - Section 8.1 - Nucleic Acid Stains
In contrast, the binding of thiazole orange — the parent compound of TOTO-1 and TO-PRO-1 — is rapidly reversible, limiting the dye's sensitivity and rendering its nucleic acid complex unstable to electrophoresis.
The SYTOX Green nucleic acid stain (S7020, SYTOX Green Nucleic Acid Stain) is a high-affinity nucleic acid stain that easily penetrates cells with compromised plasma membranes and yet will not cross the membranes of live cells.
The RediPlate 96 nucleic acid stain sampler microplate (R32715) is designed to facilitate the screening of nucleic acid stains for new applications by providing samples of 36 different SYTO dyes predispensed in a 96-well microplate.
probes.invitrogen.com /handbook/sections/0801.html   (7159 words)

 nucleic acid
The Chemistry of Biology—Nucleic Acids - The Chemistry of Biology Nucleic Acids The Chemistry of Biology Introduction Atomic Theory Chemical...
nucleic acid: DNA - DNA The chemical and physical properties of DNA suit it for both replication and transfer of...
nucleic acid: RNA and Protein Synthesis - RNA and Protein Synthesis In order to be expressed as protein, the genetic information must be...
www.factmonster.com /ce6/sci/A0836145.html   (354 words)

 Nucleic Acid vs Nucleotide
In RNA (ribonucleic acid), the sugar groups are ribose, whereas in DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), deoxyribose sugars are present instead of ribose.
Nucleic acid structure was elucidated in the early 50's and are considered "linear polymers of nucleotides whose phosphates bridge the 3 prime and 5 prime positions of successive sugar residues".
At physiological pH nucleic acids are polyanions and nucleotides although a proton donor are NOT POLYanions.
www.newton.dep.anl.gov /askasci/mole00/mole00296.htm   (723 words)

 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for nucleic acid   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
nucleic acid NUCLEIC ACID [nucleic acid] any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis.
It was isolated from the nucleic acid of calf thymus tissue in 1894.
They complex with the DNA (see nucleic acid) and pack the DNA into tight masses of chromatin, which have the structure of coiled coils, much like a tangled telephone cord.
www.encyclopedia.com /articles/09407.html   (552 words)

 Nucleic Acid Standards - Standard Ref. Frame
The meeting was organized by Masashi Suzuki of the National Institute of Bioscience and Human-Technology and Helen M. Berman and Wilma K. Olson of the Nucleic Acid Database Project (supported by National Science Foundation (USA) grant DBI 95 10703).
A common point of reference is needed to describe the three-dimensional arrangements of bases and base pairs in nucleic acid structures.
It is thus difficult to carry out comprehensive comparisons of nucleic acid structures and to pinpoint unique conformational features in individual structures.
ndbserver.rutgers.edu /standards/standard_reference.html   (3411 words)

 Nucleic acid definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms
Nucleic acid: One of the family of large molecules which includes deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA).
Nucleic acids were so named because they were first found in the nucleus of cells, but they have since been discovered also to exist outside the nucleus.
They came to be known as "nucleic acids." Miescher predicted that they would someday be considered as important as proteins.
www.medterms.com /script/main/art.asp?articlekey=4594   (339 words)

 A Novel Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification
Herein is disclosed another isothermal nucleic acid amplification which results is a spatially localized product, which due to the lack of topological constraints inherent in rolling circle amplification, may have greatest utility.
Distinctly from rolling circle amplification, herein the nucleic acid hybridized to the affixed primer is linear.
Herein the modification is a peptide nucleic acid sequence (hatched section).
www.wbabin.net /saba/saba17.htm   (816 words)

 Water and nucleic acid structure
Hydration is crucially important for the conformation and utility of nucleic acids, as noted by Watson and Crick [828].
On melting, about four water molecules per base pair are released in spite of extra hydration sites being released by the previously hydrogen-bonded base pairing [707], thus confirming the importance of this cooperative nature of the water binding within the grooves.
Nucleic acids have a number of groups that can hydrogen bond to water, with RNA having a greater extent of hydration than DNA due to its extra oxygen atoms (i.e.
www.lsbu.ac.uk /water/nucleic.html   (1322 words)

 Nucleic acid nomenclature - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Molecular biologists use several shorthand terms when referring to nucleic acid molecules, such as DNA and RNA, collectively referred to as nucleic acid nomenclature.
Additionally, the positions of the carbons in the ribose sugar that forms the backbone of the nucleic acid chain are numbered as follows:
The sugar backbone of RNA uses ribose, but DNA uses deoxyribose, which lacks the hydroxyl group attached to the 2' (pronounced "two-prime"; shown above in blue) carbon.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Nucleic_acid_nomenclature   (258 words)

 Functional Nucleic Acid Tutorial
Nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) are well known for their roles in storing and transferring genetic information inside cells.
Nucleic acids are known to catalyze various chemical reactions at carbon as well as phosphorous centers.
Riboswitches are just the latest in a series of discoveries that illuminate the complex structural and functional potential of nucleic acids.
www.yale.edu /breaker/tutfunctnucleicacid.htm   (251 words)

 CBER - Nucleic Acid Testing For HCV And Other Viruses In Blood Donors
Characteristic is the extensive, genetic heterogeneity at the nucleotide level and the deduced amino acid level throughout this open reading frame, but in particular in the two envelope genes and also hypervariable region as Harvey also mentioned, has been defined in the amino-terminal end of E2.
The highest note that I've divided the E2 gene into the hypervariable region, which is the amino terminal 30 amino acids of E2 and the remainder of E2 are 333 amino acids.
Is nucleic acid testing really the gold standard in that it's the hallmark of the virus; without the nucleic acids there there's not an infectious virus.
www.fda.gov /cber/minutes/hcv091698.htm   (21432 words)

 Cogenics: Nucleic Acid Extraction
Cogenics has extensive experience in providing research and Regulatory Compliant nucleic acid extraction and purification services, including laser capture microdissection.
We have expertise working with a wide range of sample types submitted from across the globe, with the proven ability to generate high yields of record quality DNA and RNA - free of PCR inhibitors and other contaminants.
For microgenomics projects, Cogenics’ nucleic acid extraction services are based on the Arcturus® Autopix® LCM platform.
www.cogenics.com /nucleicacid/index.cfm   (187 words)

 Casegroup -- The NAB molecular manipulation language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
NAB (Nucleic Acid Builder) was developed by Tom Macke as a part of his graduate research at The Scripps Research Institute.
It is a computer language (specified through lex and yacc) that allows nucleic acid structures to be described in a hierarchical fashion, using a language similar to C or awk, but designed especially for the manipulation of nucleic acid structures.
By systematically exploring databases of known nucleic acid structures, we have been able to derive sets of correlated distance constraints that significantly improve the performance of distance geometry techniques as applied to unusual nuclic acid structures.
www.scripps.edu /mb/case/casegr-sh-3.2.html   (669 words)

 Profiling PCR and Beyond - Tenth Annual Nucleic Acid-Based Technologies
Nucleic acid amplification and detection have become the most widely used technique for conducting biological research.
New technical developments that improve the performance of nucleic acid amplification and detection, as well as interesting examples of how these techniques are being used, are the emphases of this meeting.
We are developing DNA microarrays and nucleic acid extraction and amplification methods to screen simultaneously for multiple viral DNA or RNA genomes and/or viral RNA transcripts in human cancers.
www.healthtech.com /2002/pcr   (5006 words)

 Nucleic Acid Labeling Products   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
All of Vector's nucleic acid labeling kits are non-radioactive and offer many advantages over radioactivity, including excellent sensitivity in a shorter period of time; prolonged stability of reagents and labeled probes; and choices of detection and affinity binding matrices.
Nucleic Acid Labeling System both provide multiple site labeling throughout the nucleic acid.
These nucleic acid labeling systems eliminate the need for costly nucleotides and enzymes by utilizing heat- or light- activation to rapidly and covalently attach labels to nucleic acids.
www.vectorlabs.com /MoBio/BNA.html   (316 words)

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