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Topic: Nucleotide

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  Nucleotide - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups.
In the most common nucleotides the base is a derivative of purine or pyrimidine, and the sugar is the pentose (five-carbon sugar) deoxyribose or ribose.
Nucleotides are the structural units of RNA, DNA, and several cofactors - CoA, FAD, FMN, NAD, and NADP.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Nucleotide   (551 words)

A nucleotide is the monomer structural unit of nucleotide chains that form the nucleic acids RNA and DNA, as well as several lesser nucleic acids.
Nucleotides code for proteins and enzymes as well as determine the genetic structure of life.
Nucleotides are also crucial for cellular energy transportation and transformation and in the regulation of enzymes.
www.iscid.org /encyclopedia/Nucleotide   (337 words)

 37 C.F.R. 1.822, Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data. (BitLaw)
The symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data shall conform to the requirements of paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section.
A nucleotide sequence shall be listed with a maximum of 16 codons or 60 bases per line, with a space provided between each codon or group of 10 bases.
For those nucleotide sequences that are circular in configuration, the enumeration method set forth in paragraph (c)(6) of this section remains applicable with the exception that the designation of the first base of the nucleotide sequence may be made at the option of the applicant.
www.bitlaw.com /source/37cfr/1_822.html   (884 words)

 Nucleotide Metabolism
Indeed, the ability to salvage nucleotides from sources within the body alleviates any nutritional requirement for nucleotides, thus the purine and pyrimidine bases are not required in the diet.
The carbamoyl phosphate used for pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis is derived from glutamine and bicarbonate, within the cytosol, as opposed to the urea cycle carbamoyl phosphate derived from ammonia and bicarbonate in the mitochondrion.
Carbamoyl phosphate utilized in pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis differs from that synthesized in the urea cycle; it is synthesized from glutamine instead of ammonia and is synthesized in the cytosol.
web.indstate.edu /thcme/mwking/nucleotide-metabolism.html   (3070 words)

 Nucleotide Site   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Nucleotides such as GTP and ATP play an important regulatory and triggering role for many enzymes and proteins.
To demonstrate the feasibility of using photoreactive nucleotides or nucleosides we used the biotin-avidin system which is widely used to measure antigen-antibody binding.
Furthermore, we assumed that the affinity and relative specificity of the nucleotide photoprobes could afford direct photo-affinity biotinylation of antibodies in serum or in culture supernatant from hybridoma cell lines.
www.altcorp.com /AffinityLabeling/abnucleotidesite.htm   (2337 words)

 WelchWeb: Subject Guides - Basic Science
GenBank is a database of nucleotide sequences from >100,000 organisms.
For each sequence, the match scores are converted into various types of p-values and these are used to determine the overall match of the sequence to the group of motifs and the probable order and spacing of occurrences of the motifs in the sequence.
The primary aim of the EMBL-Align databases is to archive the large nucleotide sequence alignments generated from phylogenetic and population analysis.
www.welch.jhu.edu /internet/bsci.html   (3957 words)

 SWGDAM mtDNA Nucleotide Sequence Interpretation, April 2003
The interpretation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) nucleotide sequencing results in casework is a matter of professional judgement and expertise.
Nucleotide sequence data obtained from population database samples must include a minimum of HV1 (positions 16024-16365) and HV2 (positions 73-340).
The laboratory must establish criteria to assign nucleotide base calls to appropriate peaks or bands and to determine whether the results are of sufficient quality for interpretation purposes.
www.fbi.gov /hq/lab/fsc/backissu/april2003/swgdammitodna.htm   (1724 words)

 Nucleotide Structure
The sugar that is part of a nucleotide is a 5-carbon atom sugar in its ring form.
It is the ring form of the ribose and deoxyribose that are used in the nucleotide units.
This nucleotide is often called adenosine monophosphate because it is made from adenosine with one phosphate group attached.
dl.clackamas.cc.or.us /ch106-09/nucleoti.htm   (1194 words)

 Golgi nucleotide sugar transport and leukocyte adhesion deficiency II -- Hirschberg 108 (1): 3 -- Journal of Clinical ...
The nucleotide sugar is then transported via the GDP-fucose transporter into the lumen of the Golgi apparatus, where specific fucosyltransferases add fucose to a variety of glycoproteins and glycolipids.
Hirschberg, C.B., Robbins, P.W., and Abeijon, C. Transporters of nucleotide sugars, ATP, and nucleotide sulfate in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus.
Capasso, J.M., and Hirschberg, C.B. Mechanisms of glycosylation and sulfation in the Golgi apparatus: evidence for nucleotide sugar/ nucleotide monophosphate and nucleotide sulfate/ nucleoside monophosphate antiporters in the Golgi apparatus membrane.
www.jci.org /cgi/content/full/108/1/3   (2782 words)

 CDC - Genomewide Pattern of Synonymous Nucleotide Substitution in Two Complete Genomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
This level of nucleotide difference leads to the conservative estimate that the common ancestor of these two genotypes occurred approximately 35,000 ago, which is twice as high as some recent estimates of the time of origin of this species.
Rates of nucleotide substitution per unit time are difficult to estimate in bacteria given the lack of calibration from the fossil record (10).
These calculations emphasize the need to examine a very large number of nucleotide sites to obtain a reliable estimate of nucleotide diversity and thus of the age of the most recent common ancestor in cases where the frequency of substitution is less than one in a thousand.
www.cdc.gov /ncidod/EID/vol8no11/02-0064.htm   (3051 words)

 Genetics Glossary NO   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
A technique of transferring radioactive atoms between adjacent nucleotides in DNA used to demonstrate that the two strands of DNA run in opposite directions.
A sugar-base compound that is a nucleotide precursor.
A pair of complementary nucleotides (one in each strand of DNA) that are joined by hydrogen bonds.
helios.bto.ed.ac.uk /bto/glossary/no.htm   (1331 words)

 Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Tuberculosis | CDC EID
Nucleotide substitutions proven to cause drug resistance are distributed throughout the tree, whereas nonsynonymous base substitutions unrelated to drug resistance have a restricted distribution.
The mutational processes that generate this variation are understood, and sequence data have been successfully used in the study of bacterial epidemiology, population biology, and evolution (16).
The loci chosen were genes associated with antimicrobial drug resistance that have been reported to possess >95% of all sequence variation observed in 26 structural genes studied (19), which includes >90% of synonymous nucleotide substitutions, i.e., nucleotide substitutions that do not affect the translated amino acid.
www.cdc.gov /ncidod/EID/vol10no9/04-0046.htm   (5133 words)

 ARS | Publication request: Effects of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Beta-Amylase 1 Alleles from Barley on ...
We evaluated the contribution of the three single nucleotide polymorphisms that caused differences in the amino acid sequences at positions 115, 165, and 430.
Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (positions 115 and 430) were found to impact the enzymatic activity of beta-amylase.
The contributions of the three single nucleotide polymorphisms to beta-amylase thermostability were temperature dependent.
www.ars.usda.gov /research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=165723   (261 words)

 Nucleic Acid vs Nucleotide
Besides AMP, other nucleotides present in RNA are GMP (guanylic acid, or guanosine 5'-phosphoric acid), CMP (cytidylic acid, or cytidine 5 '-phosphoric acid) and UMP (uridylic acid, or uridine 5'-phosphoric acid).
If you want to play games with semantics you could insist that nucleotides are acidic molecules found in the nucleus (in addition to the cytoplasm) so they must be "nucleic acids." You could also claim, by the same logic, that amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) are cytoplasmic acids.
Nucleic acid structure was elucidated in the early 50's and are considered "linear polymers of nucleotides whose phosphates bridge the 3 prime and 5 prime positions of successive sugar residues".
www.newton.dep.anl.gov /askasci/mole00/mole00296.htm   (723 words)

 Cloning and Nucleotide Sequence Determination of the Entire mec DNA of Pre-Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ...
Nucleotide sequence determination was performed as described previously (14), using a Dye Terminator Cycle Sequencing FS Ready Reaction kit (Perkin-Elmer).
The entire length of mec DNA was 51,669 bp; the left-most nucleotide was inferred to be one of the four nucleotides (positions from 4685 to 4688) designated nucleotides 1 to 4 in the figure.
Nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of orfX genes of NCTC8325 and orfX* genes of N315.
aac.asm.org /cgi/content/full/43/6/1449   (6936 words)

 Nucleotide Review   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The use of any ligand as a signalling molecule necessitates a mechanism for its inactivation and so, purine nucleotides are hydrolysed to adenosine, a nucleoside that acts through metabotropic adenosine (P1) receptor subtypes, to exert physiological effects in almost all organ systems.
It is for this reason that nucleotide and nucleoside receptors have now become therapeutic targets for the treatment of conditions as diverse as pain, urinary incontinence, stroke and depression, and the field of purinoceptor research has expanded significantly in the last ten years.
The identification and characterisation of adenosine receptors (ARs) preceded that of the nucleotide receptors.
www.tocris.com /nucleotiderev.htm   (4585 words)

 Accounting for Background Nucleotide Composition When Measuring Codon Usage Bias -- Novembre 19 (8): 1390 -- Molecular ...
nucleotide compositions or for studies of codon usage bias in
to be multinomial with proportions determined by the nucleotide
A range of nucleotide compositions were used to generate the
mbe.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/19/8/1390   (2198 words)

 Class morey.dna.Nucleotide
The purpose of this class is to illustrate the physical properties of nucleotides.
The first column of the resulting orientation matrix of the nucleotide is the direction of the back bone.
If the nucleotide is serialized then when it becomes deserialize it must be restored.
www.csd.uwo.ca /~morey/dnatalk/java/docs/morey.dna.Nucleotide.html   (496 words)

 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms - SNPs - SNP Genotyping from PerkinElmer
With the completion of the Human Genome Project and the coordinated publication in the journals Science and Nature in February, 2001, a major milestone in biology has been completed.
A SNP is a single base substitution of one nucleotide with another, and both versions are observed in the general population at a frequency greater than 1%.
A central repository for both single base nucleotide substitutions and short deletion and insertion polymorphisms supported by the National Center for Biotechnology Information and the National Human Genome Research Institute.
las.perkinelmer.com /content/snps/genotyping.asp   (1228 words)

 Nucleotide excision repair DNA synthesis by excess DNA polymerase {beta}: a potential source of genetic instability in ...
Nucleotide excision repair DNA synthesis by excess DNA polymerase {beta}: a potential source of genetic instability in cancer cells -- CANITROT et al.
Nucleotide excision repair DNA synthesis by excess DNA polymerase ß;: a potential source of genetic instability in cancer cells
A) Sequences of the 28 nucleotides gapped duplex DNA used in the in vitro replication assay.
www.fasebj.org /cgi/content/full/14/12/1765   (6531 words)

 Cyclic nucleotide: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
A cyclic nucleotide is any nucleotide nucleotide quick summary:
A nucleotide is a monomer or the structural unit of nucleotide chains forming nucleic acids as rna and dna....
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cgmp) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (gtp)....
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/c/cy/cyclic_nucleotide.htm   (504 words)

 Nucleotide - EvoWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
A nucleotide is an organic molecule itself composed of three smaller molecules joined by chemical bonds.
The molecules it is composed of are an organic base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group.
Many nucleotides bonded together form a nucleic acid.
wiki.cotch.net /index.php/Nucleotide   (109 words)

 Molecular dissection of the roles of nucleotide binding and hydrolysis in dynein's AAA domains in Saccharomyces ...
Walker A mutants (predicted to block nucleotide binding) are shaded with gray, whereas Walker B mutants (predicted to block nucleotide hydrolysis) are shaded with fl.
to cosediment with microtubules in the absence of nucleotide
Nucleotide binding at AAA1 and AAA3 is required for ATP-dependent dynein microtubule release.
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/101/6/1491   (3652 words)

 Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Ion Channels -- Kaupp and Seifert 82 (3): 769 -- Physiological Reviews
Synthesis of caged cyclic nucleotides by esterification of
the free cyclic nucleotide is produced during the course of an
Caged cyclic nucleotides have been used to study 1) the rate of activation of the rod CNG channel in excised patches (185)
physrev.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/82/3/769   (9524 words)

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