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Topic: Null morpheme


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In the News (Wed 19 Jun 19)

  
 [No title]
A Morpheme must either contain both an affix and a sub-morpheme, or it must contain neither, in which case the morpheme is the most atomic 'root' morpheme.
Subsequent morphemes contain near-subsets of this string, although morphological changes may alter the representation, hence it is kept for each morpheme.
A single Morpheme can represent 0 divisions, in which case the string is considered already in root form, or it can contain a morphological affix that can be removed from the string, along with a simpler morpheme, which itself can contain more sub-morphemes.
www.cs.cmu.edu /afs/cs.cmu.edu/project/cmt-40/OldFiles/kantoo/vol40/doc/analyzer/morphonizer.txt   (2425 words)

  
  null morpheme Information Center - null morpheme
In simpler terms, a null morpheme is an "invisible" affix.
The existence of a null morpheme in a word can be theorized by contrast with other forms of the same word showing alternate morphemes.
In languages that show the above distinctions, it's quite common to employ null affixation to (not) mark singular number, present tense and third persons (English is unusual in its marking of the third person singular with a non-zero morpheme, by contrast with a null null morpheme morpheme for others).
www.scipeeps.com /Sci-Linguistic_Topics_N_-_P/null_morpheme.html   (333 words)

  
 YourArt.com >> Encyclopedia >> morpheme   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-15)
In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest lingual unit that carries a semantic interpretation.
Morphemes are, generally, a distinctive collocation of phonemes (as the free form pin or the bound form -s of pins) having no smaller meaningful members.
Unproductive, non-affix morphemes that exist only in bound form are known as "cranberry" morphemes, from the "cran" in that very word.
www.yourart.com /research/encyclopedia.cgi?subject=/morpheme   (289 words)

  
 Morphology (linguistics) Encyclopedia Article @ Thereupon.org   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-15)
In morpheme-based morphology, word-forms are analyzed as sequences of morphemes.
Theorists wishing to maintain a strict morpheme-based approach often preserve the idea in cases like these by saying that geese is goose followed by a null morpheme (a morpheme that has no phonological content), and that the vowel change in the stem is a morphophonological rule.
Faced with a plural like geese, one is not required to assume a null morpheme: while the plural of dog is formed by affixing -s, the plural of goose is formed simply by altering the vowel in the stem.
www.thereupon.org /encyclopedia/Morphology_(linguistics)   (2670 words)

  
 Morphology - FrathWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-15)
A morpheme is defined as the minimal meaningful unit of a language.
Theorists who wish to maintain a strict morpheme-based approach often preserve the idea in cases like these by saying that geese is goose followed by a null morpheme (a morpheme that has no phonological content), and that the vowel change in the stem is a morphophonological rule.
According to this typology, some languages are isolating, and have little or no morphology; others are agglutinative, and their words tend to have lots of easily-separable morphemes; while yet others are fusional, because their inflectional morphemes are said to be "fused" together.
wiki.frath.net /Morphology   (2389 words)

  
 CASES AND POSTPOSITIONS
Notice that one case morpheme attached at the end suffices to mark the entire Noun phrase; that is, we do not have to attach an ergative marker to each of the words of the Noun phrase in (1a), nor do we have to add more than one dative marker in (1b).
In both cases, the distinction involves the addition of a morpheme: ga in the case of animates, ta in the case of inanimate phrases lacking a singular determiner.
In (20a), the Noun phrase headed by the animate noun alaba 'daughter' is treated as animate in the grammar, that is, the morpheme ga is inserted between the genitive morpheme attached to the Noun phrase and the locative postposition.
www.ehu.es /grammar/gram3.htm   (3626 words)

  
 morphology Information Center - sperm morphology
This is so to such an extent that very tooth morphology often beginners think that morphemes are an inevitable, fundamental notion of morphology; and many five-minute definition of morphology explanations of morphology are, in fact, five-minute explanations of morpheme-based morphology.
For example, it's easy to think that in dogs, we have the root dog, followed by the plural morpheme -s; the same insect morphology sort of analysis is also straightforward for oxen, with the stem ox, and a suppletive plural morpheme -en.
Theorists who wish to maintain a strict morpheme-based approach often preserve the idea in cases like these by saying that geese is goose followed by a null morpheme (a morpheme that has no phonological reversible cell morphology content), and that the vowel change in the stem is a morphophonological rule.
www.scipeeps.com /Sci-Linguistic_Topics_H_-_M/morphology.html   (2372 words)

  
 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Morpheme
In spoken language, morphemes are composed of phonemes, the smallest linguistically distinctive units of sound.
The concept morpheme differs from the concept word, as many morphemes cannot stand as words on their own.
Unproductive, non-affix morphemes that exist only in bound form are known as "cranberry" morphemes, from the "cran" in that very word.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Morpheme   (362 words)

  
 Distributed Morphology
In DM, the term morpheme properly refers to a syntactic (or morphological) terminal node and its content, not to the phonological expression of that terminal, which is provided as part of a Vocabulary item.
Morphemes are thus the atoms of morphosyntactic representation.
Harley and Noyer 1998 propose that morphemes are of two basic kinds: f-morphemes and l-morphemes, corresponding approximately to the conventional division between functional and lexical categories.
www.ling.upenn.edu /~rnoyer/dm   (5136 words)

  
 Null morpheme - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Some linguists object to the notion of a null morpheme, since it sets up (they say) an unverifiable distinction between a "null" or "zero" element, and nothing at all.)
The null morpheme is represented as the figure zero (0) or the "empty set" symbol ø.
In languages that show the above distinctions, it's quite common to employ null affixation to (not) mark singular number, present tense and third persons (English is unusual in its marking of the third person singular with a non-zero morpheme, by contrast with a null morpheme for others).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Null_morpheme   (384 words)

  
 Unsupervised Learning of the Morphology of a Natural Language
The procedure described in Janssen (1992) and Flenner (1994, 1995) begins with a training corpus with morpheme boundaries inserted by a human, and hence the algorithm is not in the domain of unsupervised learning.
some indication of the presence of a morpheme boundary is certain, for they are the sums of numbers which were explicitly assigned on the basis of overtly marked morpheme boundaries.
Languages such as Hungarian and Finnish do not have this characteristic: the average number of morphemes per word is considerably greater than 2, and identification of the morphological system cannot be bootstrapped in such languages from the occurrences of stems and suffixes found in words of two morphemes.
humanities.uchicago.edu /faculty/goldsmith/Linguistica2000/Paper/paper.html   (7872 words)

  
 Morpheme Encyclopedia Article @ Repeatedly.net   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-15)
Meeting these publishers will be top UK games developers including Atomic Planet, Blitz, Eutechnyx, Kuju, Morpheme Wireless, Nice Tech and Rebellion.
English example: The word "unbreakable" has three morphemes "un-", (negatory) a bound morpheme, "-break-" a free morpheme, and "-able".
Accurate, but purposely confuses morphemes with narcotics (i.e., "morphine").
www.repeatedly.net /encyclopedia/Morpheme   (385 words)

  
 [No title]
In addition, # even the derived sequence shows the hallmark of an adjunction configuration: 'm' is # the active voice present tense-marker, whereas 'null' morpheme on the passive 2 form of # 'mitsangana' could be analysed as a 'passive.voice.present.tense'.
Since the PP is headed by morpheme 'null', an aspect and NOT a tense-marker, # incorporation can now take place, with the drop of the grammatical preposition 'amina': This is # NOT a lexical item with content features and therefore deletion here is plausible because it # is recoverable.
Note that the perfective aspect # morpheme t- is encoded on the lexical preposition, and that the accompanying general # preposition amin(a) remains invariant, i.e.
users.ox.ac.uk /~cpgl0015/pargram/data/prep-testfile.txt   (9169 words)

  
 [No title]
A constraint that is ranked lower may be violated as long as a higher ranking constraint is not violated.
Morpheme contiguity prohibits the insertion of elements into a morpheme.
It is composed of the prefix de- and a root ceive.
linguistics.byu.edu /faculty/eddingtond/epenthesis.html   (6260 words)

  
 LMBM and Word Syntax
We have already examined phonologically null and empty affixes and noted the absence of corresponding null and empty major category items.
The effect of the Autosegmental approach to reduplication and revowelling then is to conceal a distinction critical to the effectiveness of the model.
A morphology which represents all morphemes as processes rather than items will be much more internally consistent than morphology even extended by an autosegmental treatment of revowelling and reduplication.
www.facstaff.bucknell.edu /rbeard/wrdsyn.html   (2387 words)

  
 [No title]
All of this, as already explained are axiomatically understood by all humans because of the very nature of language itself (because of the widely accepted concept developed by Noam Chomsky, Universal Grammar, that grammar which is defined biologically as the outline of what a human language can be).
This could be seen in the pronoun structure, too, and thus all nouns and pronouns are easily distinguisable as such by this marker.
Whether one indicates the number or not is simply a matter of choice on the part of the speaker or writer.
www.angelfire.com /tx/eclectorium/deganouns.html   (733 words)

  
 [No title]
This is needed to allow morphemes to be removed from the dictionary, or to erase the entire dictionary in memory.
They are all involved with the need to look at morphemes in adjacent words (a buggy hack that should not be used and should not have been implemented in my opinion).
The morpheme is identified by a combination of its morphname and its morpheme type value.
www.ai.mit.edu /courses/6.863/doc/amplelib.dos   (5473 words)

  
 Language in India
The obvious point that is being missed here is that, if positing a null morpheme were the solution to avoiding a typological split, one could as well posit a null agreement morpheme for Malayalam.
Since there is no overt tense morpheme present in the negative sentences as well as the sentences with the modals, there need not, AJ argue, be a Tense Phrase.
Consider the homophony of the plural morpheme of nouns and the third person singular agreement morpheme on the verbs, or the -ed in the past tense and the past participle form of the regular verbs in English.
www.languageinindia.com /nov2003/ciefl10.html   (8756 words)

  
 Morphological Parsing with a Unification-based Word Grammar
While PC-KIMMO was adequate to decompose a word into morphemes, it was not able directly to compute the part of speech of a derivationally complex word or return a word's inflectional features--precisely the information required for syntactic parsing.
Koskenniemi's model of two-level morphology was based on the traditional distinction that linguists make between morphotactics, which enumerates the inventory of morphemes and specifies in what order they can occur, and morphophonemics, which accounts for alternate forms or "spellings" of morphemes according to the phonological context in which they occur.
Koskenniemi's model is "two-level" in the sense that a word is represented as a direct, letter-for-letter correspondence between its lexical or underlying form and its surface form.
www.sil.org /pckimmo/ntnlp94.html   (2716 words)

  
 LINGUIST List 4.285: Number Markedness   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-15)
The query requested an example of a language containing a phonetically null plural morpheme and a phonetically overt singular morpheme or, lacking that, a language in which both the singular and the plural (and all other number affixes) are phonetically overt.
The issue is further complicated by the fact that these morphemes are, after all, fusional (as Ringe notes).
Some languages apparently have phonetically null plural morphemes for a special set of nouns which are somehow inherently plural.
www.linguistlist.org /issues/4/4-285.html   (989 words)

  
 Eddington PASAR Y SENTAROS: ACCOUNTING FOR THEALTERNATIVE VOSOTROS IMPERATIVE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-15)
That they are treated as unusual clusters when they fall between imperatives and clitic pronouns is evidenced by the existence of the -r and null variety imperatives which do not contain them.
            The -r and null variety imperatives in Spanish should not simply be attributed to careless speech habits of the masses, but rather, to linguistic forces arising from the structure of the language itself.
  Final /-d/ is subject to devoicing and deletion, and in the case of voseo, this deletion became generalized as the phonetically null imperative morpheme.
www.ucm.es /info/circulo/no12/eddington.htm   (1910 words)

  
 LINGUIST List 15.2565: Syntax/Morphology: Aboh (2003)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-15)
In case it is [-future], it is occupied by a null morpheme (the reason for the postulation of this morpheme being to prevent head movement of the verb into T).
Chapter 6 extends the investigation of the mid-lower part of the clause, focusing of the different configurations of object and verb movement as the cause behind the OV/VO alternations in Gbe: while imperfective sentences are OV, non-imperfective ones are VO.
Rather, he assumes that there are two different instantiations of the topic head (namely, ''y�'' and a null morpheme), differing in their feature make-up.
www.linguistlist.org /issues/15/15-2565.html   (2271 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-15)
Similarly, the 3.singular agreement is the null morpheme -Æ in the main clause (4a), but -I- in (4b) and (4c).
The morpheme -Is8- however, is possible with the causative öldür ‘kill’ in (11d).
This predicts that Agr must be the outmost morpheme on the verbal complex in languages with V-movement.
www.humnet.ucla.edu /humnet/linguistics/people/grads/kural/v-to-c.doc   (7911 words)

  
 Lexicon of Linguistics
The most natural type of morphology is fully transparent, in the sense that every morpheme has one form and one meaning, and every meaning corresponds to exactly one form.
Bloomfield (1933), Kiparsky (1982)) account for °conversion by assuming that a null affix is added to a base.
Other terms for null morpheme are zero morpheme and ghost morpheme.
w3.u-grenoble3.fr /lebarbe/Linguistic_Lexicon/ll_n.html   (1338 words)

  
 LINGUIST List 4.285: Number Markedness   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-15)
The query requested an example of a language containing a phonetically null plural morpheme and a phonetically overt singular morpheme or, lacking that, a language in which both the singular and the plural (and all other number affixes) are phonetically overt.
The issue is further complicated by the fact that these morphemes are, after all, fusional (as Ringe notes).
Some languages apparently have phonetically null plural morphemes for a special set of nouns which are somehow inherently plural.
linguistlist.org /issues/4/4-285.html   (989 words)

  
 Linguistics 105: Lecture No. 7
More important is the distinction between LEXEMES and GRAMMATICAL MORPHEMES, both of which come in bound and free variants.
The morpheme is the minimal meaningful element of language.
There are two kinds of these: (a) lexical (the lexeme) and (b) the grammatical morpheme.
www.departments.bucknell.edu /linguistics/lectures/05lect07.html   (173 words)

  
 4.9 Algorithms
This is the branch of the lexicon corresponding to the lexical character from the current input pair.
If the NULL symbol is the head of a branch of the lexicon (that is, a null lexical entry), recursively call the recognizer function with these inputs:
This is the branch of the lexicon which has the NULL symbol as its head.
www.sil.org /pckimmo/v2/doc/refman_9.html   (1798 words)

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