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# Topic: Numeral system

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 Numeral system Numeral systems are sometimes called number systems, but that name is misleading: different systems of numbers, such as the system of real numbers, the system of complex numbers, the system of p-adic numbers, etc., are not the topic of this article. The simplest numeral system is the unary numeral system, in which every natural number is represented by a corresponding number of symbols. The numeral system of English is of this type ("three hundred [and] four"), as are those of virtually all other spoken languages, regardless of what written systems they have adopted. www.brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/n/nu/numeral_system.html   (2673 words)

 Numeral system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Numeral systems are sometimes called number systems, but that name is misleading: different systems of numbers, such as the system of real numbers, the system of complex numbers, the system of p-adic numbers, etc., are not the topic of this article. The simplest numeral system is the unary numeral system, in which every natural number is represented by a corresponding number of symbols. The numeral system of English is of this type ("three hundred [and] four"), as are those of virtually all other spoken languages, regardless of what written systems they have adopted. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Numeral_system   (3482 words)

 Numeral system Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20) These systems gradually converged on a common sexagesimal number system; this was a place-value system consisting of only two impressed marks, the vertical wedge and the chevron, which could also represent fractions. Sexagesimal numerals were a mixed radix system that retained the alternating base 10 and base 6 in a sequence of cuneiform vertical wedges and chevrons. The oldest Greek system was the that of the Attic numerals, but in the 4th century BCE they began to use a quasidecimal alphabetic system (see Greek numerals). www.hallencyclopedia.com /topic/Numeral_system.html   (3769 words)

 Binary numeral system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia His logical system proved instrumental in the development of the binary system, particularly in its implementation in electronic circuitry. In a computer, the numeric values may be represented by two different voltages; on a magnetic disk, magnetic polarities may be used. The correspondence between octal and binary numerals is the same as for the first eight digits of hexadecimal in the table above. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Binary_numeral_system   (3140 words)

 Binary numeral system The binary or base-two numeral system is a representation for numbers that uses a radix of two. For example, the binary numeral "100" is pronounced "one zero zero", rather than "one hundred", in order to make explicit the fact that a binary numeral is being discussed, as well as for purposes of correctness. In the binary system, however, it is customary to use the two's complement[?] notation for performing subtraction. www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/ba/Base2.html   (1271 words)

 Arabic numerals Abu'l-Wafa, who was himself an expert in the use of Indian numerals, nevertheless wrote a text on how to use finger-reckoning arithmetic since this was the system used by the business community and teaching material aimed at these people had to be written using the appropriate system. The numerals had changed their form somewhat 100 years later when this copy of one of al-Biruni's astronomical texts was made. The form of the numerals in the west of the Arabic empire look more familiar to those using European numerals today which is not surprising since it is from these numerals that the Indian number system reach Europe. www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk /~history/HistTopics/Arabic_numerals.html   (2212 words)

 HighBeam Encyclopedia â“ Free Online Encyclopedia for Reference, Research, Facts The symbol is a member of a family of marks, such as letters, figures, or words, which alone or in a group represent the members of a numeration system. The earliest numerical notation used by the Greeks was the Attic system. The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasidecimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. www.encyclopedia.com /printable.aspx?id=1E1:numeral   (904 words)

 Wikinfo | Numeral system The simplest numeral system is the unary system, in which every natural number is represented by a corresponding number of symbols. The numeral system of English is of this type, as are those of virtually all other languages: Chinese, Japanese, and Greek. In a positional base-b numeral system (with b a positive natural number), b basic symbols (or digits) corresponding to the first b natural numbers including zero are used. www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Numeral_system   (1480 words)

 Chinese numerals Info - Bored Net - Boredom   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20) The "Hual Ma3" system is a variation of the rod numeral system. Rod numerals are closely related to the counting rods and the abacus, which is why the numeric symbols for 1, 2, 3, 6, 7 and 8 in "Hual Ma3" system are represented in a similar way as on the abacus. Traditional Chinese numeric characters are recognized and used in Japan where they are used in much the same formal or decorative fashion that Roman Numerals are in Western cultures. www.borednet.com /e/n/encyclopedia/c/ch/chinese_numerals.html   (1733 words)

 ipedia.com: Arabic numerals Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20) The Arabic numeral system is a positional base 10 numeral system with 10 distinct glyphs representing the 10 numerical digits. In a more developed form, the Arabic numeral system also uses a decimal marker (at first a mark over the ones digit but now more usually a decimal point or a decimal comma which separates the ones place from the tenths place), and also a symbol for “these digits repeat ad infinitum” (recur). Because the Chinese Hua Ma system (see Chinese numerals) is also a positional base-10 system, Hua Ma numerals—or some numeral system similar to it—may have been the inspiration for the base-10 positional numeral system that evolved in India. www.ipedia.com /arabic_numerals.html   (776 words)

 Chinese numerals - Wikipedia Today, speakers of Chinese use three numeral systems: There is the ubiquitous system of arabic digits and two ancient Chinese numeral systems. The numeral characters are tightly integrated into the language: Each numeral character has a phonetic value and a number is read by pronouncing each individual character it consists of, unlike e.g. For instance, the numeric symbols for 1, 2, 3, 6, 7 and 8 are represented in a similar way as on the abacus. nostalgia.wikipedia.org /wiki/Chinese_numerals   (1594 words)

 Binary numeral system - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20) The binary or base-two numeral system is a system for representing numbers in which a radix of two is used; that is, each digit in a binary numeral may have either of two different values. The first known description of a binary numeral system was made by Indian mathematician Pingala in his Chhandah-shastra, placed variously in the 5th century BC or the 2nd century BC. Although the British philosopher Francis Bacon had earlier described a developed system of concealed binary encoding for encryption, the modern binary number system was first fully documented by Gottfried Leibniz in the 17th century in his article Explication de l'Arithmétique Binaire. www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Binary_numeral_system   (2814 words)

 Arabic numerals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20) The Arabic system is a positional base 10 numeral system with 10 distinct glyphs representing the 10 numerical digits. Because the Chinese Hua system (see Chinese numerals) is also a positional base-10 system Ma numerals—or some numeral system similar to have been the inspiration for the base-10 numeral system that evolved in India. Muslim mathematicians working in what is now were already familiar with the Babylonian numeral system which used the zero digit nonzero digits (although not after nonzero digits) the more general system would not have a difficult step. www.freeglossary.com /Arabic_numerals   (890 words)

 numeration The position of a numeral in a grouping indicates which power of the base it is to be multiplied by. ), i.e., 4+2+1, or 7, in the decimal system. ), i.e., (2×144)+(4×12)+(11×1), or 347, in the decimal system. www.factmonster.com /ce6/sci/A0836176.html   (412 words)

 chinese number system   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20) Chinese numerals Today, speakers of Chinese use three numeral systems: There is the ubiquitous system of arabic digits and two ancient Chinese numeral systems. A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a framework... Decimal system In a sense, the abacus works as a 5-2-5-2 based number system in which carries and shiftings are similar to the decimal number system. findonet.com /asia/chinese+number+system   (1068 words)

 Justus: NUMERACY AND THE GERMANIC UPPER DECADES PART 1 As late as 1951 and 1960 the role of tokens in the evolution of numeracy and the pre-standardized archaic numeration systems of the Ancient Middle East were not yet known. Numeral bases might be expressed as powers of 10, but the jump in the number of powers between numeral bases 'thousand' and 'million' reflects the linguistic role of 'thousand' as an exponential base of 'million'. Breaks in the standard French decade system reflect factors [10 and 6] operating on base units 10 and 60 as far as 79 and factors [10, 2, and 5] operating on base units 10 and 20 from 80 to 99. www.utexas.edu /cola/centers/lrc/numerals/cfj-jies/cfj1-section1.html   (2283 words)

 numeral. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 B.C. the ancient Egyptians began to use a demotic (a simplified cursive style of hieroglyphics) system of numerals based on a decimal system. B.C. the Greeks borrowed the Egyptian demotic numeral system and devised an alphabetic decimal system. A.D. The numerals are made up of three symbols: zero (egg shape), one (a dot), and five (a horizontal bar). www.bartleby.com /65/nu/numeral.html   (943 words)

 ARTIFICIALLY GROWING A NUMERAL SYSTEM AI systems are typically architecturally complex, embodying the programmer's analysis of the particular manifestation of intelligence under study (such as chess, parsing, visual processing, face recognition). In these systems, either all the numeral expressions are monomorphemic (or at least do not contain more than one morpheme with a numerical interpretation), or a relatively low number, such as 2, 3, 4, or 5, is used as a basis of addition (or very much more rarely of subtraction or multiplication). The main problem with this system is the lexical gaps for values 1 and 7, and the gaps caused by the fact that the words for 4 and 5 are not of the appropriate syntactic category to fit into the higher-valued syntactic constructions. www.ling.ed.ac.uk /~jim/grownum.html   (7609 words)

 The Artima Icon - A Base 16 Numeral System The Artima icon is a Java applet that slowly counts from 0 to 15 in a numeral system that I dreamed up when I was in high school. To form the hexabill numeral for any of the base 16 "digits," 0 through 15 (decimal) or 0 through F (hexadecimal), simply connect the ends of the crossed lines for the appropriate powers of two. In the Artima icon, the hexabill numeral is expressed in a more colorful way than the basic system described above. www.artima.com /artimaicon.html   (486 words)

 Mayan mathematics In fact it is worth noting that although the system is base 20 it only has three number symbols (perhaps the unit symbol arising from a pebble and the line symbol from a stick used in counting). Now the system we have just described is used in the Dresden Codex and it is the only system for which we have any written evidence. Yet the Mayan number system is certainly capable of being used for the operations of multiplication and division as the authors of [Amer. www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk /~history/HistTopics/Mayan_mathematics.html   (2414 words)

 Uri's page-Arabic Numeral System The common system of number notation in use in most parts of the world today is the Arabic system. This system was first developed by the Hindus and was in use in India in the 3rd century BC. The important innovation in the Arabic system was the use of positional notation, in which individual number symbols assume different values according to their position in the written numeral. www.geocities.com /uripi/arabic_numbers.html   (354 words)

 The Enneagram - History of the Decimal System A noteworthy characteristic of the Chinese system, and one that represented a substantial advantage over the Mediterranean systems, was its predilection for a decimal notation, as demonstrated by foot rulers dating back as far as the 6th century BC. The Arabic numeral system is considered one of the most significant developments in mathematics, and, ergo, several theories have been advanced about its origin. Because the Chinese Hua Ma system (see Chinese numerals) is also a positional base-10 system, Hau Ma numerals—or some numeral system similar to it—may have been the inspiration for the base-10 positional numeral system that evolved in India. www.endlesssearch.co.uk /philo_enneagram_dec.htm   (796 words)

 Mathematical Structures of Early Indo-European Numeral Systems Such mathematical functions underlying a "pure" numeral system are that of numeral base and exponentiation on that base (Greenberg 2000:373-374). Among other problems (Justus 1996:66-77), the reconstruction of a decimal system for PIE does not account for the Germanic long hundred of 120, a number which is neither a power of 10 nor of 12 (Justus 1999:138-140). It is not a "pure" numeral system nor does it belong to a "mixed base" category (e.g., French quatre vingt 'four-20(s)' or '80': Greenberg 2000:774). greenberg-conference.stanford.edu /Justus_Abstract.htm   (584 words)

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