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Topic: Nuremberg Code


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In the News (Mon 20 Nov 17)

  
  Nuremberg Tribunal and Code   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
The conclusion was that since the Nuremberg Principles had been affirmed by the General Assembly, the task entrusted to the Commission was not to express any appreciation of these principles as principles of international law but merely to formulate them.
A breach of faith that contravenes the moral basis for the Nuremberg War Trials of 1945 and is a lasting obstacle to the efforts of all peaceful nations that believe in the rule of law.
Americans are urged to encourage their government to fulfill the promises made by Robert Jackson at Nuremberg in 1945 and become a party to the ICC as soon as practicable.
www.oilempire.us /nuremberg.html   (1386 words)

  
 www.newsaic.com
In the Nuremberg Medical Trial, the United States prosecuted 23 defendants, 20 of whom were doctors, for war crimes, conspiracy, crimes against humanity, and membership in criminal organizations.
The Nuremberg Code is the most famous articulation of how ethical research involving human subjects should be conducted, but, on its own, it is not actually law in the United States or the world (for more on the code, go here).
That same year, the U.S. military adopted a formal policy reiterating the principles of the Nuremberg Code, requiring the written and witnessed consent from human subjects, and prohibiting the use of prisoners of war.
www.newsaic.com /resnurembergcode.html   (1102 words)

  
 Historical Development of Ethical Considerations
Since no ethical policy was developed by this point in time, the prosecution issued what would soon be called the Nuremberg Code in order to communicate the proper ways to conduct research in order to respect the fundamental rights of research participants.
The Ethics Code provides guidance for psychologists as well as standards of professional conduct that can be applied by the APA and other bodies that choose to adopt them.
Overall, the goals the Ethics Code is to uphold the welfare and protection of individuals and groups with whom psychologists work and to educate members, students, and the public regarding ethical standards of the discipline.
www.umbc.edu /irb/irbmem1_files/Page332.htm   (744 words)

  
 CETOS - Cloning and the Nuremberg Code
A look at the Nuremberg Code which emerged from the so-called Doctor's Trial held at Nuremberg, Germany after WWII should give us pause.
The Code gave us the fundamental guidelines for human experimentation that have served as the basis for rules for human experimentation worldwide.
According to the original Nuremberg Code, every experimental subject should have the right to terminate his experiment, an impossibility for the first cloned persons, short of euthanasia.
www.cetos.org /articles/cloningnurem.html   (1119 words)

  
 BMJ No 7070 Nuremberg lamentation
Though the Nuremberg code has had a profound impact on human experimentation, the broader questions and challenges arising from medicine during the Hitler period have not received the full and sustained consideration they deserve.
There have been recurring instances of medical science contravening the Nuremberg code and exploiting vulnerable people for medical experimentation, including patients, prisoners, visible minorities, children in institutions, women, and soldiers.(13-21) Developments in biotechnology have accentuated the physician's role as "selector" on the basis of genotype or phenotype.
A substantial blow to the Nuremberg code was delivered by the World Medical Association, which has enunciated the Helsinki declarations on human experimentation.(42) Under the Helsinki declarations the rigid requirement of Nuremberg for respect for persons is softened, and the requirement of informed consent is differentiated between therapeutic and non-therapeutic clinical research.
www.bmj.com /archive/7070nd4.htm   (2952 words)

  
 The Trials of The Nuremberg Trials
Exactly 50 years ago, the world learned of the moral depravity of the 20 Nazi physicians who were tried and convicted in Nuremberg for the part they played in the brutal human experiments at Auschwitz (1-4).
The first principle of the Nuremberg Code is this: "The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential." However, this principle was compromised almost immediately after the Nuremberg trials.
The Nuremberg Trials and the Holocaust are metaphors for absolute moral evil, the lessons of which are as old as ethics itself (19).
www.law.umkc.edu /faculty/projects/ftrials/nuremberg/NurembergNews8_15_97.html   (1285 words)

  
 THE NUREMBURG CODE
The Nuremberg Code is the most important document in the history of the ethics of medical research and the first of its kind to ensure the rights of subjects.
During the course of the trial the judges at Nuremberg correctly recognized that more than the Hipporatic ethics and the maxim primum non nocere, were necessary to ensure and protect the rights of human research subjects.
The Nuremberg Code insists that the medical investigators alone cannot set the rules for the ethical conduct of research, even when guided by beneficience and the Hippocraric ethics.
www.brown.edu /Courses/Bio_160/Projects2000/Ethics/THENUREMBURGCODE.html   (676 words)

  
 Hastings Report: "Soldiers as Human Guinea Pigs"
This policy is based on the Nuremberg Code of 1947, which followed the war crimes trials...an individual participating as a subject is required to...give voluntary written informed consent without coercion....
Consent is required for investigational drugs not only by the Nuremberg Code, but also by the Declaration of Helsinki, HHS regulations, and FDA regulations, and no exception is made for the military or wartime in any of these codes and regulations.
Rather, the Nuremberg Code principles were derived from "the principles of the law of nations as they result from the usages established among civilized peoples, from the laws of humanity, anti from the dictates of public conscience."(n4) Those who must fight to protect these basic human rights should be protected by them.
www.angelfire.com /nm/redcollarcrime/hastrep.html   (1873 words)

  
 Chapter 2: New Times, New Codes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
As a group, the conferees acknowledged that "[t]he ten principles [of the Nuremberg Code] have become the principal guideposts to the ethics of clinical research in the western world." Not all those in attendance, however, seemed to have been entirely pleased with this state of affairs.
The Nuremberg Code was conceived in reference to Nazi atrocities and was written for the specific purpose of preventing brutal excesses from being committed or excused in the name of science.
The code, however admirable in its intent, and however suitable for the purpose for which it was conceived, is in our opinion not necessarily pertinent to or adequate for the conduct of medical research in the United States.
biotech.law.lsu.edu /research/reports/ACHRE/chap2_6.html   (1843 words)

  
 /humansubjects/guidance/ documents   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
During the Nuremberg War Crime Trials, the Nuremberg code was drafted as a set of standards for judging physicians and scientists who had conducted biomedical experiments on concentration camp prisoners.
This code became the prototype of many later codes(1) intended to assure that research involving human subjects would be carried out in an ethical manner.
Previous codes and Federal regulations have required that risks to subjects be outweighed by the sum of both the anticipated benefit to the subject, if any, and the anticipated benefit to society in the form of knowledge to be gained from the research.
www.hhs.gov /ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/belmont.htm   (4976 words)

  
 US Must Follow Nuremberg Code
Perhaps it was by some quirk of Intelligent Design that Congress passed the law legitimizing the Bush administration's right to do whatever it chooses to detainees (short of rape and mutilation) almost 60 years to the day of the verdicts at Nuremberg.
Two of the Nuremberg trial defendants, Field Marshall Wilhelm Keitel and Gen. Alfred Jodl, were sentenced to death on Oct. 1, 1946, in part, for delegating Hitler's infamous "commando order." Hitler ranted that allied commandos who attacked German troops by stealth were not soldiers but common criminals.
Supreme Court Justice Robert Jackson, chief U.S. prosecutor, affirmed that the legacy of Nuremberg should be that the Germans stood trial not because they lost the war -- but because they started it.
www.commondreams.org /views06/1006-35.htm   (673 words)

  
 U.S. ethics examined in Nuremberg Medical Trial tactics
The 1946 Medical Trial at Nuremberg, in which Nazi doctors were convicted for acts of torture, barbarism and murder, held many lessons for the practice of medicine in the United States, a Cornell historian says.
His paper, "Nuremberg and Wartime Experiments on U.S. Prisoners," examines the response of the American prosecution team to an attempt by the German defendants to equate wartime medical experiments on American prisoners with experiments on Nazi concentration camp inmates.
In the Nuremberg Medical Trial, the defense tried to show that there was no difference between what the Nazi doctors did and what U.S. doctors did in Stateville Prison, Joliet, Ill., by experimenting with a malaria vaccine on prisoners.
www.news.cornell.edu /Chronicle/96/12.5.96/Nuremberg.html   (1075 words)

  
 Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation
The atrocities committed by Nazi physicians and researchers during World War II prompted the development of the Nuremberg Code to define the ethics of modern medical experimentation utilizing human subjects.
The historical setting of the Code's creation, some modern parallels, and the current attitude of German physicians toward the crimes of the Nazi era are discussed in early chapters.
The Code's contemporary influence on both American and international law is examined in its historical context and discussed in terms of its universality: Are the foundational ethics of the Code as valid today as when it was originally penned?
www.ftrbooks.net /psych/nazi/doctors_code.htm   (427 words)

  
 Alibris: Nuremberg
In August 1945 Great Britain, France, the USSR and the United States established a tribunal at Nuremberg to try military and civilian leaders of the Nazi regime for the plotting of aggressive warfare, the extermination of civilian populations, the widespread use of slave labor, the looting of occupied countries, and the maltreatment and murder of...
The Nuremberg Trials draws on a multiplicity of sources (including the minutes of the tribunal's closed deliberations on verdicts) to recreate brilliantly the proceedings and to offer a reasoned, often profound...
Kochavi demonstrates that the institution of the Nuremberg trials represented the culmination of a complicated process rooted in the domestic and international politics of the war years.
www.alibris.com /search/books/subject/Nuremberg   (1021 words)

  
 Human Subjects - Course Introduction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
In 1946, 23 Nazi physicians went on trial at Nuremberg because of research atrocities performed on prisoners of war.
Subsequently, in 1947, the Nazi War Crimes Tribunal issued the Nuremberg Code, which was the first internationally recognized code of research ethics.
While the Nuremberg Code and subsequent ethical guidelines represented the most enlightened thinking of the time, many well-intentioned researchers did not know about them or did not apply this guidance to their research activities.
www.stanford.edu /dept/DoR/hs/Intro/intro03.html   (93 words)

  
 The Nuremberg Code and Why It Should Be Applied to Mental Therapy
During the trials, the principles for conducting ethical human experiments were distilled into ten points which have come to be known as the Nuremberg Code.
Then read The Nuremberg Code Applied to Mental Health Practices on this site to see how these ethical principles could be applied to mental health providers.
Read The Nuremberg Code Applied to Mental Health Practices on this site to see how these ethical principles could be applied to mental health providers.
www.stopbadtherapy.com /reform/ncode.shtml   (1417 words)

  
 The Nuremberg Code
The judgment by the war crimes tribunal at Nuremberg laid down 10 standards to which physicians must conform when carrying out experiments on human subjects in a new code that is now accepted worldwide.
This code also recognizes that the risk must be weighed against the expected benefit, and that unnecessary pain and suffering must be avoided.
The principles established by this code for medical practice now have been extened into general codes of medical ethics.
www.cirp.org /library/ethics/nuremberg   (547 words)

  
 BBC - h2g2 - The Nuremberg Code
However, the judges at the trial realised that the Hippocratic Oath alone was not enough to properly protect human research subjects, and in August 1947 they drew up a code of ten points to protect the safety and rights of those involved in such experimentation.
Thus the Nuremberg Code was formed, and is part of international legislation due to a UN resolution in December 1946 which made the Nuremberg trials official law.
The ten points of the Nuremberg Code may seem obvious as they are rights which are taken quite for granted nowadays.
www.bbc.co.uk /dna/h2g2/A6110777   (923 words)

  
 Bayer accused of breaking the Nuremberg Code to boost profits
Three years later the company behind the tests stands accused of breaking the Nuremberg Code -- established as a response to Nazi experimentation on Jews -- and of using the results to boost profits.
The Nuremberg Code, along with other international human rights agreements put in place after the Nazis used Jewish prisoners for medical experiments, tightly govern what kind of tests can be performed on humans.
Clause two of the Nuremberg Code states: 'The experiment should be such as to yield fruitful results for the good of society'.
members.tripod.com /~ngin/180902b.htm   (1552 words)

  
 NRDC Backgrounder: EPA Reverses Ban on Testing Pesticides on Human Subjects
During the Nuremberg trials of 1947, 13 I.G. Farben executives were convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity and received prison sentences of up to eight years.
Similarly, the Nuremberg Code and Helsinki Declaration state that human tests are justifiable only if they benefit the subject or would lead to health benefits for others.
By contrast, unlike the air studies, pesticide studies generally expose people to chemicals for the sole purpose of weakening standards that would be established if animal tests were used, and often these tests expose people to far more of the pesticide than consumers would encounter in their food or the ambient environment.
www.nrdc.org /media/pressreleases/011128a.asp   (3383 words)

  
 Idaho Observer: The Nuremberg Code: It's historical and contemporary significance   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
What is different about the Nuremberg Code with respect to other human rights treaties is that the Nuremberg Code arose partially from the use of untested vaccinations on prisoner populations as an aspect of medical experimentation against an individual's will.
There are several “Codes of Ethics” resembling the Nuremberg Code that had been circulating prior to 1947.
In 1930, Dr. Moses alerted the public to the deaths of 75 children caused by pediatricians in Lubeck, Germany in the course of experiments with tuberculosis vaccinations.
www.proliberty.com /observer/20020512.htm   (381 words)

  
 Re-The-Nuremberg-Code-(Riedlinger)(Evans)--
At 05:52 AM 01/20/2000 -0600, you wrote: > >I think many of us are aware of the Nuremberg Code -- which prohibits >"experimentation" upon the public (collectively and individually) >except under certain carefully prescribed rules.....
Dear Roy et al, I believe that copies of the Nuremberg Code (which I had not seen until EMFguru distributed it on EMF-L) be used by all persons and groups who are protesting against the "wireless communications establishment" and electric companies.
We do HAVE the solid evidence, which evidence we should make sure is collated and made available to any and all who wish to use it.
www.wave-guide.org /archives/emf-l/Jan2000/Re-The-Nuremberg-Code-(Riedlinger)(Evans)--.html   (241 words)

  
 Seattle Post-Intelligencer: Sound Off
The main difference between the SOLDIERS tried at Nuremberg and the enemy combatants of today is that the Soldiers were acting as official agents of a recognize state (Germany) and the enemy combatants are not officially part of any state or legally recognized government.
One of the hoped outcomes of the Nuremberg Charter was accountability; or preferably, conscience in the actions of nation states.
The twentieth century will be remembered for the dichotomy of villains their rampant fascism/imperialism versus heroic figures who sought a moral social justice system for all, from the aged to limiting acts of warfare.
seattlepi.nwsource.com /soundoff/comment.asp?articleID=287726&source=mypi   (15200 words)

  
 AORN Online: Journal: June 1998: Research Corner   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
In the end, 15 defendants were convicted of criminal responsibility in the deaths of hundreds of people, seven were acquitted, and a series of basic principles (ie, the Nuremberg Code) was developed.
Among the 10 principles embodied in the code are guidelines for voluntary consent; withdrawal of subjects from studies; protection of subjects from physical and mental suffering, injury, disability, and death; and balancing of study risks and benefits.
The Nuremberg Code has provided a basis for every major ethical code or set of human research guidelines that has been developed during the past 50 years.
www.aorn.org /journal/research/rc698.htm   (2275 words)

  
 Gulf Illness: Distrust and the Nuremberg Code
The NGWRC claimed that the United States violated the Nuremberg Code on medical experimentation when investigational new drugs (INDs) were administered to U.S. troops without proper record-keeping, follow-up evaluations or proper study of side effects as mandated by the December 1990 Food and Drug Administration waiver of informed consent.
Informed consent is at the heart of the Nuremberg Code.
The NGWRC further attributed the difficulty in providing a single-case definition of Gulf War illness or effective treatments for it to the “failure” of the Defense Department and the VA “to be candid with veterans about the number and extent of the toxic exposures during the 1991 Gulf War.”
www.avip2001.net /DOCS/SS001002Nuremberg.htm   (904 words)

  
 Human Experimentation on the Web
http://www.cirp.org/CIRP/library/ethics/nuremberg/: The Nuremberg Code was established in 1947 as a response to Nazi experimentation on concentration camp prisoners during World War II.
All nations subscribing to the code -- including the United States -- agree to abide by its rules, including the concept of voluntary consent and the idea that some scientific good should come of any research study.
The report effectively restates the principles set forth in the Nuremberg Code, placing emphasis on three key principles: respect for persons, making sure that people are treated as human beings; beneficence, making sure that people are harmed as little as possible in research; and the concept of justice in choosing research subjects.
www.mit.edu /~dmaze/human_experimentation.html   (2219 words)

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