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Topic: Nuristani languages

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In the News (Sat 20 Jul 19)

  Nuristani languages - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Nuristani languages are a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian language family, spoken in Afghanistan and parts of modern Pakistan.
The Nuristani languages are said by modern linguists to represent the third and by far the smallest branch of the Indo-Iranian languages.
The recent view is to classify Nuristani as an independent branch of the Indo-Iranian superstock, but a few would class it with the Indic group, while another would characterize it as originally Iranian, but greatly influenced by the nearby Dardic languages.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Nuristani_languages   (527 words)

 Nuristani - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Nuristani are a religious/ethnic group in the Nurestan Province of Afghanistan.
The Nuristani, particularly the Kalasha clan, are known for their typical Indo-European characteristics like fair skin, light eyes, and blonde hair.
There are several theories for this including the Nuristani being the descendants of the Greeks who came with Alexander the Great, or that in their isolation in the mountains, they have retained the appearance of the original Indo-Iranians (Aryans) who settled the area.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Nuristani   (266 words)

 Iranian languages - Facts, Information, and Encyclopedia Reference article
The Iranian language group is part of the generally agreed-upon superstock of the Indo-Iranian language subfamily and accounts for some of the oldest-recorded Indo-European languages, and as Gathic Avestan and Vedic Sanskrit, along with Greek and Hittite, are the first languages to be written.
The imperial period of the Iranian languages is that of the Persian Empire, particularly the Achaemenid dynasty.
He then adds that Dari is the official language of the royal courts and the language of Khorasan and Balkh and eastern Iran; Parsi is the language of the Moobeds of Fars; Khuzi is the unofficial language of the royalty and comes from Khuzestan; and Seryani originates in Mesopotamia.
www.startsurfing.com /encyclopedia/i/r/a/Iranian_languages.html   (923 words)

 Indo-Aryan languages - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
The earliest attestations of the group are in Vedic Sanskrit, the language used in the oldest scriptures of India, the foundational canon of Hinduism known as the Vedas.
However, although this preserved the integrity of written language for a long time, the spoken language continues to evolve, and by the sixth century, Sanskrit as a spoken language was rare, being by and large replaced by its descendants, the Prakrits.
Apabramsa was the next modification in the spoken language, in a period broadly lasting from the fifth to the tenth century.
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Indic   (599 words)

 Sanskrit : Information and resources about Sanskrit : School Work Guru
Sanskrit (संस्कृत in devanagari) is a member of the Indo-European language family, and an official language of India.
Nuristani languages, spoken in roughly what has become Afghanistan, are grouped with Vedic and Avestan.
Sanskrit is a highly inflected language with three grammatical genders (masculine, feminine, neuter) and three numbers (singular, plural, dual).
schoolworkguru.org /encyclopedia/s/sa/sanskrit.html   (1646 words)

 Dardic and Nuristani languages   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
Though Dardic and Nuristani languages are considered by the majority of linguists as two separate groups of languages, they are very close in structure and in vocabulary, and can be described together.
As it is usual with mountainous tongues, it is hard to distinguish between separate languages and dialects of one.
Many languages have no writing at all: this is explained by the fact that the majority of their speakers are illiterate peasants.
indoeuro.bizland.com /tree/indo/dardic.html   (517 words)

 Dardic Languages: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library
...neither to the Indo-European languages spoken in India, Pakistan...were once common among the Dardic speakers of neighboring Shinkari...Shina, the language of their Dardic neighbors, rather than in their...ideas are to be found among the Dardic-speaking populations of Shinkari...
DARDIC LANGUAGES dar dik, group of languages belonging to the Indo-Iranian subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages.
KASHMIRI kashme re, language belonging to the Dardic group of the Indo-Iranian subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages.
www.questia.com /library/encyclopedia/dardic-languages.jsp?l=D&p=1   (676 words)

 Languages of the World
The label language isolate is used for a language that is the only representative of a language family, as Basque or the extinct Sumerian language; the presumptive but unknown sister languages of isolates are dead and unrecorded.
The languages of seven of the nine extant branches of the Indo-European language family are spoken in Europe.
Dialects of two languages in the Indo-Iranian branch of Indo-European also are or were spoken in Europe: the Jassic dialect of Ossetic, an Iranian language, formerly spoken in Hungary; and the European dialects of Romany, which was spread by Gypsies throughout Europe and into America.
www.ling.hawaii.edu /faculty/stampe/Linguistics/lgsworld.html   (1332 words)

 The Alekseev Manuscript - Chapter VII: Bronze Age in Eurasia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
HOLLIS equates Nuristani with Dardic 28, with Bashgali 29, and with the Kafiri languages 30 (Bashgali, Dardic, and Nuristani are languages of Afghanistan).
The Tokharian language is synonymous with Yueh Cheh.
The Livonians, from a small area in Latvia, speak the Livonian language, the Mansi of the Ob Valley in Siberia and the Tavda Valley in Russia speak the Mansi language, the Mari speak the Mari language, and the Mordvins speak the Mordvin language with dialects of Erzya and Moksha.
www.drummingnet.com /alekseev/ChapterVII.html   (12823 words)

 The Definitive Guide to Indo-Iranian language family XXXX   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family with an estimated number of 150-200 million native speakers today.
Some Iranian authors use the term "Iranian languages" in a looser, non-linguistic sense, including all languages spoken by people who regard themselves as part of the Iranian nation, or by ancient peoples whose cultures Iranians today regard as part of their national heritage.
The Old Iranian languages began to break off and evolve separately as the various Iranian tribes migrated and settled in vast areas of southeastern Europe, the Iranian plateau, and Central Asia.
www.xxxx.com /s/Indo-Iranian_language_family   (1139 words)

 Sanskrit Translation - Translate Sanskrit Language Translator
Its common origin with modern European and the classical languages of Greek and Latin can be seen, for instance, in the Sanskrit words for mother, matr, and father, pitr.
Sanskrit's greatest influence, presumably, is that it exerted on languages that grew from its vocabulary and grammatical base.
Especially among elite circles in India, Sanskrit is prized as a storehouse of scripture and the language of prayers in Hinduism.
www.translation-services-usa.com /languages/sanskrit.shtml   (1135 words)

 Richard Strand's Nuristân Site: Peoples and Languages of Nuristan
Within the Indo-European linguistic family the Nuristâni languages form a third sub-group of the Indo-Iranian group, alongside the Iranian and Indo-Âryan sub-groups.
Speakers of the precursors of the Nuristâni languages appear to have been on the outer edge of the wave of Âryan expansion that placed the Iranian-speaking peoples in their present locations.
In the millennium since the Nuristânis entered Nuristân, those in northern Nuristân have assimilated processes from the neighboring Iranian languages across the Hindu Kush, while those in southern Nuristân have remained closer to the Indo-Âryan languages to the south (see the linguistic map).
users.sedona.net /~strand/Nuristani/Nuristanis1.html   (2148 words)

 Mark Turin
The notion of a greater Himalayan region is intentionally panoramic, and presentations at the Himalayan Languages Symposia have covered languages of Sichuan, Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, Assam and adjacent tracts, Pakistan, Afghanistan, the Indian Himalayas, the Burushaski language, and the Nuristani languages of the Hindu Kush.
The Himalayan Languages Symposia are devoted to the study of the languages and language communities which make up the complex tapestry of the Indo-Chinese borderlands, the culturally rich and vast territory which typologically straddles both Indosphere and Sinosphere.
The 5th Himalayan Languages Symposium was organised in tandem with the 20th Annual Conference of the Linguistic Society of Nepal.
www.digitalhimalaya.com /projectteam/turin/abstracts/r_5thhimalayan.html   (560 words)

 Free information of Indo-Iranians   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
The origin and earliest relationship between the Nuristani languages and that of the Iranian and Indic groups is unrecoverably obscure.
From the Indus, the Indo-Aryan languages spread with the migrants, who from (c 1500 BCE -c 500BCE), were able to spread over the northeren and central parts of the subcontinent, failing to reach the extreme south.
The Indo-European language spoken by the Indo-Iranians in the late 3rd millennium BC was a Satem language still not removed very far from the Proto-Indo-European language, and in turn only removed by a few centuries from the Vedic Sanskrit of the Rigveda.
www.qcat.org /en/Indo-Iranians   (3444 words)

 Vitasta Annual Number: A Kashmir Sabha, Kolkata Publication
It is, however, neither the official language nor the medium of instruction in the state, except at the elementary level.
The three main languages of the northwest territory are Shina which is closely related to Kashmiri; Balti, related to Tibetan and spoken in Baltistan; and Burushaski, which is spoken in Hunza in the northeast of Baltistan.
Dardic is simply a convenient term to denote a bundle of aberrant IA hill languages, which in their relative isolation, accented by the invasion of Pathan tribes, have been in varying degrees sheltered against the expanding influences of IA Midland (Madhyadesh) innovations, being left free to develop on their own.
vitasta.org /2001/1.5.html   (2741 words)

 Indo-European languages   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
Anatolian languages, earliest attested branch, from the 18th century BC; extinct, most notably including the language of the Hittites.
Tocharian languages, extinct tongues of the Tocharians, extant in two dialects, attested from roughly the 6th century.
Satem languages lost the distinction between labiovelar and pure velar sounds, and at the same time assibilated the palatal velars.
www.tocatch.info /en/Indo-germanic_languages.htm   (2211 words)

 Wikinfo | Sanskrit   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
Sanskrit is one of the official languages of India.
It was (and still is) a language of religious ritual and scholarship, and it had locally varied spoken forms (Prakrits) such as Pali and Ardhamagadhi.
The sounds are described here in their traditional order: vowels, stops and nasals (starting in the back if the mouth and moving forward), and finally the liquids and sibilants.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Sanskrit   (1590 words)

 Dardic languages - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography
The Dardic languages are the languages of the Dards.
Their relationship to the other subfamilies of this family is not yet settled.
Dardic languages, See also, External links, Dardic languages, Lists of Indo-European languages, Languages of Pakistan and Languages of Afghanistan.
www.arikah.net /encyclopedia/Dardic_languages   (105 words)

 Vasi-vari language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
Vasi-vari is a language spoken by the Vasi in a few villages in the Prasun Valley in Afghanistan.
Vasi-vari belongs to the Indo-European language family, and is on the Nuristani group of the Indo-Iranian branch.
Vasi-vari is the most isolated of the Nuristani languages.
codeine.easyentire.info /wiki/Vasi-vari_language   (199 words)

 LINGUIST List 9.745: Language Typology
LANGUAGES OF THE WORLD PUBLICATION- Languages of the World, Institute of Linguistics, Moscow LANGUAGES OF THE WORLD is an encyclopedic multi-volume publication.
The articles of all volumes of LANGUAGES OF THE WORLD are written in accordance with a standard typologically oriented template that is imposed on each language.
The articles on specific languages consist of the following main divisions: - sociolinguistic characterization - phonology and phonetics - detailed morphosyntactic characterization - account of the peculiarities of the lexicon - the dialectal system The books of the series are both fundamental studies and reference sources.
www.ling.ed.ac.uk /linguist/issues/9/9-745.html   (405 words)

 Languages Of Afghanistan
Dari is taught in schools; radio Afghanistan broadcasts are promoting a standardized pronunciation of the literary language which is based on the old dictional tradition of the country, with its archaic phonetic characteristics.
In the two villages Farsi is the common language, and is rapidly replacing Mogholi.
South of Waigali area in Nuristani in the towns of Wotapuri and Katarqalai.
www.afghan-network.net /Culture/languages.html   (1078 words)

 The Barrow-Downs Discussion Forum - Public Research: Mothertongue (Indo-European Languages)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
Since the previous Language Polls (1-2) were general, and since the sheer number of 'Indo-European' entry there is dominant, (and since many of the voters has shown great impatience), I'm coming out with the more detailed survey on the subject
Anatolian languages — earliest attested branch, from the 18th century BC; extinct, most notable was the language of the Hittites.
While the languages are all based on a common tongue, Sanskrit, they are all independent, not dialects.
forum.barrowdowns.com /showthread.php?t=12573   (697 words)

 Indo-Iranian languages - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
According to most Aryan migration theories, speakers of the Proto-Indo-Iranian language, who referred to themselves as Aryans, settled east and south of the Caspian Sea in Northern India, Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan.
The contemporary Indo-Iranian languages form the largest sub-branch of Indo-European, with more than one billion speakers in total, stretching from Europe (Romani) and the Caucasus (Ossetian) to East India (Bengali).
www.someproxy.com /index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9JbmRvLUlyYW5pYW5fbGFuZ3VhZ2Vz   (208 words)

 Ethnologue: Pakistan
A distinct language from its neighbors; 47% lexical similarity with Shumashti, 44% with Dameli, 42% with Savi and Grangali.
Second languages are Urdu for the educated, with varied proficiency, and Pashto or Panjabi.
Shina is the primary language in Gilgit and Diamer districts.
www.christusrex.org /www1/pater/ethno/Pakn.html   (4028 words)

 UCLA PIES: Archives: Courses Description
By the end of October each participant has to select a topic for a short paper/oral presentation on a topic related (directly or indirectly) to the themes of the course (it is advisable to use language material and special works on a history of separate IE languages according to the linguistic knowledge of the student).
Languages reflecting three rows of velars: Albanian, Armenian, Luwian.
Ergative and genitive as its semantic variant in ergative languages: typological explanation of the coincidence of later nominative and genitive forms (Hittite thematic declension).
www.humnet.ucla.edu /pies/Archives/Courses/IES205FQ00.html   (1612 words)

 Kashmiri language resources
...language of Karnataka) Kashmiri Konkani (official language of Goa) Maithili (official language of Bihar) Malayalam (official language of Kerala and Lakshadweep) Manipuri (Meithei) (official language of Manipur)...
North-Western Zone languages Dardic languages Kashmiri language Lahnda languages Jakati language Western Punjabi language Sindhi languages Sindhi language Nuristani languages Sinhalese-Maldivian languages...
Kashmiri Kashmiri is an Indo-European language which is a unique language in the Indian linguistic context.
www.mongabay.com /indigenous_ethnicities/languages/languages/Kashmiri.html   (1565 words)

 LINGUIST List 10.718: Languages in Contact
Hello; I would like to thank you all for your suggestions to my recent query regarding Languages in Contact bibliography; Below is a copy of my list.
Spiro Hamilothoris 5/11/99 Languages in Contact Bibliography 1990-98 African 1- Joseph E. Holloway, The African Heritage of American English.
Two other volumes on the Iranian languages will appear, as will one on the Dardic and Nuristani languages.
www.ling.ed.ac.uk /linguist/issues/10/10-718.html   (2241 words)

 Ethnologue: Afghanistan   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
Zargari (Morghuli) is a secret language used among goldsmiths and perhaps others, based on a dialect of Persian.
Their real language is Persian (see also Balkan Romani in Iran).
It may be a dialect of Marwari, related to Panjabi, or the Laghman dialect of Southeast Pashayi of Afghanistan.
www.christusrex.org /www3/ethno/Afgh.html   (2355 words)

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