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Topic: Obshchina


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  Obshchina - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Obshchina was also held responsible for taxes underpaid by members, as well as for their crimes.
The 19th-century Russian philosophers attached signal importance to obshchina as a unique feature distinguishing Russia from other countries.
His Slavophile opponent Aleksey Khomyakov regarded obshchina as symbolic of the spiritual unity and internal cooperation of the Russian society and worked out a sophisticated "philosophy of obshchina".
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Obshchina   (249 words)

  
 The Beginning of the Confederation of Anarcho-Syndicalists (KAS) in Russia
Obshchina also participated in gathering signatures for Yeltsin to speak at the Central Committee meeting when he was expelled for his anti-bureaucratic and anti-privilege statements.
This was in November, 1987 and Obshchina group was making a campaign not for or against Yeltsin, but a campaign for glasnost in Yeltsin's affair because the party was trying to make it clandestine and no information was published.
Obshchina group and some other groups like liberals were also the organizers for the first demonstrations in Moscow.
flag.blackened.net /revolt/eastern/kas_begin.html   (5149 words)

  
 Obshchina and Political Culture
The obshchina was a complicated and irregular institution, and it had complicated and irregular meanings for peasants, bureaucrats, Slavophile intellectuals, and civilian political activists.
For certain Slavophile thinkers the obshchina became a bastion of conservative tradition, for certain high state servitors it became a bulwark of the old regime, and for certain revolutionary thinkers it became a vanguard of the socialistic future.
The meaning of obshchina is not simply an antiquarian's problem, but is central to the history of meanings contested on the political field of action in Gorbachev's Soviet Union and in the years that have followed the collapse of the USSR.
darkwing.uoregon.edu /~kimball/oxo.60s.htm   (9066 words)

  
 Gray, Patty - Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology
Natives leaders advocate the "ancestral community" (rodovaia obshchina) as the best way for the Native population to maintain their preferred "traditional" economic practices (reindeer herding, fishing, hunting, gathering) as well as achieve for themselves a degree of local autonomy.
In 2000, two significant changes occurred: a federal law on obshchina was passed by the Russian federal legislature, and a new, progressive governor was elected in Chukotka.
Subsequently there began what can almost be described as an obshchina movement, as a network of Natives throughout Chukotka began to share the text of the law as well as logistical information about how to officially register an obshchina.
www.eth.mpg.de /people/gray/c-project.html   (574 words)

  
 FWB, Spring/Summer 1996 - Asia
A group of individuals may unite into a family-clan obshchina and petition the regional government's land reform committee for an allotment of land on which to pursue hunting and trapping, reindeer herding, fishing, and gathering.
The amount of land allotted to a family-clan obshchina is determined by law according to several criteria, including the number of members, the productivity of the land, and the activities to be practiced, but not the pre-Soviet obshchina territorial boundaries.
On the other hand, where several obshchinas were organized in Baunt, and in the other districts as well, the process of acquiring land allocation was tediously slow.
carbon.cudenver.edu /public/fwc/Issue10/Asia/evenks-5.html   (689 words)

  
 FWB, Spring/Summer 1996 - Asia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Reindeer herders and hunters, they traditionally practiced a system of land tenure based on territorial "obshchinas," communes of small sub-clan groups of one to several families who exercised usufruct rights to particular lands.
The obshchina territory was usually defined within watersheds in which the group hunted and pastured its reindeer.
This article discusses the implementation of potential land reforms among the Evenks of Northern Transbaykalia, disclosing serious contradictions imbedded in several distinct concepts of land tenure (including the obshchina), and highlighting some of the problems the Evenks face in preserving their rights to land that they have inhabited since time immemorial.
carbon.cudenver.edu /fwc/Issue10/Asia/evenks-1.html   (272 words)

  
 Remarks on Totalitarianism and Revisionism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
The mir, or obshchina, as educated Russians preferred to call it (the correct legal term was sel'skoe obshchestvo), was much more than just an institution of self-government, and it was certainly not democratic.
The obshchina was an organ of the state just as much as if not more than the zemstvo.
The framers of the emancipation settlement made a conscious decision to use the obshchina to replace the pomeshchik as the primary interface between state power and the peasant.
www.h-net.org /~russia/threads/marot06.html   (474 words)

  
 Road to Revolution
The great age of the obshchina was under suspicion in his own lifetime, and the opinion now prevails that the institution was created by the State for fiscal purposes no earlier than the age of Catherine II.
For them the obshchina was a battle cry, a sacrosanct principle, for which one should be ready to lay down one's life.
He made the discovery that the obshchina was disintegrating and throwing up a predatory bourgeoisie, the kulaks, not a foreign body, but flesh of the flesh of the people.
www.ditext.com /yarmolinsky/yar9.html   (6809 words)

  
 Kaiettyn: A Village in Bilibinskii District
An obshchina in the Russian North implies a group of people, usually blood relations, living together on a shared territory, often engaging in a shared economic activity that relies on the resources of that territory.
Having the status of an obshchina in the Russian North is supposed to give residents a special kind of status that helps them govern themselves in ways that make the most sense to them.
The problem in Chukotka is that the former governor, Aleksandr Nazarov, opposed the idea of obshchina, and Chukotka's few obshchiny got no support from him.
www.faculty.uaf.edu /ffpag/kaiettyn.html   (722 words)

  
 The Russian Peasant Commune   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
The word "obshchina" is a bit difficult to translate, but it is generally taken to mean either "community" or "commune." According to Merl, the word obshchina really derived from the 1830s when it was used by the Slavophiles to focus more specifically on the land redistribution function of the village community.
Thus, it is important to remember that by the terms of the emancipation, the land was given to the mir/obshchina not to individual peasants.
Thus, it would not be unusual to refer to a peasant village/commune/community as a mir, an obshchina, or a selo.
novaonline.nv.cc.va.us /eli/evans/HIS241/Notes/Commune.html   (578 words)

  
 Road to Revolution
In articles and books that had wide circulation a number of publicists and economists defended with new conviction the old thesis that in a backward country, like Russia, capitalism was a predatory, wholly destructive force, but no more a threat than a promise, since it could not possibly grow and was in fact stillborn.
And he took occasion to protest against interpreting his sketch of the origin of capitalism in Western Europe as a pattern which all nations must inevitably follow in the course of their history.
The obshchina, he had written, was the mainstay of Russia's 'social renascence,' but to function as such it must be guaranteed 'conditions of free development.' He was more explicit in his and Engels' foreword to the second Russian translation of the Communist Manifesto, printed at Geneva in 1882.
www.ditext.com /yarmolinsky/epilogue.html   (3201 words)

  
 Glossary of Terms: Ob
The Russian peasant commune, obshchinas decided what crops they would grow, and regulated crop rotation of all its members.
Land was redistributed among households, in accordance to the lesser or greater needs of each family.
Although the beginning of the Obshchina is disputed, it is thought to have origins at least as early as the 1500s, before feudalism took root in Russia.
www.marxists.org /glossary/terms/o/b.htm   (1076 words)

  
 Kievan Rus Database (Family)
The patriarchal household obshchina, itself a transition stage from the family, which sprang up from group marriage and was based on matriarchal right, to the modern individual family, developed parallel to the evolution of the rural obshchina, or mark, a characteristic feature of which was the individual economy of its members.
The verv of the Russkaya Pravda was not an obshchina of neighbors, but one of consanguinity, a family obshchina.
The women's opinions were less important than the men's, but they could have a large amount of influence on their husbands.
members.aol.com /bksmyre/Family.html   (207 words)

  
 Russian Agrarian History and Soviet Debates on the Peasantry
Disorganisation of the state and political revolution unleashed a latent agrarian revolutionary movement, which could not be brought under control by the ‘bourgeois democratic' forces which replaced the Tzar.
And not only did the peasants have to pay — once they'd paid, many could not, in practice, become full private small-holders, because they continued to be subject to the obshchina system of the peasant commune, where village lands were periodically redistributed to even out variations in household demography.
On the other hand, it is important to note that the degree of commercialisation of both landlord and peasant agriculture remained more limited in the Central Black Earth/Middle Volga zones: commercialisation mainly impacted on the peasant commune to the North, especially in the Central Industrial Province near the big cities.
era.anthropology.ac.uk /Era_Resources/Era/Peasants/russia.html   (6238 words)

  
 Union of Councils for Soviet Jews: Antisemitic Yekaterinburg Paper Finally Ordered Closed   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
After a series of delays, the Arbitration Court of Sverdlovsk Oblast has ordered the shut down of the locally produced antisemitic paper Russkaya Obshchina Yekaterinburga, according to Mikhail Oshtrakh, head of the Jewish National-Cultural Autonomy of Sverdlovsk Oblast.
The paper had received three warnings from the Ministry of the Press, based on complaints from Mr.
However, the Arbitration Court found that Russkaya Obshchina Yekaterinburga violated the laws “On the Media” and the recently passed law “On the Prevention of Extremist Activity” by inciting ethnic hatred.
www.fsumonitor.com /stories/061504Russia.shtml   (250 words)

  
 Pyrite from Ustrem, Topolovgrad Obshchina, Yambol Oblast, Bulgaria   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Pyrite from Ustrem, Topolovgrad Obshchina, Yambol Oblast, Bulgaria
Click here to view Ustrem, Topolovgrad Obshchina, Yambol Oblast, Bulgaria
Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them.
www.mindat.org /locentry-215228.html   (41 words)

  
 Union of Councils for Soviet Jews: One Antisemitic Paper Warned, Another Gets Off Scot-Free   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Upon receiving another such warning from the Ministry, the paper could potentially be disbanded by a court order.
Meanwhile, in Sverdlovsk Oblast local prosecutors continue to show contempt for the law and for the Ministry of the Press, which in August 2002 issued a warning against the racist and antisemitic newspaper Russkaya Obshchina Yekaterinburga for inciting ethnic hatred.
According to documents provided to UCSJ by Mikhail Oshtrakh—head of the Jewish National-Cultural Autonomy of Sverdlovsk Oblast— the Sverdlovsk Oblast Prosecutor’s Office has found that Russkaya Obshchina Yekaterinburga does not incite ethnic hatred.
www.fsumonitor.com /stories/101702Russ2.shtml   (328 words)

  
 The Christian Seminar   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
The seminars took the form of lectures and readings, the subjects of which would then be discussed.
Ogorodnikov's group, called the Christian Seminar, had as its aim "the creation of a living Christian community within the conditions of Soviet reality." In 1978 the Seminar began the publication of a religious-philosophical magazine, "Obshchina" ("Community").
In a statement to the press Ogorodnikov made the following statement:
www.roca.org /OA/7/7d.htm   (292 words)

  
 LIST OF DESTRUCTIVE SECTS
Moskovskaia slavianskaia yazycheskaia obshchina (V. Shoshnikova); Shoshnikov's Moscow Slavic Pagan Society
Obshchestvo revnitelei istinnogo blagochestiia rassuditelnoi mudroi blagorodnoi very Bozhiei (sekta Petra); Society of Zealots of True Piety of the Reasonable, Wise, and Pious Faith in God (Peter sect)
Obshchina Chernoboga (A. Petrova); Petrov Society of Chernobog
www.stetson.edu /~psteeves/relnews/destructivesects.html   (1383 words)

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