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# Topic: Ocean surface wave

###### In the News (Tue 23 Apr 19)

 Ocean surface wave - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Ocean surface waves are surface waves which occur at the surface of an ocean. Ocean Waves are mechanical waves that propagate along the interface between water and air; the restoring force is provided by gravity, and so they are often referred to as surface gravity waves. The speed of the surface wave is also called celerity or phase velocity because it corresponds the speed of the shape of the wave, but is different from the speed of the water particles. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ocean_surface_wave   (1204 words)

 Wave - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Waves travel and transfer energy from one point to another, with little or no permanent displacement of the particles of the medium (there is little or no associated mass transport); instead there are oscillations around fixed positions. The amplitude of a wave (commonly notated as A, or another letter) is a measure of the maximum disturbance in the medium during one wave cycle. The units of the amplitude depend on the type of wave — waves on a string have an amplitude expressed as a distance (meters), sound waves as pressure (pascals) and electromagnetic waves as the amplitude of the electric field (volts/meter). en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Wave   (1282 words)

 Wave - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) Waves are characterised by crests (highs) and troughs (lows), either literally (in the case of transverse waves) or in a graph of particles per cm against time (in the case of longitudinal waves). Ripples on the surface of a pond are actually a combination of transverse and longitudinal waves; therefore, the points on the surface follow elliptical paths. The amplitude of a wave is the measure of the magnitude of the maximum disturbance in the medium during one wave cycle, and is measured in units depending on the type of wave. www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Wave   (1033 words)

 Chapter10Part1 In the first part of the lesson on ocean waves, we will discuss the various ways in waves are classified, why wave phase speed is a function of either the length of the wave or the depth of the water, and how a chaotic sea is dispersed into swell. Actual ocean waves do not, of course, have a sinusoidal shape and rarely are found with a single wavelength or wave period. When d < or equal to 1/20 L, ocean waves are only under the control of water depth, and the orbits are elongated ellipses with a major axis in the horizontal direction and the minor axis in the vertical direction. www4.ncsu.edu /eos/users/c/ceknowle/public/chapter10/part1.html   (1614 words)

 Ocean Wave Energy Wave energy is transported long distances over the oceans with very small energy losses; generally the energy is reduced to half after about 1200 kilometres. The wave energy of real seas per time unit that crosses line parallel to the wave front is roughly half the significant wave height squared multiplied by the wave period. Even though the sun affects all ocean activity, tides are driven primarily by the gravitational pull of the moon, and waves are driven primarily by the winds. www.malibuwater.com /OceanWaveEnergy.html   (3235 words)

 Resolving Directional Errors in Ocean Wave Spectra - Environment - Research at the Royal Military College of Canada   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) The correct operation of this algorithm assumes that all measured waves fall on or near the theoretical dispersion relation, and that the sampling scheme is "perfect" for the spatial and temporal scales involved. Waves of less than his period (and, by the deep water dispersion relation, less than 33m in wavelength), carry little energy in the open ocean. Using the known dispersion relation for ocean surface waves and a known vessel velocity, it is possible to correct the propagation directions of waves falsely predicted. www.rmc.ca /academic/gradrech/environment2_e.html   (1725 words)

 NEPTUNE'S WEB - Ocean Quest - Waves; Dynamics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) In an ocean wave, the "wave" is the movement of energy, but the water is not moving. Arrival of a storm surge or seismic sea wave in an enclosed harbor or bay or a sudden change in the atmospheric pressure is the disturbing force of a seiche. The behavior of waves depends largely on the relationship between a wave's size and the depth of water through which it is moving. pao.cnmoc.navy.mil /educate/neptune/quest/wavetide/dynamics.htm   (412 words)

 Wave Energy - A resource from the ocean Ocean waves are caused by the wind as it blows across the open expanse of water, the gravitational pull from the sun and moon, and changes in atmospheric pressure, earthquakes etc. Waves created by the wind are the most common waves and the waves relevant for most wave energy technology. Wave energy conversion takes advantage of the ocean waves caused primarily by the interaction of winds with the ocean surface. Although many wave energy devices have been invented only a small number have been tested and evaluated and very few of these have been tested in ocean waves – testing is usually undertaken in a wave tank. www.wavesenergy.com   (760 words)

 gls214_waves Ocean waves with the longest periods are tidal wave produced by the gravitational forces exerted on the Earth by the Moon and Sun. Swell waves are uniform in length and period and have a narrow spectrum. crest exceeds the wave celerity, or velocity at the trough. w3.salemstate.edu /~lhanson/gls214/gls214_waves.html   (2046 words)

 Introduction to Physical Oceanography : Chapter 16 - Ocean Waves - Nonlinear Waves   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) The interaction is weak; waves must interact for hundreds of wave-lengths and periods to produce a fourth wave with amplitude comparable to the interacting waves. The Stokes wave does not meet the criteria of (16.15) and the wave components are not free waves; the higher harmonics are bound to the primary wave. Water particles in a Stokes wave move along paths that are nearly circular, but the paths fail to close, and the particles move slowly in the direction of wave propagation. www-ocean.tamu.edu /education/oceanworld-old/resources/ocng_textbook/chapter16/chapter16_02.htm   (724 words)

 Ocean Surface Waves The wave is moving to the right and the particles of water at the surface move up and down as shown by the small vertical arrows. These waves are manifested as undulations of the ocean surface as seen in figure 1.3. For water waves with wavelengths of a few centimeters or less, surface tension becomes important to the dynamics of the waves. www.physics.nmt.edu /~raymond/classes/ph13xbook/node7.html   (229 words)

 [No title] Knowledge of ocean surface wave spectra, both magnitude and direction, is important in a wide variety of military and civilian oceanographic applications. Wave directional spectra are calculated using bottom-mounted, upward looking ADCP measurements of wave orbital velocities at locations forming a two-dimensional array near the surface. Since the beam separation at the surface is proportional to the water depth, at some point the “array” of velocity-measurement cells will have difficulty determining the direction of higher-frequency wave components. www.rdinstruments.com /rr/reports/DWMMP1.DOC   (1158 words)

 Surface Wave Optics The ocean surface is considered to be a perfect specular reflector. When rendering a the ocean surface across a long distance the waves farther away from the eye point can seem have diffuse reflection. The direction of the refracted ray is determined by the surface normal, the direction of the incident ray, and Snell's Law which states a relationship between the incident ray and the refracted ray and the indices of refraction for the two materials. www-viz.tamu.edu /students/jd/658/T_surface.html   (314 words)

 Wave (disambiguation) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Ocean surface wave, a wave on the surface of the ocean The Wave (book), a novel by Todd Strasser based on a 1967 experimental recreation of Nazi Germany by high school teacher Ron Jones (The Third Wave) In the Hollow of a Wave off the Coast at Kanagawa, a painting by Katsushika Hokusai, which is often called simply The Wave in English en.wikipedia.org /wiki/WAVE   (238 words)

 Nearshore Processes III - Ocean Sciences [OS] At the shallower location, the ratio of wave energy at twice the primary frequency to the primary frequency is also a function of wind speed, indicating interaction between the wind and the nonlinear wave shoaling process. Breaking waves play an important role in air-sea interaction: enhancing momentum flux from the atmosphere to the ocean; dissipating wave energy that is then available for turbulent mixing; injecting aerosols and sea spray into the air, and entraining air in the water. Surface wave and atmospheric boundary layer data were collected during the Gulf of Tehuantepec experiment (GOTEX) off the Pacific coast of Southern Mexico in February 2004. www.agu.org /meetings/fm04/fm04-sessions/fm04_OS14B.html   (2449 words)

 Ocean Surface Topography from Space-Science This is referred to as ocean surface topography; not to be confused with bathymetry, which is the relief on the bottom of the ocean. Ocean surface topography data contains information that has significant practical applications in such areas as the study of worldwide weather and climate patterns, the monitoring of shoreline evolution, and the protection of our great ocean fisheries. To determine general ocean circulation, and to understand its role in the Earth's climate, and its hydrological and biogeochemical cycles. topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov /science/science.html   (378 words)

 Ocean Surface Winds   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) A rough ocean surface returns a weak pulse because sea surface waves scatter the energy of the microwave pulse in different directions. The direction that the waves are oriented with respect to the radar pulse has an effect on the polarization of the returned signal. The angle at which the surface wave and radar pulse intersect at has an effect on the orientation of the returning pulse plane. www.icess.ucsb.edu /esrg/geos/1111.html   (536 words)

 AVISO Altimetry - Newsletter 8 - Ocean wave impacts on altimetry   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) The prime task for this research group is optimal correction for range error attributed to changes in the overall shape of the ocean waves that reflect the impinging altimeter signal. The ocean's geometry is constantly altered due to changing winds and to swell that arrives from distant storms. Wind speed near the ocean's surface controls the growth or decay of ocean waves. www-aviso.cnes.fr /HTML/information/publication/news/news8/vandemark_uk.html   (1190 words)

 os11m in os98 Assuming waves to be at most weakly nonlinear, we derive the diffusion equation for the mean concentration field and compute the effective diffusion constant D. The general theory is then applied to estimate turbulent transport due to baroclinic inertia-gravity waves and due to wind-generated surface gravity waves on deep water. We consider flows with stratification, N. Motions with frequencies \omega \le N are claimed to be mostly internal waves, because the ratio of horizontal kinetic energy to vertical kinetic energy as a function of frequency agrees with that predicted for internal waves. For these, the observed universal spectral shapes of internal waves and turbulence suggests a turbulence parameterization scheme \varepsilon = \beta-1 N \sigmaw2, where \varepsilon is the turbulence kinetic energy dissipation rate, \beta \approx 1-2 is the Kolmogorov constant for the Lagrangian frequency velocity spectrum, and \sigmaw2 is the vertical velocity variance of internal waves. www.agu.org /cgi-bin/SFgate/SFgate?&listenv=table&multiple=1&range=1&directget=1&application=os98&database=/data/epubs/wais/indexes/os98/os98&maxhits=200&="OS11M"   (3144 words)

 Ocean *4112# ~ Surface Wave Motion Calculation Forms. Ocean *4112# ~ Surface Wave Motion Calculation Forms. Wave parameters and motion amplitudes at the sea surface level. Wave period and wave length may alternatively be given as input values. research.dnv.com /ocean/cc/g/w11/f20.htm   (121 words)

 MPL - Resources - FLIP - Bibliography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) Rieder, K. Smith, and R. Weller, 1994: Observed directional characteristics of the wind, wind stress, and surface waves on the open ocean. Smith, J. A., 1996: Observations of Langmuir circulation, waves, and the mixed layer. Smith, J. A., 1999: Observations of wind, waves, and the mixed layer: the scaling of surface motion. www-mpl.ucsd.edu /resources/flip.bibliography.html   (758 words)

 Physical Oceanography: Surface Gravity Waves   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) Even though the surface of the ocean often is very rough, we have looked at the properties of small amplitude, sinusoidal plane waves. The justification for this is that this rough surface can be decomposed into a set of small amplitude plane waves, as in this example, where 11 waves of different wavelengths and random phases and amplitudes (the blue lines) have been superposed to form a fairly complicated surface (the red line). In order to fit our model, a real ocean surface gravity wave would have to have an amplitude small compared to both the water depth and the wave's own wavelength; most surface gravity waves satisfy this requirement. www.unc.edu /courses/2000fall/masc054-001/sgwaves/wave_just.html   (182 words)

 LightSAR Ocean Dynamics--References   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) Apel, J., "An improved model of the ocean surface wave vector spectrum and its effects on radar backscatter." J. Forget, P., and P. Broche, "Slicks, waves, and fronts observed in a sea coastal area by an X-band airborne synthetic aperture radar," Remote Sensing Environ. Monaldo, F., and R. Beal, "Real-time observations of southern ocean wave fields from the Shuttle Imaging Radar," IEEE Trans. southport.jpl.nasa.gov /lightsar/oceanref.htm   (158 words)

 Ocean Surface Topography from Space-Education This is because the oceans are the greatest repository of important "greenhouse" gases such as water vapor and carbon dioxide. Together, the oceans and atmosphere redistribute the Sun's energy from the tropics (where the Sun's energy input is highest) to the poles (where energy input is the lowest). Near the poles, ocean water sinks because it is cold and salty. topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov /education/tutorial1-test.html   (812 words)

 Ocean Surface Mixed Layer The upper region of the ocean typically exhibits of a surface mixed layer with a thickness of The interaction between surface waves and wind-driven shear current also produces Langmuir circulation, consisting of counter-rotating vortices with their axes aligned roughly in the wind direction. In the LES experiments we conducted, the wind speed ranges between 5 and 15 m/s, the surface wave height varies from 0.5 to 4 m while the dominant wave length is kept at 60 m. www.hpl.umces.edu /~lzhong/mixed_layer/sml.htm   (480 words)

 Dr. Xiao-Hai Yan Laboratory measurements of the effects of viscosity on short water wave spectra and implication for radar remote sensing of the ocean surface, Chin. The wind-induced wave growth and the spectrum of the gravity-capillary waves, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 25:12, 3196-3218. The mean-square slope of ocean surface wave and its effects on radar backscatter, J. www.ocean.udel.edu /cms/xyan   (2029 words)

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