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Topic: Old French

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  Old French Online: Series Introduction
Old French is one of the earliest attested Romance languages and offers a fascinating field for research in historical linguistics: not only are many of its changes attested in texts, but its linguistic ancestor, Latin, is richly documented as well.
Old French definite articles trace back to Latin demonstratives, which in the history of Latin became more and more frequent and gradually lost their demonstrative value.
In Old French this is not yet the case.
www.utexas.edu /cola/centers/lrc/eieol/ofrol-0-X.html   (2466 words)

 LINGUIST List 12.238: Old French-English Dictionary
Reviewed by: Jed Evans, Independent Researcher Synopsis: Compiled from a broad range of texts across the span of Old French literature, the Old French-English Dictionary from Cambridge University Press is a useful lexical tool for students of Old French, medievalists and scholars of other fields.
In summation, I would recommend this dictionary to casual readers of Old French as a practical translating tool.
Jed Evans is a senior at Syosset High School in Syosset, NY who is currently working on a comparative linguistic survey of the French language from the Dark Ages to the Twentieth Century and beyond.
www.linguistlist.org /issues/12/12-238.html   (598 words)

  FrenchQuarter.com: Old French Market
The expression derives from the French faire son marché, “to do one’s market shopping," faire translating either "to do" or "to make." For eighteen decades New Orleans residents enjoyed making groceries at the old French Market in the Quarter.
The place was dirty, the buildings were in disrepair, immigrant market sellers were impoverished, and it was at the busiest and most photogenic period of its history.
The rebuilding carried the French Market up until the 1970s, when the City dealt it a near death blow by removing most of the food from the premises.
www.frenchquarter.com /history/OldFrenchMarket.php   (1225 words)

  Conversion factors for old french measurement units
There were a number of different definitions of a lieue, ranging from the 17th century lieue equal to 1666 toise [7], the 18th century "lieue de poste" or "Lieue de Ponts et Chaussées" equal to 2000 toise (2.422 miles) [6,7] to a "lieu" equal to 10 km (6.24 miles).
The seigniories granted by the old French Regime in New France all specified the area in terms of so many "lieues" of frontage (usually on a river) by so many lieues of depth without specifying which lieue was used.
Comparing the old records for the Seigniory of Beauharnois which was 6 lieues by 6 lieues to the distances on a modern topo map, showed that it was 20.44 miles wide on the back side or 3.406 miles per lieue.
www.rootsweb.com /~qcchatea/factors.htm   (1467 words)

  French Language
The aim of the writers of this period, as is the case of the poets of La Pléiade, was to elevate the French language to the level of Latin as a medium for literary expression, In 1539 a royal decree proclaimed French official language of the public administration.
French was established as an official language in the French and Belgian colonial possessions in Africa.
French was the language in which were fixed the notions of the Western culture and for centuries it was used by the educated people all over Europe, gradually replacing Latin in the live international communications.
www.orbilat.com /Languages/French/French.html   (1695 words)

  French language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
French (French: fran├žais) is the third largest of the Romance languages in terms of number of native speakers, after Spanish and Portuguese, being spoken by about 87 million people as a mother tongue, and altogether by some 190 million people, which includes second-language speakers who use French for daily communication.
The earliest extant text in French is the Oaths of Strasbourg from 842; Old French became a literary language with the chansons de geste that told tales of the paladins of Charlemagne and the heroes of the Crusades.
French has been the only official language of Quebec since 1974, although it is commonly (and incorrectly) believed that the designation of French as the sole official language occurred in 1977 with the adoption of the Charter of the French Language (which is popularly referred to as Bill 101).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/French_language   (3835 words)

 Old French - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In one sense, Old French began when the Roman Empire conquered the territory it called Gaul during the conquests of Julius Caesar, which were substantially completed by 51 BC.
The Frankish language had a much larger impact on the vocabulary of Old French as a result of the Frankish conquest of much of the territory of modern France by the Franks during the Migration Period.
Old French shared with the rest of the Vulgar Latin world the loss of final -M. Since this sound was basic to the Latin noun case system, its loss levelled the distinctions upon which the synthetic Latin syntax relied, and forced the Romance languages to adapt a more analytic syntax based on word order.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Old_French   (3104 words)

 Old French at opensource encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Old French is the Romance language spoken in roughly the northern half of the territory of modern France during the period roughly from 1000 to 1300 A.D. Old French is the language that is the ancestor of the French language spoken today.
During the early Old French period this sound was pronounced as the writing suggests, as /oi/; later it became unstable, and some of them became /ai/, while the ones still written 'oi' were pronounced /we/, current /wa/; the doublet of français and François bears witness to this instability.
During the Old French period, though, the prestige of Parisian French was not as much a given as it is today; the French of Paris was challenged by the French of Burgundy, then an independent duchy whose capital was at Dijon.
www.wiki.tatet.com /Old_French.html   (2469 words)

 Hong Kong contributes to centuries-old French demand for Chinese furniture (tdctrade.com)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
It was back in the 18th century when French aristocrats, ensconced in elegant countryside castles, would have first sat upon a Chinese chair.
It is a haven for chinoiserie, old and new, with standard items of popular Chinese culture, such as bamboo baskets, wooden screens, woven cone hats and place mats, calligraphy brushes and ink pots.
French people like furniture that is stylish, well crafted but practical.
www.tdctrade.com /mne/gift/gift020302.htm   (989 words)

 Collecting Antique Clocks: New Clocks from Old, by Brian Loomes, writer and dealer
It is well known that clockmakers would often take an old household clock in part-exchange for a new one, and sometimes even a church clock or turret clock - perhaps one that was broken, seriously worn and thought beyond repair, or just plain old-fashioned.
But he could also make parts for his new clocks using robbed pieces of old ones, and we sometimes see a wheel made from a piece of brass which has engraving on, and was once a part of an old dial.
In a certain sense such a clock is a marriage, in that an old part or parts are re-used and added to certain new parts.
www.brianloomes.com /collecting/newfromold/newfromold.html   (1790 words)

 Harris Cyclery Parts for French Bicycles
Many older French bikes are designed for a front derailer that is operated with a short length of cable housing, running from a braze-on near the bottom of the down tube.
The old French standard clamp size for aluminum handlebars is nominally 25 mm, though they are often a bit larger in practice.
French stems differ both in the size that fits into the steerer, and the size of the part that clamps on to the handlebar.
sheldonbrown.com /harris/french.html   (1373 words)

 Shanghai Nightlife Shines in the Old French Concession 1/2 | Asian American Intelligence | GoldSea
The French were less efficient in operating their ramshackle territory sprawling to the south and west of the Bund.
Like Xin Tian Di (New Heaven and Earth), the hottest establishments are located to exploit the freewheeling, romantic atmospherics of the old French Concession rather than the stuffy dignity of the Bund, say, or the brassy ostentation of Pudong, as many visitors might suppose.
From Xin Tian Di it is a pleasant but vigorous walk westward to access the other hotspots of the old French Quarter like the Fuxing Park area (a lovely and lively French-style park on Nanchang Lu), cafe-lined Maoming Nan Lu (formerly Route Cardinal Mercier), and the atmospheric establishments in and around historic Ruijin Guest House.
goldsea.com /Asiagate/Entertainment/shanghai.html   (1111 words)

 The Old French Mirror Company - Company Profile
Our mirror collection reflects the style of the French houses they have come from, the mirrors are tall, well-proportioned, graceful and gorgeous.
Each and every mirror has seen life, showing distinct signs of the passing years, adding to their beauty and suggesting the mysteries of times past.
We make regular visits to the various regions throughout the year as well as having French dealers coming to us, consequently our stock is always fresh and exciting.
www.debreanski.freeserve.co.uk /new_page_2.htm   (283 words)

 Old French House, Vincennes, Indiana
The home of French fur trader Michel Brouillet (1774-1838) is an excellent example of a French Creole cottage, the kind of house built by French settlers in the Mississippi Valley in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
When the Sieur de Vincennes journeyed down the Wabash to construct a fort her in 1732, he persuaded a group of Piankeshaw Indians to accompany him; they lived near the fort in a village called Chippecoke.
The Old French House Located on First Street, halfway between the Log Cabin at the Vincennes State Historic Site and the George Rogers Clark Memorial.
www.spiritofvincennes.org /rendezvous/french   (983 words)

 Citizen Soldier: The Old French War
With the defeat of the French and Spanish in 1763, the land east of the Mississippi was completely under British rule.
I am old and soon shall be gathered to the great council fire of my fathers in the land of shades, but ere I go, there is something bids me speak in the voice of prophecy.
To vets of those campaigns, that was the "Old" French War, the French and Indian War was just the "French War." Back to top.
www.citizensoldier.org /oldfrench.html   (1649 words)

 FRENCH POLYNESIA - Old Vintage Antique Postcards Postcard   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Postally Used Postcard with French Settlements in Oceania stamp on reverse but stamp seems to have been replaced.
Postally Used Postcard with a pair of French Settlements in Oceania stamps.
Soldier of the Free French Naval Forces (Forces Navales Françaises Libres or F.N.F.L.).
www.postcardman.net /frenchpolynesia.html   (728 words)

 Old English + Old Norse + French + Latin
The relative few that trace back to Old English itself are also sixty-two percent of the words most used.
Actually, these "French" people were Vikings again, having taken over northwestern France and switched to French over the generations; their ancestry was why these French were called the Normans—that is, Norsemen.
The "Latinate" layer most perceptible to us as a word class apart came after the withdrawal of the French, with the increasing use of English as a language of learning—hence client, legal, scene, intellect, recipe, pulpit, exclude, necessary, tolerance, interest, et alia (including et alia, of course).
aufrecht.org /blog/one-entry?entry_id=17946   (426 words)

 Old French Equipment Raised - Panama Canal May 16, 2000
Fresh from triumph at Suez, French diplomat Ferdinand de Lesseps promised millions of French investors he could build a sea level canal across Panama, but was defeated by landslides and yellow fever.
The thing I liked the most about diving on the old locomotive was sticking your regulator in the front boiler door and watch the bubbles come out of the smoke stack.
The floating crane "Goliath" lifts the old French locomotive for a breath of fresh air after 90 years underwater.
www.czimages.com /CZMemories/frtrain/frtr_index.htm   (527 words)

 UW - Green Bay - Wisconsin's French Connections Library
A 1935 article on French Island, an old French settlement in the Black River, La Crosse.
A Footnote on the French Language in the Old Northwest by Robert L. Hall.
Old Catholicism among the Belgian settlers in Northeast Wisconsin.
www.uwgb.edu /wisfrench/library   (773 words)

 Word variant identification in Old French
The poem is written in Old French, and a study of the rhyme-words suggests that Gautier himself wrote in the literary form of the language which was gaining currency in his day, and which was becoming more standardised than the spoken word.
This meant using some words which are listed in a modern French dictionary as "archaic." Such words, though they may still be used in print and poetically, are unlikely to be heard in modern daily speech or to be first choices in end-user searching.
Some modern French equivalents could be identified from a high-quality contemporary dictionary, while more obscure words were found in Godefroy's dictionary of ninth to fifteenth century French.
informationr.net /ir/2-4/paper22.html   (2322 words)

 OLD FRENCH BREEDS: HOUDANS AND CREVECOEURS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The French certainly had a long history of crossing Polish with the old five toed breed (fowls that became known as Dorkings in England) to produce market fowl.
Most French poultry historians believed that the Crevecoeur was developed from crossing Polish with the old time common fowl of Normandy, which was often five toed.
Many French writers claim the Dorking as originally French, believing that it was introduced to Britain during or after the Norman invasion in 1066.
www.feathersite.com /Poultry/CGD/Houdan/HoudanCrev.html   (1294 words)

 TEI Encoding and Syntactic Tagging of an Old French text. Abstract for TEXT ENCODING INITIATIVE TENTH ANNIVERSARY USER ...
We have also begun a collaboration with Barbara Vance at the University of Indiana, who works on Old French syntax, and are currently encoding and tagging a text obtained from her, having adapted the Penn-Helsinki coding schema for that purpose.
This text is written in a mixture of standard (Île-de-France) and Champenois French, and is extremely important for historical and literary, as well as for linguistic reasons.
For instance, the Old French declension system, which separates Old French from Middle French, is already severely curtailed in Joinville.
www.stg.brown.edu /conferences/tei10/tei10.papers/estival.html   (5354 words)

 Grouchy Old Cripple: French Bashing Archives
The French actually feel that if their country is made more disciplined and more responsive to market forces, their way of life, imperfect and anarchic as it often is, would be under threat.
The gratitude of French grape growers was so great that they erected two monuments in the city of Montpelier in the south of France, honoring the Missouri grape growers who were credited with saving the French wine industry.
His reply that if that were the case, the French would be stationing soldiers and police around the Muslim neighborhoods in anticipation of that made sense at the time.
www.grouchyoldcripple.com /archives/cat_french_bashing.html   (9110 words)

 WHAT DOU YOU KNOW ABOUT OLD FRENCH ? | Antimoon Forum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
For example, after Italian, Old French is probably the closest relative of Rumanian (Romanian) in the Romance language family.
In terms of linguistic features of Old French, I do know that in some periods it retained a two-case (nominative and oblique) case inherited from Latin.
The silent consonants seen in current French orthography were mostly still pronounced, /r/ was similar to Spanish and Italian alveolar /r/, and the "nasal vowels" had not yet arisen.
www.antimoon.com /forum/posts/8529.htm   (1368 words)

 The Old French Fort   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The respite from these exciting experiences, brought by the peace of 1746, was followed by the second French War, in which the Housatonic settlers loyally bore their share; suffering terror for families and firesides.
Thenceforward the Old Fort, as such, fell into disuse and became, at various times, an arsenal where previous stores of ammunition were housed against a possible outbreak or call to arms of the Provincial Government; and from which the minute-men might be promptly equipped.
And so, once again, it served as a hospital for sick soldiers, a number of whom never resumed their places in the army; but, remaining in the town, became, in later years, good citizens of the Republic, and were wont on "General Training Day," and other public occasions, to shout the orders for military drill.
www.ls.net /~newriver/ma/frenchft.htm   (2029 words)

 Open Directory - Science: Social Sciences: Linguistics: Languages: Natural: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: French   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The site is part of the Project for American and French Research on the Treasury of the French Language (ARTFL), jointly managed by the French research organization CNRS and the University of Chicago.
French-speaking Countries of the World - A list of countries where French is the official language and member states of Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie.
Gail's French links - Links and resources for learning French including information for teachers, language schools, education, translation and phrases, a message board and discussion forum.
dmoz.org /Science/Social_Sciences/Linguistics/Languages/Natural/Indo-European/Italic/Romance/French   (207 words)

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