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Topic: Old Ruthenian language


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In the News (Sat 20 Jul 19)

  
  Indo-European Languages - LoveToKnow 1911
The Indo-European (I.E.) languages are a family of kindred dialects spread over a large part of Europe, and of Asia as far as India.
The Slavonic languages proper themselves fall into two groups: (a) an Eastern and Southern group, including Old Bulgarian, the ecclesiastical language first known from the latter part of the 9th century A.D.; Russian in its varieties of Great Russian, White Russian and Little Russian or Ruthenian; and Servian and Slovene, which extend to the Adriatic.
Till the latter part of the 18th century it was the universal practice to refer all languages ultimately to a Hebrew origin, because Hebrew, being the language of the Bible, was assumed, with reference to the early chapters of Genesis, to be the original language.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /Indo-European_Languages   (8440 words)

  
 Old Slavonic - LoveToKnow 1911
SLAVONIC In the article Slavs (under Languages) will be found a fairly complete account of Old Slavonic in its first form, as it is taken as representing, save for a few peculiarities noticed in their place, the Proto-Slavonic.
After the language had been fixed by the original translations of the New Testament and other Church books it was no more consciously adapted to the dialects of the various peoples, but was used equally among the Croats (whose books were accommodated to the Roman use and written in Glagolitic), Serbs and Russians.
But the Church language as insensibly modified continued to be the literary language of Croatia until the 26th century, of Russia until 1700, and of Bulgaria, Servia and Rumania until the early part of the 10th century, and is still the liturgical language of Dalmatia, the Balkans, Russia and the Ruthenian Uniates.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /Old_Slavonic   (394 words)

  
 Ukrainian language at AllExperts
Ukrainian (украї́нська мо́ва, ukrayins'ka mova,) is a language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages.
Before the eighteenth century the precursor to the modern Ukrainian language was a vernacular language used mostly by peasants and petit bourgeois, existing side-by-side with a literary language of foreign origin, the Church Slavonic evolved from the Old Slavonic language from Bulgaria.
According to this view, Old East Slavic diverged into Belarusian and Ukrainian to the west (collectively, the Ruthenian language of the fifteenth to eighteenth centuries), and Old Russian to the north-east, after the political boundaries of Kievan Rus' were redrawn in the fourteenth century.
en.allexperts.com /e/u/uk/ukrainian_language.htm   (6591 words)

  
 Russian language
Documentation of the language of this period is scanty, making the question of the relationship between the literary and spoken language difficult at best.
Russian is the official language of Russia, and an official language of Belorussia, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian is one of the five official languages of the United Nations.
www.guajara.com /wiki/en/wikipedia/r/ru/russian_language.html   (674 words)

  
 Slavonic Language and Liturgy
Although the Latin holds the chief place among the liturgical languages in which the Mass is celebrated and the praise of God recited in the Divine Offices, yet the Slavonic language comes next to it among the languages widely used throughout the world in the liturgy of the Church.
Unlike the Greek or the Latin languages, each of which may be said to be representative of a single rite, it is dedicated to both the Greek and the Roman rites.
Whilst the Greek language is the norm and the original of the Byzantine or Greek Rite, its actual use as a church language is limited to a comparatively small number, reckoning by population.
www.catholicity.com /encyclopedia/s/slavonic_language_and_liturgy.html   (1046 words)

  
 Greek Catholics in America
Indeed, the present Ruthenians declare that they are the original Russians, and that the present Russia and Russians owe their name and nation to the accident of successful conquest and assimilation.
Their language is known as Ruthenian or Little Russian, and is spoken in Northern Hungary, Galicia Bukowina, and in the Provinces of Volhynia, Podolia, Chelm, and Kiev in Russia.
It is curious to notice that the Ruthenian language is much closer, both in spelling and pronunciation, to the church Slavonic than the present Russian language of St. Petersburg and Moscow.
www.catholicity.com /encyclopedia/g/greek_catholics_in_america.html   (2897 words)

  
 ruthenians
Language of Vojvodina Ruthenians (»Ruski jazik«, »Ruthenian language«) is accepted in Vojvodina as one of six official languages and it represents fundamental feature of their specific ethnicity and confirmation of their cultural identity.
At University of Novi Sad Department for Ruthenian language and literature, ratio between students and teachers is roughly the same (though number of University and College students enrolled at Technical Sciences in Serbian language is however maintained at the equally high level).
The fact that Ruthenian community was established on such foundation and has maintained and developed own institutions between 1918 and 1941 points to the conclusion that one should not fear the future under the conditions of stable political and social circumstances and economic development of the State.
members.tripod.com /~rdsa/ruthenians.html   (1564 words)

  
 Belarusian language at AllExperts
The literary language had been permanently «leaning» upon the vernacular, so then, noticing the characteristic Belarusian features prevailing in the literary language had given the scientific grounds to rightfully call the Old Belarusian its name, Belarusian with the qualifier Old added to distinguish it from the modern Belarusian language (Karskiy 1893, 1903).
The literary language of the epoch, especially after the transfer of the center of the Orthodox printing to Kiev (c.1610s), could not even be considered truely Old Belarusian anymore.
The largest centre of Belarusian cultural activity, in the Belarusian language, outside Belarus is in the Polish province of Białystok (Belastok in Belarusian), which is home to a long-established Belarusian minority.
en.allexperts.com /e/b/be/belarusian_language.htm   (4524 words)

  
 SourceWord translations: If you are looking for a translator from Belarusian or into Belarusian, we are please to offer ...
A version of Ruthenian, which is considered to be the Old Belarusian, became the official language of the chancellery and courts of the Grand Duchy until 1696.
Old Belarusian was actually the language of the first Bible to be printed in one of the Eastern Slavic languages — the achievement of Francysk Skaryna.
By the 16th century, the term "ruski" ("Russian" or "Ruthenian" in Latin) continued to refer to the language spoken in modern-day Ukraine and Belarus, not the language of Muscovy (the modern Russians).
www.sourceword.com /english/languages/belarusian.php   (1294 words)

  
 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Ruthenians
The Ruthenians along the borderland of the ancient Kingdom of Poland and the present boundary separating Austria from Russia proper are also called Ukrainians (u, at or near, and krai, the border or land composing the border), from the Ukraine, comprising the vast steppes or plains of Southern Russia extending into Galicia.
The Ruthenians or Little Russians in Russia and Bukowina belong to the Greek Orthodox Church, whilst those of Galicia and Hungary are Greek Catholics in unity with the Holy See.
The Ruthenian language is very close to the Russian and both are descendants of the ancient Slavonic tongue which is still used in the Mass and in the liturgical books.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/13278a.htm   (2047 words)

  
 Belarusian
An old form of Belarusian, heavily influenced by Old Church Slavonic, was used as the liturgical language.
The official literary language was an old form of Belarusian written with the Cyrillic alphabet and heavily influenced by Old Church Slavonic.
Belarusian is considered to be a Category II language in terms of difficulty for speakers of English.
www.nvtc.gov /lotw/months/december/belarusian.html   (1297 words)

  
 Bishop in Exile -- Friday, Jul. 21, 1967 -- Page 1 -- TIME   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
The Ruthenian rite is one of 17 semi-autonomous branches of Catholicism that acknowledge the Pope as head of the church but have their own non-Latin customs and liturgies.
Ruthenian Catholics, for example, use a Byzantine liturgy identical to that followed by Eastern Orthodox Christians who are not in union with Rome, and which is traditionally celebrated in Hungarian, Greek or Old Slavonic.
Although Ruthenians outside the U.S. are permitted to ordain married men as priests, Elko ignored clerics' complaints and stuck to the letter of a papal decree imposing celibacy on American Ruthenian priests.
www.time.com /time/magazine/article/0,9171,941565,00.html   (707 words)

  
 [No title]
By "normalization" I mean the desire to (1) develop consistent standards for the use of the language in written form, and (2) greatly reduce the distance between the written form of the language and its spoken form.
By "Slavic" Ludolph meant the old Russian literary standard which was exceedingly old-fashioned by comparison with the spoken language and exaggeratedly ornate in the way it was typically written.
Ruthenian consisted of Old Slavic mixed with elements peculiar to the geographical area of Kiev (that is, southern and western dialects of East Slavic) and with borrowings from the academic culture of Poland, which included Polish elements and borrowings from Latin.
www1.umn.edu /lol-russ/hpgary/Russ3421/lesson2.htm   (2016 words)

  
 Russian language. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The principal language of administration in the former Soviet Union, Russian is spoken by about 170 million people as a first language.
However, within Russia the latter language became sufficiently altered by the vocabulary and pronunciation of spoken Russian to be transformed into a Russian form of Church Slavonic adapted to Russian needs; this change began in early times.
Literary Russian is based on the dialect used in and around the city of Moscow, which became the leading cultural center of the country in the 15th cent.
www.bartleby.com /65/ru/Russlang.html   (695 words)

  
 Our Slavic Language
The invention of the Slavic letters and introduction of the Slavonic language into worship could be considered a genial work, a real miracle, since it surpassed all the literary attempts made in the Middle Ages.
The Old-Slavonic language, as it was devised by the Apostles of the Slavs, underwent some changes and morphological modifications during the course of centuries.
Until the tenth century the dialectical differences of Slavonic languages were negligible and the Old-Slavonic language was used as a literary language by all the Slavs.
www.carpatho-rusyn.org /spirit/chap4.htm   (1335 words)

  
 Pravapis.org - Belarusian Language - Scotland & Belarus   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
The Belarusian language never ceased to exist, even after ban of its official use in 1699 and decades of Soviet era oblivion.
Old East Slavic, being descended from a western form of it.
What now is called "Old Belarusian" was the official language of the Grand Duchy up to the end of the 17th century and it was referred to as now Lithuanian, then Russian (Ruthenian), while present Baltic Lithuanian had no literature of its own till the end of 16th century.
www.pravapis.org /art_scotland_belarus.asp   (1687 words)

  
 Slovak Republic
Health care, education, retirement benefits, and other social services are provided regardless of race, sex, religion, disability, language, or social status; however, there were credible reports by human rights monitors that indicate that Roma continued to suffer from discrimination in employment, housing, schooling, health care, and the administration of state services.
Ruthenians disagree that they are Ukrainians, and that their language is only a Ukrainian dialect.
A representative of the Ruthenian Revival Organization stated that Ruthenian language instruction is provided in two schools in the northeast.
www.state.gov /g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2000/eur/868.htm   (9854 words)

  
 Old Homes of New Americans, Chapter 8
The Ruthenians are among the poorest of the peasants who come to America, their holdings of land in Galicia being very small and not always of the first quality.
The Pole took the Ruthenian to his home, found work for him, and in six months he was able to send back to Galicia for his wife, and send her money for her passage.
Old neighbor writes home to old neighbor, husband sends for wife, children send back for tbeir parents, and the Christmas and New Year's greenbacks, which tell of prosperity and savings in the new home, beckon the Ruthenians away from the old homesteads.
www.iarelative.com /oldhomes/chap_08.htm   (2037 words)

  
 Britannica stumbling--on Belarusian language
I may be a victim of a language barrier, but in my understanding "major" means "dominant," "great," "primary." I must assure you that the contemporary status of Belarusian language is anything but "major." Lukashenka's referendum in 1996 elevated the status of Russian and made it equal to Belarusian.
In fact, the literary Belarusian language is based on the so-called "middle" (siaredni) dialect which is spread across Belarus from Vilejka and Ashmiany all the way to Homiel and Buda-Kashaliova.
They also propagated the myth that it was simply a language "for administrative purposes," failing to notice that Old Belarusian was the language of administration precisely because it was used by the majority of the population.
www.geocities.com /uladzik/mova/britannica.htm   (1546 words)

  
 Ukrainian Translation - Translate Ukrainian Language Translator
After partitions of Poland, Ukrainian language was banned from printing by Alexander II of Russia, in Ems Ukaz, that retarded the development of the Ukrainian language.
In Kyiv and central Ukraine Russian is the language of nearly all city-dwellers, although there is a shift towards Ukrainian; in eastern Ukraine, Russian is dominant and a Russified Ukrainian spoken in some circles, while in the Crimea Ukrainian is almost absent.
Use of the Ukrainian language in Ukraine can be expected to increase, as the rural population of Ukraine (still overwhelmingly Ukrainophone) migrates to Ukrainian cities and the Ukrainian language enters into wider use in central Ukraine.
www.translation-services-usa.com /languages/ukrainian.shtml   (903 words)

  
 HURI Publications: HSUS
Ruthenian patriots were torn between various allegiances to nation, church, and traditions.
In Testament to Ruthenian Stefan Pugh addresses the fundamental question of "What is the Ruthenian language?" on the basis of an analysis of the language of Meletij Smotryc'kyj, the famed Ruthenian churchman, grammarian, and polemicist of the early 17th century.
It examine the relation of the standard language to the underlying dialects, the ways in which the standard language was enriched, and the complex struggle for the unity of the language and sometimes for its very existence.
www.huri.harvard.edu /cat.series.html   (5610 words)

  
 RUSYN INTERNET RADIO   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
The official documents were written in the old Ruthenian language using the Cyrilic alphabet and are collected in the Lithuanian Metrica.
Due to the ignorance of western writers and the assimilatory aspirations of the Russians, tremendous damage was done to the Ruthenian identity, as Rusyni became identified as Russians and their land as Russia.
This site named Ruthenian Internet Radio was established in June 2000 with the only one purpose: to present a part of rich Rusyn culture using available Internet technologies.
rusyn-radio.dns2go.com   (619 words)

  
 languagehat.com: RUSYN/RUTHENIAN.
The language territory where Carpatho-Rusyn dialects are spoken coincides with the historical territory of *Carpathian Rus’, which in terms of present-day boundaries is located within southeastern Poland (the *Lemko Region), northeastern Slovakia (the *Prešov Region), most of the *Transcarpathian oblast of Ukraine (*Subcarpathian Rus’), and a small corner of north-central Romania (the *Maramureş Region).
The Ruthenians are given some credit along with the Poles and the Hungarians, for stopping the Mongol invasions of Europe in the 13th century but I don' know all the details.
I can only regret that "Ruthenian" is used mostly in the narrow sense of "Carpatho-Ruthenian" to the detriment of a broader meaning, "related to, or originating in Rus'." In other words, russky/rus'ky as used in the 19th century and earlier.
www.languagehat.com /archives/002082.php   (1219 words)

  
 Index of languages by writing system
This is a list of the languages featured on Omniglot arranged by the writing systems with which they are written.
For example, in Central Asia many languages were originally written with the Arabic alphabet, then switched to the Latin alphabet during the 1920s, then to the Cyrillic alphabet during the 1930s or 1940s.
Please note: some of these languages, such as Bosnian and Turkish, were once written with the Arabic alphabet, but nowadays are normally written with a different alphabet, such as Latin or Cyrillic.
www.omniglot.com /writing/languages.htm   (206 words)

  
 Eastern Catholic
Thirdly, the Armenian rite and language is used exclusively by the people of the Armenian race in Asiatic Turkey, Persia, Russia, an the colonies in Hungary, Glacial and the Ukraine (about 2 ½ millions); also by the Catholic Armenians who count only about 100,00 souls.
The liturgical language is the old Coptic, a mixture of old Egyptian and Greek.
Fifth, the Chaldean rite in the old Chaldean language is observed by the heretical was well as Schismatical Nestorians in Persia (about 140,000) and the Catholic "Chaldean Christians" of Persia (about 70,000) and India and the Malabar Islands (about 250,000).
www.melkite.org /eastern.htm   (947 words)

  
 Slovak Republic
In 1998 the Government and the Government of Hungary signed an implementation agreement for their 1996 bilateral treaty, which called for the establishment of commissions to deal with the treatment of ethnic minorities, and the commissions were established on February 8.
On July 11, Parliament passed a minority language law providing for the use of minority languages in official activities, and President Schuster signed the law on July 20.
As a result of these changes, the Ministry of Education was able to order some 55,000 bilingual report cards for elementary and high schools that were planned for distribution at midterm in the semester.
www.state.gov /g/drl/rls/hrrpt/1999/359.htm   (9797 words)

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