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Topic: Older Futhark


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In the News (Sun 19 Nov 17)

  
  Elder Futhark - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Elder Futhark (or Elder Fuþark, Older Futhark, Old Futhark) are the oldest form of the runic alphabet, used by Germanic tribes for Proto-Norse and other Migration period Germanic dialects of the 2nd to 8th centuries for inscriptions on artefacts (jewellery, amulets, tools, weapons) and rune stones.
In Scandinavia, the script was replaced by the Younger Futhark from the late 8th century, while the Anglo-Saxons replaced it with the Futhorc from the time of the invasion of England.
The longest known inscription in Older Futhark, and one of the youngest, consists of some 200 characters and is found on the early 8th century Eggjum stone, and may even contain a stanza of Old Norse poetry.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Elder_Futhark   (1500 words)

  
 Rune poem - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It is taken from the Old Futhark, and neither its shape nor its sound is related to the Scandinavian Yr rune.
While the Younger Futhark has reduced the original inventory of 24 runes, the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc has expanded it: to 29 runes in the rune poem, and later to a total of 33.
Ger corresponds to ᛃ "jera" of the Older Futhark.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Rune_poem   (1030 words)

  
 Runic alphabet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
The runic alphabet or Futhark (from the first few letters) was the alphabet used by the old Germanic peoples (such as the Angles and Norse), their letters being called runes.
The original Nordic rune alphabet, the 24-type futhark, is often called the "rune line" and was organized in 3 groups of 8 runes each, called ätter (families, clans); Freyr's ätt, Hagal's ätt and Tyr's ätt respectively, with the first character in each group being examplified by the initial character of the name.
The initial Nordic futhark of 24 runes was later shortened to 16 runes.
www.peacelink.de /keyword/Rune.php   (1724 words)

  
 Runic alphabet - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
However, the fact that the younger Futhark has sixteen runes, while the Elder Futhark has twenty four, is not fully explained by the some six hundred years of sound changes that had occurred in the North Germanic language group.
The letters of the Gothic alphabet, however, as given by the Alcuin manuscript (9th century), are obviously related to the names of the Futhark.
The fascination that runes seem to have exerted on the Nazis can be traced to the occult and völkisch author Guido von List, one of the important figures in Germanic mysticism and runic revivalism in the late 19th and early 20th century.
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Rune   (3158 words)

  
 Runes
The origins of the futhark alphabet a) The Latin or Roman theory b) The Greek theory c) The Futhark as parent of the European alphabets d) The Etruscan theory IV.
Futhark, or futhorc in Anglo-Saxon language, is an epigraphic alphabet.
Futharks were in use from an unsure point in time, some historians say as early as 200 B.C., in some cases till the early Middle Age.
wave.prohosting.com /jutamago/Runes/runehtml.html   (2641 words)

  
 Runes
The runic alphabet of the Germanic world is called the 'futhark', which is simply the first six letters of this alphabet pronounced in sequence ('th' is an interdental fricative).
This period, referred to as the 'older futhark' by Pritsak, is generally identified with the Kylver stone (ca.
The second period futhark consisted of 16 letters and is considered to have originated just before the dawn of the Viking Age.
www.geocities.com /Athens/9529/runes.htm   (2217 words)

  
 Runes - an introduction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Older still are three bracteates (small, thin flat gold amulets worn on the body or hung around the neck) found at Vadstena, Grumpan and Närke in Sweden with stamped decorations on one side only that show they date an 100 years earlier.
Earliest forms of the Danish futhark were found on the Gørlev stone in Sjælland in Sweden, while those of the Swedish-Norwegian futhark (stut type) were found at Hedeby, which at one time was a Swedish-Danish town warred between the Swedes and Danes.
Though in older transcriptions where it is used to represent an 'a' when it occurs in the 16-futhark, it was, however, ousted out as standing for 'a' in preference for standing for ‘h’.
homepage.eircom.net /~jayem4646/runes.htm   (6325 words)

  
 Runic alphabet   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Artefacts with Old Futhark scripts are found from the Southern Europe up to Lappland but with highest concentrations in Denmark.
The names cover a spectrum of words from the vocabulary of daily life and mythology, some trivial, some beneficient and some inauspicious, that suggest that the use of the runes for divination is quite credible.
The letters of the Gothic alphabet, however, as given by the Alcuin manuscript (9th century), are clearly related to the names of the runes.
www.gogoglo.com /wiki/en/wikipedia/r/ru/runic_alphabet.html   (2226 words)

  
 Runic alphabet - The Mind-N-Magick Paganpedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
The Elder Futhark, used for writing proto-Norse (urnordisk, urnordiska), consist of twenty-four runes, often arranged in three rows of eight.
In the 7th century appeared an intermediary form of runes between the Elder Futhark and the Younger Futhark, but there are very few inscriptions.
The two futharks were in parallel use for some time, and one example of this is the Rök Runestone.
paganpedia.mind-n-magick.com /wiki/index.php?title=Rune   (2851 words)

  
 Viking Age runes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
From the 10th century on this futhark was gradually extended by the addition of "dotted runes" to reduce ambiguity.
Inscriptions in the Nordic futhark are primarily in Old Norse (and its later derivatives such as Old Swedish), but a few are in Latin.
In one of the younger futharks of course.
www.ravensgard.org /gerekr/runic.html   (485 words)

  
 Runic alphabet : search word
Younger Futhark inscription on the [[Rök Stone]] The Runic alphabets are a set of related alphabets using letters known as runes, formerly used to write Germanic languages, mainly in Scandinavia, and the British Isles.
The fact that the younger Futhark has sixteen runes, while the Elder Futhark has twenty four, is in all probability likewise a reflection of some six hundred years of sound changes in the North Germanic language group.
the Older Futhark The Elder Futhark, sometimes also called proto-Nordic (''urnordiska''), consist of twenty-four runes, often arranged in three rows of eight.
www.searchword.org /ru/runic-alphabet.html   (2720 words)

  
 Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages: "Runes and runic inscriptions"
Runes are the letters of the alphabetic writing system, termed the futhark (after the first six signs), created by the Germanic peoples on the basis of Mediterranean models (most likely Roman) sometime after the birth of Christ and used by them in disparate variants for writing, especially in Scandinavia, c.150–1500/1600.
The older futhark included 24 runes in a special order, their forms characterized by vertical staves and/or diagonal strokes.
The sixteen-rune younger futhark was expanded by adding diacritics to runes or by giving new values to variant forms such that by the 13th century the medieval Scandinavian runic inventory was equivalent to the Roman alphabet.
ariadne.uio.no /runenews/odmarune.htm   (840 words)

  
 An English Dictionary of Runic Inscriptions of the Younger Futhark: FAQs
Like the word 'alphabet', derived from the first two letters (alpha and beta) of the Greek alphabet, the term fuþark or fuþorc is the name given to the rune-row, or runic alphabet, from its first six characters.
Fuþark is the Scandinavian version, fuþorc the Anglo-Saxon version of this name, and these are sometimes spelled futhark or futhorc, with the 'th' representing the third rune 'þ', pronounced as in Modern English 'thorn'.
For a comprehensive bibliography of writings about runes since 1985, see the periodical Nytt om runer, available in print and on the web, though the web version of the bibliography is only complete back to 1995.
runicdictionary.nottingham.ac.uk /faq.php   (1449 words)

  
 BRILL   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
This volume gathers all older fuþark inscriptions found in Denmark, Germany, England, France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, Hungary, Bosnia, Rumania, Norway and Sweden.
The book is particularly useful for runologists, students and others interested in runes, such as archaeologists, historians, linguists and amateurs.
It is actually a handbook covering all older runic inscriptions and their context.
www.brill.nl /default.aspx?partid=10&pid=10217   (405 words)

  
 Runes - Crystalinks
The Scandinavian version is known as Futhark (derived from its first six letters: 'F', 'U' 'Th', 'A', 'R', and 'K'), and the Anglo-Saxon version as Futhorc (also so named after its first letters).
In Norse mythology, the invention of runes is attributed to Odin: The Hávamál (stanzas 138, 139) describes how Odin receives the rune through his self-sacrifice.
The fascination that runes seem to have exerted on the Nazis can be traced to the occult and volkisch author Guido von List, one of the important figures in Germanic mysticism and runic revivalism in the late 19th and early 20th century.
www.crystalinks.com /runes.html   (2237 words)

  
 Runic Academia
A Concise Grammar of the Older Runic Inscriptions
Although the forms of runes in the Older Futhark have often been discussed in runological handbooks and elsewhere no systematic investigation of runic forms in the corpus has been made so far.
The areas of concentration in the book are The Script and its Problems; Rune-Names and Futharks; The Early Inscriptions; Anglo-Saxon Runes; Runes and the Vikings; Scandavian Runes in the British Isles; and Runes in North America.
home.ica.net /~runesmith/bibliogr/acad.html   (3888 words)

  
 Go to grameindex.html in stead!
In a story in which Sigurðr is one of the main characters - Völsungasaga - Sigurðr's widdow Guðrún carves runes on a ring to warn her brothers Gunnarr and Högni of an ambush.
They all begin with the letters a and b, and are therefore called alfabets (a is called alpha in greek, b is called beta), whereas the runic alphabet begins with f, u, þ, a, r and k, and are therefore called the "futhark".
Eventhough the 16 runes of the younger futhark where used a long time after the viking age the exakt order of the 24 runes of the older futhark was forgotten, but it was rediscovered in 1903 when the Kylver-stone (G88) was found on Gotland.
www.geocities.com /Athens/Acropolis/1327/runengorig.html   (1131 words)

  
 Runes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
However, the fact that the younger Futhark has sixteen runes, while the Elder Futhark has twenty four, is not fully explained by the some six hundred years of sound changes that had occurred in the
Proto-Germanic have been suggested for them, based on the names given for runes of the later alphabets in the rune poems and the names of the letters of the
Guido von List, one of the important figures in Germanic mysticism and runic revivalism in the late 19th and early 20th century.
www.writen4u.com /public/Runes.asp   (3059 words)

  
 Runic inscriptions
Chapter 2 of this volume gives detailed information on each rune, its form in each Futhark, the texts that are related to the runes, etc. The present Chapter 4 alludes from time to time to the content of Chapter 2.
in the Scandinavian (Danish and Swedish) Futhark of period 2 and 3, it becomes the rune Hagall (representing the "h" sound), equivalent to Elder Futhark’s Hagla.
The runes are those of the Elder Futhark, and in Great Britain, it is the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc.
www.nordic-life.org /nmh/runic.htm   (4732 words)

  
 Sol (goddess)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
The sun itself was called Alfrodull, meaning "glory of elves".
The s-rune, ᛋ, is called Sól after the goddess in the Younger Futhark, and Sigel in the Anglo-Saxon rune poem.
The Older Futhark variant ᛊ, has the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name *Sôwilô.
www.gogoglo.com /wiki/en/wikipedia/s/so/sol__goddess_.html   (311 words)

  
 The runes had a magical origin and function to the Germanic peoples, and these functions continued into the Old English ...
The runes existed in Scandinavia through another version of the runic alphabet, called the younger Futhark, which reduced the number of runes in the Elder Futhark to fifteen.
There is some debate concerning the origin of the Elder Futhark and its initial function, as it can be problematic to make specific claims on the runes’ early function when it has been estimated that perhaps less than one percent of runic inscriptions have survived (Derolez, 1990).
Indeed, scholars such as Antonsen (2002) have argued that “the myth of the older runes as a means of fixing the dead in the grave is an invention of modern-day runologists without any substance whatsoever” (Antonsen 177).
www.chass.utoronto.ca /~cpercy/courses/6361hesemeier.htm   (1190 words)

  
 liber paganum -- introduction -- On Language Problems
The "h" is very probably spoken with a touch of tongue; try pronouncing a "j" with lots of air bypassing your tongue, and less forcefully.
The Nordic Futhark was the alphabet of runes which was used originally only by the priests, but during the 8th to 11th centuries CE came into use for everyday writing purposes.
For pronunciation, one can turn to Old Norse, or Gamal-Norsk, as it is still spoken in large parts of Norway; Nynorsk will also help with the pronunciation, even though it has a modernized spelling.
homepage.mac.com /dykow/libpagan/information/languages.html   (1805 words)

  
 NAVIGATION
It carefully goes through all the variants that occurred and tries to conclude their original forms.
So one may disagree on this opinion but this well-written book has some strong arguments which shouldn't be dismissed too early.
And it's a valuable source of the Older Futhark's runic forms.
www.runewebvitki.com /BookHoard.htm   (1872 words)

  
 Books About Runes
While not dealing specifically with runes, the essays are about the time period and are good background study.
A small, self-published book which interprets the runes as a 'journey' in which each rune in the traditional 'futhark' sequence is seen as a step in a mythological and personal process of development.
The elder futhark examined as a modern world view and language for the subconscious.
home.ica.net /~runesmith/bibliogr/books.html   (4250 words)

  
 Elder Futhark Runic Studies: Pagan, Wiccan, Witchcraft e-Book titles for Wicca and New Age Spiritualities.
Elder Futhark Runic Studies: Pagan, Wiccan, Witchcraft e-Book titles for Wicca and New Age Spiritualities.
Documented by historians to be at least 1800 years old and likely much older, Elder Futhark is widely believed to add significant potency to ritual workings of all kinds.
Only a select few advanced practitioners have undertaken the task of learning the Elder Futhark well enough to read, write and divine the future as the ancient people who developed this system once did.
www.ytown.com /ebooks/rune.html   (761 words)

  
 Odenstedt (1990) On the origin and early history of the runic script: Typology and graphic variation in the older ...
Odenstedt (1990) On the origin and early history of the runic script: Typology and graphic variation in the older futhark
On the origin and early history of the runic script: Typology and graphic variation in the older futhark
To view the the latter's ratings, click on Chapters/Papers/Articles in the STATISTICS box, select a publication from the list that appears, and then click on either Quality or Interest in that publication's STATISTICS box.
www.getcited.org /?PUB=102952710&showStat=Ratings   (103 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
She and her team have been preparing the inscriptions of the Older Fuþark; the Old English and Old Frisian inscriptions are part of the Eichstaett project.
For the user with individual interests the data bank ensures quick access to the material: it provides an overview over previous research work.
Not only will the user of the data bank be able to combine the four masks (FIND; INTERPRETATION; INDIVIDUAL WORDS; BIBLIOGRAPHY) or parts of them individually but he will also have access to all the runic inscriptions in both older Fuþark and Fuþorc (Old English and Old Frisian) in two languages (German and English).
www.ku-eichstaett.de /SLF/EngluVglSW/AeRunen.htm   (195 words)

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