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Topic: Olfactory bulb

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In the News (Wed 21 Aug 19)

  How Rats and Mice—and Probably Humans—Recognize Odors
This synapse actually forms in the olfactory bulb, which is a part of the brain.
A round, knob-like structure, the olfactory bulb is quite large in animals with an acute sense of smell but decreases in relative size as this ability wanes.
In the olfactory epithelium of the nose, Axel and Buck's groups found, neurons that make a given odorant receptor do not cluster together; instead, these neurons are distributed randomly within certain broad regions of the epithelium, called expression zones, which are symmetrical on the two sides of the animals' nasal cavities.
www.hhmi.org /senses/d130.html   (688 words)

  Olfactory Dysfunction and Disorders
The olfactory bulb is located on top of the cribriform plate at the base of the frontal lobe in the anterior cranial fossa.
Posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction may be caused by several mechanisms:  1) sinonasal tract alteration, 2) shearing injury of olfactory nerve filament, or 3) brain contusion and hemorrhage within the olfactory-related brain regions.
The axons of olfactory receptor cells are delicate and pass through small foramina of the cribriform plate at the base of the skull and synapse directly in the olfactory bulb.
www.utmb.edu /otoref/Grnds/Olfactory-2003-1126/Olfactory-2003-1126.htm   (3417 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The olfactory nerve is actually a collection of sensory nerve rootlets that extend down from the olfactory bulb and pass through the many openings of the cribriform plate in the ethmoid bone.
During breathing air molecules attach to the olfactory mucosa and stimulate the olfactory receptors of cranial nerve I and electrical activity is transduced into the olfactory bulb.
Olfactory bulb cells then transmit electrical activity to other parts of the central nervous system via the olfactory tract.
www.meddean.luc.edu /lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/h_n/cn/cn1/cn1.htm   (102 words)

 Olfactory Bulb and Tract   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Olfactory bulb: The knoblike anterior end of the olfactory tract on the orbital surface of the frontal lobe.
Olfactory sulcus: A sulcus on the orbital surface of the frontal lobe, immediately lateral to gyrus rectus and harboring the olfactory bulb and tract.
Olfactory tract: Projections from olfactory bulb neurons (mitral and tufted cells) to olfactory (piriform) cortex and the amygdala.
members.cox.net /limbicsystem/olfactory.htm   (157 words)

 olfactory bulb   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Disynaptic amplification of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 responses in the olfactory bulb.
Maturation and death of adult-born olfactory bulb granule neurons: role of olfaction.
Olfactory deprivation increases dopamine D2 receptor density in the rat olfactory bulb.
www.arclab.org /node_pages/1187.html   (1960 words)

 eMedicine - Anatomy of Olfactory System : Article by Amir Vokshoor, MD
The olfactory bulb lies inferior to the basal frontal lobe.
Olfactory dysfunction is a hallmark of certain syndromes such as Kallmann syndrome (ie, hypogonadism with anosmia) and Foster Kennedy syndrome (ie, papilledema, unilateral anosmia, and optic atrophy usually associated with an olfactory groove meningioma).
Olfactory structures also can be injured during craniotomies involving the anterior cranial base or from subarachnoid hemorrhage, which may disrupt the fine fibers of the olfactory nerve.
www.emedicine.com /ent/topic564.htm   (2092 words)

 ScienceDaily: Olfactory Bulb Stem Cells And Lou Gehrig's Disease
ScienceDaily: Olfactory Bulb Stem Cells And Lou Gehrig's Disease
Olfactory Bulb Stem Cells And Lou Gehrig's Disease
The olfactory bulb, the center of smell detection, houses numerous primitive stem cells that normally feed the constant, life-long regeneration of odor-detecting nerves.
www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2004/10/041025121323.htm   (496 words)

 Olfactory Bulb
The Olfactory Bulb is important for the sense of smell.
The olfactory bulb, the center of smell detection, houses numerous primitive stem cells that normally feed the constant, life-long regeneration of odor-detecting nerves.
The Olfactory Bulb contains the neuronal somas and dendrites that receive the synaptic input from the neurons comprising cranial nerve (I), the olfactory nerve.
psyweb.com /Brain/olfactbulb.jsp   (57 words)

 Press Release: The 2004 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
These receptors are located on the olfactory receptor cells, which occupy a small area in the upper part of the nasal epithelium and detect the inhaled odorant molecules.
From these micro domains in the olfactory bulb the information is relayed further to other parts of the brain, where the information from several olfactory receptors is combined, forming a pattern.
Olfactory receptor cells activate micro regions in the olfactory bulb
nobelprize.org /nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2004/press.html   (1404 words)

 Medical Dictionary: Olfactory bulb - WrongDiagnosis.com
Olfactory bulb : Ovoid body resting on the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone where the olfactory nerve terminates.
The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose dendrites the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli.
The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
www.wrongdiagnosis.com /medical/olfactory_bulb.htm   (294 words)

 Olfactory Bulb   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The circuitry of the olfactory bulb is configured as a 2D signal processing array, with output neurons receiving direct synaptic excitation from olfactory receptor axons in contact with the glomerular tufts of their apical (primary) dendrites.
The internal operations of the bulb are conducted at several levels: intraglomerular processing mediated by dendrodendritic microcircuits, interglomerular connections mediated by juxtaglomerular cells, and lateral inhibitory connections between output neurons mediated by anaxonic granule cells.
For the purposes of illustration, olfactory receptor (OR) gene expression is coded by the color of the olfactory receptor cells and their target glomeruli.
flavor.monell.org /~loweg/OlfactoryBulb.htm   (838 words)

 Researchers discover precise olfactory map
There are about five million olfactory neurons, which are located in the olfactory epithelium on the wall of the nasal cavity.
Once in the olfactory bulb, the axon enters a spherical structure, called a glomerulus, where it makes contact with neurons in the bulb.
In the olfactory bulb, however, the axons of neurons with the same receptor converge in a few invariant glomeruli, creating a map of odor receptor inputs that is nearly identical in different individuals.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2001-11/hhmi-rdp110701.php   (1142 words)

The dog’s side of the fence represents the nose’s olfactory tissue, the tail side the brain’s olfactory bulb, and the fence the cranial barrier.
The dog’s whiskers represent dendrites that are attached to the dog’s head (i.e., olfactory knob), its potbelly represents the nucleus-containing cell body, and its long tail represents the axon.
This procedure is clearly preferable to penetrating the cranium to access the olfactory bulb, the OEC source in much animal research.
www.healingtherapies.info /OlfactoryTissue1.htm   (1473 words)

 The olfactory bulb, the limbic system and the influence of smell on the physiology of man.
The olfactory bulb, the limbic system and the influence of smell on the physiology of man.
Olfactory stimuli within the limbic system and the effect that certain odors and fragrances have on the physiology of man.
The limbic system represents the hippocampus, fornic, cingulate gyrus, thalamus, mamillary bodies, amygdala and olfactory bulb, and although this might sound far too technical to be interesting, it is fascinating how the sense of smell actually happens and the effect it has on us all.
www.essentialoils.co.za /olfactory.htm   (469 words)

 Limbic System
The olfactory bulb is not a simple relay (something which passively transmits the signal), but is a sophisticated structure in itself.
There are two populations of granule cells in the olfactory bulb - the external, or periglomerular cells, and the internal granule cells.
The main target of the olfactory tract is the primary olfactory cortex in the medial temporal lobe.
thalamus.wustl.edu /course/limbic.html   (1726 words)

 Rhinotopy is Disrupted During the Re-innervation of the Olfactory Bulb that Follows Transection of the Olfactory Nerve ...
The drawings of the olfactory epithelium (left) and olfactory bulb (middle) are abstractions of the distribution of labeling in actual sections immunohistochemically stained with RB-8.
Fascicles of the olfactory nerve that conduct axons from the ventrolateral epithelium are fl, while those that conduct axons from dorsomedial epithelium are light.
of the bulb in the region that is apposed to the cribriform
chemse.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/26/4/359   (5552 words)

 Univ. Maryland, Dept. Anatomy and Neurobiology, Medicine, Adam Puche
Individual axons of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) located in the epithelium lining the nasal cavity project to the olfactory bulb where they synapse on the dendrites of second-order neurons within globular structures of neuropil - glomeruli.
Michael Shipley and Phillip Heyward- On the neurophysiology of mitral and tufted cells in the developing olfactory bulb.
Matthew Ennis and Asaf Keller - On the neurophysiology of olfactory bulb to piriform cortex circuits.
neurobiology.umaryland.edu /puche.htm   (788 words)

 CiteULike: Lateral inhibition in the olfactory bulb and in olfaction.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Lateral inhibition in the olfactory bulb is mediated by circuits that involve reciprocal dendrodendritic connections between mitral and granule cells.
Here, I propose an analysis of local inhibition in the olfactory bulb based on the simplification that olfactory bulb circuitry can be thought of as implementing a simple linear two-dimensional filter.
This analysis highlights some important characteristics of the circuitry of the olfactory bulb and suggests that the function of lateral inhibition in the olfactory bulb may be to compensate for generalized, spatially distributed activation that otherwise may obscure the specific, discrete patterns of glomerular activation seen across the olfactory bulb.
www.citeulike.org /user/alanvelander/article/622395   (315 words)

 Intranasal Inoculation with the Olfactory Bulb Line Variant of Mouse Hepatitis Virus Causes Extensive Destruction of ...
Figure 4 The lateral olfactory tract undergoes spongiotic degeneration during the acute phase of infection and is reduced in cross-sectional area in the long-term, which suggests that mitral cell axons are lost from the tract as a consequence of infection.
At the level of the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) retrograde labeling is prominent in the lateral olfactory tract and in the neurons of the AON of the control animal (A) but less so in the MHV OBLV-infected animal (E), despite roughly equivalent injection areas in the piriform cortex in the two animals.
Carr, V.M. and Farbman, A.I. Ablation of the olfactory bulb up-regulates the rate of neurogenesis and induces precocious cell death in olfactory epithelium.
chemse.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/26/8/937   (7118 words)

 The Hindu : Sensing the way through olfactory map
In the olfactory bulb, however, the axons of neurons with the same receptor converge in a few invariant glomeruli, creating a map of odour receptor inputs that is nearly identical in different individuals.
The fact that this information is highly organized in the olfactory cortex, and is the same in different individuals, implies something about the perception of odours among different individuals.
It appears that information from different receptors is being combined in the cortex, while that's not true in the nose or the olfactory bulb.
www.hindu.com /thehindu/seta/2001/11/22/stories/2001112200210400.htm   (810 words)

 Matt Wachowiak
Correspondence between odorant-evoked patterns of receptor neuron input and intrinsic optical signals in the mouse olfactory bulb.
Presynaptic inhibition of olfactory receptor neurons in crustaceans.
Representation of odorants by receptor neuron input to the mouse olfactory bulb.
www.bu.edu /biology/Faculty_Staff/wachowiak.html   (840 words)

 The Olfactory System
These aroma molecules are trapped in the nose by hairlike nerve endings that pass the aroma on to receptors that then carry the molecules to the Olfactory Bulb.
From the Olfactory Bulb, the aroma molecules are transported to the limbic system in the brain.
Because the olfactory nerves are a direct extension of the brain's limbic system, recognition of smell is relayed immediately, whereas recognition of taste, sound and touch is not as immediate.
www.geocities.com /pathways2eden/Olfactory.html   (525 words)

 The Brain Is More Adept At Using The Nose Than Previously Realized
The olfactory bulb is the portion of the brain that processes scent information.
Other researchers had shown that activated regions of the olfactory bulb overlap when smells are similar but are distinct when the smells are different.
The improvement comes from an increase in the number of responsive small inhibitory neurons in the olfactory bulb, which leads to improved cooperation and increased oscillations among the cells in the olfactory bulb.
www.medicalnewstoday.com /medicalnews.php?newsid=69264   (615 words)

 [No title]
Recent data from molecular biology have made realistic the idea of "odor mapping" in the olfactory system, challenging the interpretation of the wealth of previously existing electrophysiological and behavioral data as well as theoretical models of olfactory processing.
Briefly, these new data suggest that functionally identical (expressing the same putative receptor(s)) olfactory sensory neurons cells project to the same glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, activating the same postsynaptic neurons.
The main focus will be the interpretation of behavioral results with models of odor representation at the level of the olfactory sensory neurons, the olfactory bulb and the olfactory cortex.
www.nbb.cornell.edu /neurobio/linster/nips98.html   (750 words)

 Isolation and Characterization of Neural Stem Cells from the Adult Human Olfactory Bulb -- Pagano et al. 18 (4): 295 -- ...
The olfactory lobe arises from the rostral-ventral portion of
of the dentate gyrus, the cortex [3, 4], and olfactory bulb
Bonfanti L, Theodosis D. Expression of polysialylated neural cell adesion molecule by proliferating cells in the subependymal layer of the adult rat rostral extension and in the olfactory bulb.
stemcells.alphamedpress.org /cgi/content/full/18/4/295   (2779 words)

 Retinoic acid regulates postnatal neurogenesis in the murine subventricular zone-olfactory bulb pathway.
Electroporation of dominant-negative retinoid receptors into the SVZ of slice cultures also blocked neuroblast migration to the olfactory bulb and altered the morphology of the progenitors.
These results indicate that RA is a potent mitogen for SVZ neuroblasts and is required for their migration to the olfactory bulb.
The regulation of multiple steps in the SVZ-olfactory bulb neurogenic pathway by RA suggests that manipulation of retinoid signaling is a potential therapeutic strategy to augment neurogenesis after brain injury.
vitamina.researchtoday.net /archive/2/6/81.htm   (300 words)

 Olfactory Bulb Neuronal Cell Culture
The olfactory bulb is a very accessible portion of the brain, is rich in certain classes of potassium channels, and is an interesting tissue because the olfactory system periodically regenerates, unlike nervous tissue in the central nervous system.
    Using an in vitro system, or culturing the neurons of the olfactory bulb in a dish, we can sustain cells over time and ask how ion channels respond to chronic treatment with nerve growth hormone or insulin, common treatments after nerve injury or for a diabetic patient.
  We then use a different electrophysiological preparation called a brain slice, whereby we maintain a 400 micron slice of olfactory bulb alive in an in situ configuration where we can learn about nerve cell communication across adjacent synapses.
www.neuro.fsu.edu /faculty/fadool/culture.htm   (185 words)

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