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Topic: Olfactory epithelium

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  Olfactory Dysfunction and Disorders
Posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction may be caused by several mechanisms:  1) sinonasal tract alteration, 2) shearing injury of olfactory nerve filament, or 3) brain contusion and hemorrhage within the olfactory-related brain regions.
Although olfactory dysfunction caused by sinonasal tract alteration is not common, it is important to recognize it.
The axons of olfactory receptor cells are delicate and pass through small foramina of the cribriform plate at the base of the skull and synapse directly in the olfactory bulb.
www.utmb.edu /otoref/Grnds/Olfactory-2003-1126/Olfactory-2003-1126.htm   (3417 words)

  Cloning and localization of two multigene receptor families in goldfish olfactory epithelium -- Cao et al. 95 (20): ...
in the olfactory epithelium of a precursor aquatic vertebrate.
ciliated and microvillar sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelia
Polyamines as olfactory stimuli in the goldfish Carassius auratus
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/95/20/11987   (3301 words)

 Olfactory epithelium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The olfactory epithelium is a specialized epithelial tissue inside the nasal cavity that is involved in smell.
The tissue is made of three types of cells: the olfactory receptor neurons which transduce the odor to electrical signals, the supporting cells which protect the neurons and secrete mucus, and the basal cells which are a type of stem cell that differentiate into olfactory receptor neurons to replace dead receptor neurons.
The olfactory epithelium can be damaged by inhalation of toxic fumes, physical injury to the interior of the nose, and possibly by the use of some nasal sprays.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Olfactory_epithelium   (243 words)

 Olfactory system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The olfactory system is often spoken of along with the gustatory system as the chemosensory senses because both transduce chemical signals into perception.
Representations of the odor may be encoded by space (a pattern of activated neurons across a given olfactory region corresponds to the odor), time (a pattern of action potentials by multiple neurons corresponds to the odor) or a combination of the two.
Olfactory receptor neurons in the olfactory epithelium transduce molecular features of the odorants into electrical signals which then travel along the olfactory nerve into the olfactory bulb.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Olfactory_system   (446 words)

Smells are detected in the nose by the specialised receptor cells of the olfactory epithelium.
Neurons from the lateral olfactory tract project to; (1) the amygdala, septal nuclei, pre-pyriform cortex, the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus and the subiculum.
One possible explanation is that because olfactory centres (primary olfactory cortex, entorhinal cortex) are next door to regions where seizures begin in temporal lobe epilepsy, activity generated in these areas by the presentation of a smell prevents the spread of the synchronous activity from the epileptic focus.
www.cf.ac.uk /biosi/staff/jacob/teaching/sensory/olfact1.html   (9408 words)

 Morphology of olfactory epithelium in humans and other vertebrates.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Human olfactory epithelium is similar in organization and cell morphology to that of most vertebrate species.
The epithelium has a pseudostratified columnar organization and consists of olfactory neurons, supporting and basal cells.
Human olfactory epithelium is not a uniform sensory sheet.
www.arclab.org /medlineupdates/abstract_1392071.html   (164 words)

 Cardiovascular and Defense
There is both olfactory epithelium (identifiable by the rather large number of cells in the epithelium) as well as regions of respiratory epithelium (identifiable by the low height and presence of ciliated cells).
The nuclei of the sustentacular cells occupy the apical row of nuclei, the olfactory cell nuclei occupy the middle layers and basal cell nuclei occupy the basal row.
The epithelium of the esophagus is non-keratinized stratified squamous.
www.fsu.edu /~histo/twe~1.htm   (2796 words)

 Analysis of the Globose Basal Cell Compartment in Rat Olfactory Epithelium Using GBC-1, a New Monoclonal Antibody ...
In dorsomedial epithelium, marker-defined HBCs proliferate and accumulate during the acute phase of epithelial reconstitution and then regress to a monolayer of cells that are apposed tightly to the basal lamina, as is characteristic of unlesioned OE.
Caggiano M, Kauer JS, Hunter DD (1994) Globose basal cells are neuronal progenitors in the olfactory epithelium: a lineage analysis using a replication-incompetent retrovirus.
Schwob JE (1992) The biochemistry of olfactory neurons: stages of differentiation and neuronal subsets.
www.jneurosci.org /cgi/content/full/16/12/4005   (8273 words)

 Lab Exercises-Olfactory Epithelium, Larynx, Trachea
This specimen was taken from a newborn: notice the cartilagenous structure of the nasal septum and the upper conchae.
The Epithelium is supported by a basement membrane which rests on a slightly condensed layer of connective tissue.
The epithelium continues the pseudostratified characteristics seen in the Olfactory epithelium.
cellbio.utmb.edu /microanatomy/respiratory/olfactory_trachea.htm   (504 words)

 [P&S Medical Review:December:95] Review: Molecular Analysis of Sensory Processing in the Olfactory System   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
On the left is a coronal view of the olfactory epithelium, and on the right is a whole mount view of the turbinates, the convoluted structures in the nose which support the epithelium.
Ngai and Chess cloned the odorant receptor genes of the catfish by homology to the mammalian genes and analyzed the pattern of gene expression in the olfactory epithelium.6,7 In situ hybridization on olfactory rosettes for receptor messenger RNA revealed a random distribution of sensory neurons in the epithelium.
The discovery of the convergence of sensory axons in the olfactory bulb suggests that a given odor may be represented in the cerebral cortex as the combinatorial activation of different glomeruli.
cpmcnet.columbia.edu /news/review/archives/medrev_v3n1_0003.html   (2599 words)

 Histology Syllabus:Upper Respiratory System   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Chemoreceptive epithelium is located in the roof of the nasal cavities and extends laterally overly the superior conchae and medially over the superior portion of the nasal septum forming the olfactory epithelium.
Olfactory epithelium is composed of tall, pseudostratified epithelium without goblet cells.
From this apical knob extends modified olfactory cilia or hairs which are nonmotile and which lie flat on the exposed surface above the microvilli of the sustentacular cells.
medic.med.uth.tmc.edu /Lecture/Main/tool4.htm   (956 words)

 How Rats and Mice—and Probably Humans—Recognize Odors
Each olfactory neuron in the nose has a long fiber, or axon, that pokes through a tiny opening in the bone above it, the cribriform plate, to make a connection, or synapse, with other neurons.
A round, knob-like structure, the olfactory bulb is quite large in animals with an acute sense of smell but decreases in relative size as this ability wanes.
In the olfactory epithelium of the nose, Axel and Buck's groups found, neurons that make a given odorant receptor do not cluster together; instead, these neurons are distributed randomly within certain broad regions of the epithelium, called expression zones, which are symmetrical on the two sides of the animals' nasal cavities.
www.hhmi.org /senses/d/d130.htm   (688 words)

Olfactory receptor neurons are ordinarily replaced periodically throughout life and also have the capacity to proliferate in response to acute injury.
Furthermore, the olfactory epithelium represents a readily accessible source of an abundant sample of multipotent stem cells for studies focused on stem cell biological research or technology development.
This RFA is soliciting applications focused on the genetic, molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the lineage, differentiation and proliferation of the multipotent stem cells in the olfactory epithelium.
grants.nih.gov /grants/guide/rfa-files/RFA-DC-03-002.html   (2777 words)

 Histolab 3c.htm
Olfactory epithelium differs from respiratory epithelium in the following ways: it is thicker with prominent basal cells and there are fewer Goblet cells.
The fluid coating the olfactory epithelium is secreted by Bowman's glands, which are not found elsewhere in the nasal epithelium, so the presence of these glands is a criterion for identification.
The latter is easily identified by the presence of thin stratified squamous epithelium on the surface, as well as the vocalis muscle (striated) in the connective tissue close to the true cord.
faculty.une.edu /com/abell/histo/histolab3c.htm   (1593 words)

 Gomez Lab: research on olfactory neurogenesis
Mature olfactory neurons (the cells that are responsible for detecting odorant stimuli) live for a few months.
When they die, they are shed, new olfactory neurons divide and differentiate from neuronal precursons, rewire themselves into the brain (olfactory bulb), and replace the shed olfactory neurons.
To study olfactory neurogenesis in the human olfactory epithelium, I have been able to establish cultures from biopsies of adult human olfactory epithelium.
academic.uofs.edu /faculty/gomezg2/culture.htm   (419 words)

Olfactory ability declines with increasing age and is substantially impaired in certain neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.
This decline may be due to an increased rate of cellular damage and death in mature olfactory receptor neurons, impairment in the process of neurogenesis by which olfactory receptor neurons are replaced throughout life, or a complex interaction between these two processes.
In human olfactory tissue from individuals with Alzheimer’s disease and from age-matched non-demented elderly controls, we are identifying molecular indicators of oxidative stress and correlating their levels and localization with the numbers and localization of dying olfactory receptor and bulbar neurons.
www.mc.uky.edu /neurobiology/research/getchell.asp   (721 words)

 2. Respiratory System   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
This pseudostratified columnar epithelium is composed of olfactory cells, sustentacular cells and basal cells.
Modified cilia on the surface serve as olfactory receptors.
Note that the olfactory epithelium is much thicker than the ordinary pseudostratified columinar ciliated epithelium of the respiratory system.
www.kumc.edu /instruction/medicine/anatomy/histoweb/resp/resp02.htm   (42 words)

 Biophysical Journal: Tonic and Phasic Receptor Neurons in the Vertebrate Olfactory Epithelium   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) are the sensory cells of the olfactory epithelia.
Inhibitory responses to odorants in vertebrate olfactory neurons.
Contribution of the ciliary cyclic nucleotide-gated conductance to olfactory transduction in the salamander.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3938/is_200306/ai_n9247617   (982 words)

 Olfaction - A Review
The olfactory region of each of the two nasal passages in humans is a small area of about 2.5 square centimeters containing in total approximately 50 million primary sensory receptor cells.
The olfactory region consists of cilia projecting down out of the olfactory epithelium into a layer of mucous which is about 60 microns thick.
Above the mucous layer is the base olfactory epithelium which consists partially of basal cells located in the lowest cellular layer of the olfactory epithelium which are capable of mitotic cell division to form olfactory receptor neurons when functionally mature.
www.leffingwell.com /olfaction.htm   (819 words)

 Biopsies of Human Olfactory Epithelium -- Jafek et al. 27 (7): 623 -- Chemical Senses
A dendritic process or an olfactory receptor cell (arrowhead) is seen immedicately adjacent to a ciliated respiratory cell (asterisk), revealing a junction of respiratory epithelium (left) with the olfactory epithelium (right).
In conclusion, olfactory biopsy of the olfactory epithelium
Yamagishi, M. and Nakano, Y. A re-evaluation of the classification of olfactory epithelia in patients with olfactory disorders.
chemse.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/27/7/623   (2635 words)

 Olfactory Epithelium
The olfactory region covers most of the roof of the nasal cavity from the anterior end of the superior concha and extending posteriorly for a short distance.
The mucous membrane of the olfactory area consists of pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium interspersed with goblet cells and a thick lamina propria.
First is the epithelium itself, (yellow arrows) which is a psuedostratified epithelium made up of specialized cells responsible for smelling.
www3.umdnj.edu /histsweb/lab10/lab10olfactory.html   (624 words)

 Gail D. Burd - Univ. of Arizona Dept. of Cell Biology & Anatomy
During development, the olfactory epithelium is derived from two thickenings in the sense plate region of the head ectoderm, the olfactory placodes.
Principal cavity afferent axons are redirected to dorsal regions of the olfactory bulb at the time when all of the neurons in the dorsal olfactory bulb are born.
The role of the brain in metamorphosis of the olfactory epithelium in the frog, Xenopus laevis.
www.cba.arizona.edu /people/faculty/Burd-G.htm   (664 words)

 eMedicine - Anatomy of Olfactory System : Article by Amir Vokshoor, MD   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Olfactory dysfunction is a hallmark of certain syndromes such as Kallmann syndrome (ie, hypogonadism with anosmia) and Foster Kennedy syndrome (ie, papilledema, unilateral anosmia, and optic atrophy usually associated with an olfactory groove meningioma).
Olfactory structures also can be injured during craniotomies involving the anterior cranial base or from subarachnoid hemorrhage, which may disrupt the fine fibers of the olfactory nerve.
Detection of olfactory dysfunction begins with sampling of a series of common odors, which can be performed at the bedside with odiferous substances such as coffee, lemon, and peppermint.
www.emedicine.com /ent/topic564.htm   (2065 words)

 Smelling: It's More Than Meets the Olfactory Epithelium
The olfactory epithelium of each of the two nasal passages in humans is a 2.5 square centimeter patch containing about 50 million sensory receptor cells (3).
The reception of the odorant and the beginning of sensory signal transduction occurs in the olfactory cilia, which are hair-like extensions of the receptor neurons (10-20 cilia per neuron).
On the opposite side of the cilia, within the epithelium, the neurons form axons which penetrate the cribiform bone in bundles and synapse with neurons in the olfactory bulb (2).
serendip.brynmawr.edu /bb/neuro/neuro99/web1/Bernstein.html   (1473 words)

 NEJM -- Detection of Pathologic Prion Protein in the Olfactory Epithelium in Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
Salvatore Monaco, M.D. Background Olfactory cortexes and the olfactory tracts are involved
the cribriform plate with the attached olfactory mucosa, and
olfactory pathway but not in the respiratory mucosa.
content.nejm.org /cgi/content/short/348/8/711   (625 words)

 Tonic and Phasic Receptor Neurons in the Vertebrate Olfactory Epithelium -- Madrid et al. 84 (6): 4167 -- Biophysical ...
Tonic and Phasic Receptor Neurons in the Vertebrate Olfactory Epithelium
Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) are the sensory cells of the
Tonic and phasic olfactory receptor neurons in the olfactory epithelium
www.biophysj.org /cgi/content/full/84/6/4167   (6318 words)

 Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase-Like Immunoreactivity in Olfactory Epithelium Throughout the Life Cycle of the Sea ...
Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase-Like Immunoreactivity in Olfactory Epithelium Throughout the Life Cycle of the Sea Lamprey, Petromyzon marinus L. This study is the first to show that neuronal nitric oxide synthase-like immunoreactivity is located in the olfactory epithelium at all developmental stages of a vertebrate.
Western immunoblotting of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus L.) olfactory mucosa with a monoclonal antibody against the NADPH-binding epitope of neuronal nitric oxide synthase showed that the molecular mass of this protein was 200 kDa.
In the juvenile stage, the intensity of neuronal nitric oxide synthase-like immunoreactivity was striking in the wide cell bodies and dendrites on olfactory receptor neurons.
www.sgnis.org /publicat/huahzaid.htm   (230 words)

 Accumulation of Ym1/2 protein in the mouse olfactory epithelium during regeneration and aging.
Thus, destruction of the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) using chemical (intranasal perfusion with ZnSO4) or surgical (axotomy or bulbectomy) methods, leads to an enhanced rate of proliferation of their progenitors and to complete ORNs regeneration.
In the olfactory mucosa of control mice, Ym1/2 was hardly detectable in young animals and became more and more abundant with increasing age.
Our results suggest that Ym1/2 is involved in olfactory epithelium remodeling following several kinds of lesions of the adult olfactory mucosa and support the view of a critical role of inflammatory cues in neurodegeneration and aging.
www.arclab.org /medlineupdates/abstract_14751284.html   (298 words)

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