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Topic: Olfactory system

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In the News (Sun 21 Jul 19)

The olfactory system consists of the outer nose, which projects from the face, and the nasal cavities, contained in the skull, which support the olfactory mucous membrane for the perception of smell in their upper parts, and act as respiratory passages below.
In mammals the olfactory chamber of the nose is variously developed; most of them are macrosmatic, and have a large area of olfactory mucous membrane; some, like the seals, whalebone whales, monkeys and man are microsmatic, while the toothed whales have the olfactory region practically suppressed in the adult, and are said to be anosmatic.
It is parleepening of the olfactory ticularly common in young girls at the ir relation to the herni- time of puberty, being a form of vicarious Is of the fore-brain, menstruation.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /O/OL/OLFACTORY_SYSTEM.htm   (4796 words)

 Olfactory system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The olfactory system is the sensory system used for olfaction.
The olfactory system is often spoken of along with the gustatory system as the chemosensory senses because both transduce chemical signals into perception.
Outside the brain, olfactory receptor neurons reside on the olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity:
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Olfactory_system   (460 words)

 Olfaction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In vertebrates smells are sensed by the olfactory epithelium located in the nasal cavity and first processed by the olfactory bulb in the olfactory system.
This is possibly due to the olfactory system's close anatomical ties to the limbic system and hippocampus, areas of the brain that have long been known to be involved in emotion and place memory, respectively.
Some pheromones are detected by the olfactory system, although in many vertebrates pheromones are also detected by the vomeronasal organ, located in the vomer, between the nose and the mouth.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Olfaction   (941 words)

 olfactory system
Pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating peptides and alpha-amidation in olfactory neurogenesis and neuronal survival in vitro.
Ontogenesis of the axonal circuitry associated with the olfactory system of the rat embryo.
Retarding effect of early anosmia on growth of the body, brain, olfactory bulbs, and cerebellum and its implications for the development of the olfactory system in the rat.
www.arclab.org /node_pages/932.html   (340 words)

This PA, Vulnerability of the Olfactory System to the Impact of Environmental Toxicants and Pathogens, is related to the priority area of environmental health.
For example, the vertebrate olfactory receptor neuron has become an important neurobiologic model system in the area of molecular and cell biology for the study of neuronal plasticity and neuronal development or neurogenesis, including the developmental steps of cell birth and lineage, differentiation, synaptogenesis, growth, migration, maturation, and death.
Several studies in humans suggest that the olfactory mucosa is replaced with respiratory mucosa as a result of frequent infectious diseases of the nasal chambers, exposure to toxic chemicals, head injury, or age-related conditions.
grants.nih.gov /grants/guide/pa-files/PA-93-024.html   (2456 words)

 Smell and the Olfactory System
In the olfactory bulb, information from these receptors is organized into patterns that the brain may interpret as different odors.
The olfactory system, which senses and processes odors, is one of the oldest and most vital parts of the brain.
Olfactory information travels not only to the limbic system -- primitive brain structures that govern emotions, behavior, and memory storage -- but also to the brain's cortex, or outer layer, where conscious thought occurs.
www.sfn.org /content/Publications/BrainBriefings/smell.html   (769 words)

 eMedicine - Anatomy of Olfactory System : Article by Amir Vokshoor, MD   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The olfactory system represents one of the oldest sensory modalities in the phylogenetic history of mammals.
Olfactory dysfunction is a hallmark of certain syndromes such as Kallmann syndrome (ie, hypogonadism with anosmia) and Foster Kennedy syndrome (ie, papilledema, unilateral anosmia, and optic atrophy usually associated with an olfactory groove meningioma).
Olfactory structures also can be injured during craniotomies involving the anterior cranial base or from subarachnoid hemorrhage, which may disrupt the fine fibers of the olfactory nerve.
www.emedicine.com /ent/topic564.htm   (2065 words)

 Med Associates Inc: Olfactory System
Activation of the control valve allows the olfactory stimulus to be presented in the nose poke.
The olfactory stimulus is removed from the nose poke cavity via an exhaust port located in the roof of the cavity.
This system is suitable for odor discrimination tasks where flow control is critical, olfactory coding, or any behavioral or neurophsiological study using odor as a stimulus.
www.med-associates.com /behavior/olfactory/phm275.htm   (651 words)

 Olfactory Ensheathing Cell Home Page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Ensheathing cells are the non-myelinating glial cells that ensheath olfactory axons within both the PNS and CNS portions of the primary olfactory pathway.
Olfactory ensheathing glia and platelet-derived growth factor b-chain reactivity in the transplanted rat olfactory bulb.
It is during this stage that the cranial neuropore closes, that the olfactory and lens placodes appear, and that the otic placode invaginates.
duke.usask.ca /~rondouc   (2139 words)

 Nosing into pheromone detectors - Nature Neuroscience   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Mice lacking a functional main olfactory system are shown to be able to detect some odorants via their vomeronasal organ, suggesting this system is not restricted to sensing pheromones.
In the main olfactory system, information is processed in cortical areas involved in odor discrimination, which may give rise to the conscious representation of odorous molecules.
No activity was detected in the main olfactory system of the mutant animals, arguing against involvement of this system in the detection of these molecules (although activity from a limited subset of sensory neurons might be difficult to measure with this technique).
www.nature.com /neuro/journal/v6/n5/full/nn0503-438.html   (1417 words)

How the activation of populations of olfactory sensory neurons is translated in the brain into a discretely perceived odor quality is still completely mysterious, despite vigorous investigation in model systems as disparate as nematodes, fruit flies, fish, mice, and humans.
The common or main olfactory system is the sensor of the environment, the primary sense used by animals to find food, detect predators and prey, and mark territory.
An indication of the importance of olfactory systems is the significant proportion -- as much as 4% -- of the genomes of many higher eukaryotes that is devoted to encoding the proteins of smell.
scienceweek.com /2004/sa041217-3.htm   (1818 words)

 Press Release: The 2004 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
These receptors are located on the olfactory receptor cells, which occupy a small area in the upper part of the nasal epithelium and detect the inhaled odorant molecules.
From these micro domains in the olfactory bulb the information is relayed further to other parts of the brain, where the information from several olfactory receptors is combined, forming a pattern.
The olfactory system is the first of our sensory systems that has been deciphered primarily using molecular techniques.
nobelprize.org /medicine/laureates/2004/press.html   (1407 words)

 Untitled Document
The chemical senses, particularly olfaction, are deemed the oldest sensory system.
The receptors of this system is found in the roof of mouth, and fibers from the receptors project to the accessory olfactory bulb.
Vomeronasal system is specialized for the recognition of sex-pheromones/ territory odors, aggression, suckling behavior; however, vomeronasal system is nonfunctional in adult human beings.
instruct1.cit.cornell.edu /Courses/psych396/student2002/trk6   (258 words)

 How Rats and Mice—and Probably Humans—Recognize Odors
But the olfactory system must use a different strategy in dealing with the wide variety of molecules that produce odors.
A round, knob-like structure, the olfactory bulb is quite large in animals with an acute sense of smell but decreases in relative size as this ability wanes.
In the olfactory epithelium of the nose, Axel and Buck's groups found, neurons that make a given odorant receptor do not cluster together; instead, these neurons are distributed randomly within certain broad regions of the epithelium, called expression zones, which are symmetrical on the two sides of the animals' nasal cavities.
www.hhmi.org /senses/d/d130.htm   (688 words)

Gross morphological examination showed that the olfactory chamber that houses the round olfactory rosette in bigeye tuna, is covered by a thick epidermal tissue with an anterior nasal inlet and a posterior slit-like outlet.
On the contrary, the round olfactory rosette of the marlin is visible through the anterior and posterior nasal openings that are separated by an upstanding nasal labial flap.
Olfactory ciliated receptor neuron, olfactory microvillar receptor neuron, sustentacular cells and mucous cells comprised the main cellular constituents of the sensory epithelium in both species.
swfsc.nmfs.noaa.gov /tunaconf/TC51Abst/Mana.html   (569 words)

 Limbic System
The olfactory bulb is not a simple relay (something which passively transmits the signal), but is a sophisticated structure in itself.
The main target of the olfactory tract is the primary olfactory cortex in the medial temporal lobe.
The olfactory system disobeys a general rule of sensory systems - it does not have to pass through thalamus before reaching cortex.
thalamus.wustl.edu /course/limbic.html   (1726 words)

 OLFACTORY SYSTEM - Online Information article about OLFACTORY SYSTEM
pit above the anterior end of the central nervous system, which is probably a rudiment of an unpaired olfactory organ.
Amphibia the nasal organ becomes included in the skull and respiratory and olfactory parts are distinguished.
Transverse section through the head of an embryo, showing the relation of the olfactory pits to the forebrain and to the roof of the stomatodaeal space.
encyclopedia.jrank.org /NUM_ORC/OLFACTORY_SYSTEM.html   (2344 words)

 SMELL   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Neurons from the lateral olfactory tract project to; (1) the amygdala, septal nuclei, pre-pyriform cortex, the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus and the subiculum.
Olfactory hallucinations coupled with feelings of deja vu occur in "uncinate seizures", a form of temporal lobe epilepsy, and sometimes there is a generalised intensification of smell.
One possible explanation is that because olfactory centres (primary olfactory cortex, entorhinal cortex) are next door to regions where seizures begin in temporal lobe epilepsy, activity generated in these areas by the presentation of a smell prevents the spread of the synchronous activity from the epileptic focus.
www.cf.ac.uk /biosi/staff/jacob/teaching/sensory/olfact1.html   (8439 words)

 Olfactory system detects pheromones that control reproduction
The new studies demonstrate that the main olfactory epithelium, which was presumed to be mostly involved with the sense of smell, plays a critical role in pheromone detection.
Although the VNO resides in the nasal cavity, the pheromone sensory system is distinct from the sense of smell, as are the chemical receptors involved.
In their experiments, Dulac and her colleagues sought to determine whether sensory neurons in the main olfactory epithelium and the VNO were connected to neurons in the brain that synthesize luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH).
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2005-11/hhmi-osd111005.php   (1039 words)

 Neuroscience for Kids - Chemical Senses
Although the neural systems for taste and smell are distinct from one another, the sensations of flavors and aromas often work together, especially during eating.
The electrical signal generated when an olfactory sensory neuron is activated is passed along to a secondary neuron residing in the bulb, and from here the signal goes by way of the olfactory tract to other brain areas.
The olfactory system is often described as the most "primitive" sensory system because of its early phylogenetic development and its connections to older, subconscious portions of the brain.
faculty.washington.edu /chudler/chems.html   (3229 words)

 ScienceDaily: Researchers Closer To Learning The Underlying Logic Of The Olfactory System
Information from the olfactory cortex is then sent to many regions of the brain, ultimately leading to the perceptions of odors and their emotional and physiological effects.
Earlier studies of the olfactory cortex by Buck's group indicated that in contrast to the straightforward mapping of inputs from odorant receptors onto the glomeruli, however, the mapping of odorant receptor inputs onto the olfactory cortex was quite complex.
In sharp contrast to the olfactory bulb, where signals from different receptors are segregated, inputs from different odorant receptors overlap extensively in the cortex.
www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2005/05/050526093647.htm   (1713 words)

 A Long-term Culture System for Olfactory Explants with Intrinsically Fluorescent Cell Populations -- Goetze et al. 27 ...
of the olfactory epithelium from the nasal septum and the turbinates
), the olfactory epithelia (OEs) from mice of this
Meisami, E. and Sendera, T.J. Morphometry of rat olfactory bulbs stained for cytochrome oxidase reveals that the entire population of glomeruli forms early in the neonatal period.
chemse.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/27/9/817   (3543 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Additionally, the mammalian olfactory system has the remarkable ability to detect a wide variety of odorant molecules with high sensitivity and specificity.
Olfactory acuity likely results from the contributions at the levels of anatomy, cellular structure and organization, biochemistry, genetics and neuronal connectivity.
We have studied the mammalian olfactory system to elucidate the contributions of biochemistry, genetics and neural connectivity to sensitivity and specificity in olfactory signal transduction and the elaboration of the olfactory cilia, the sensory organelle in this tissue.
www.mbg.jhmi.edu /FacultyDetails.asp?PersonID=376   (502 words)

 Aromatherapy Diet
Aromas are transmitted to the limbic system, a part of the brain which perceives and responds to memory, pleasure and emotions.
Because the olfactory nerves are a direct extension of the brain's limbic system, recognition of smell is relayed immediately, whereas recognition of taste, sound and touch is not as immediate.
The olfactory system of the human brain has a lock and key mechanism for remembering scents.
www.aromatherapydiet.com /about_olfactory.htm   (453 words)

 [No title]
Moreover, the olfactory system must be specialized for the niche and lifestyle of each species.
The key to this ability is an critical organizing principle in the olfactory system: each sensory neuron transcribes only one OR protein, thus, each olfactory sensory neuron is dedicated to report the response of a single OR.
Genomic analysis of the olfactory receptor region of the mouse and human T-cell receptor alpha/delta loci.
www.wesleyan.edu /mbb/faculty/rlane   (726 words)

 The Olfactory System
The Olfactory System is basically the body's system of smell.
From the Olfactory Bulb, the aroma molecules are transported to the limbic system in the brain.
This suggests that the olfactory system and olfactory stimuli may have potential uses in the treatment of various disorders, both physiological and psychological.
www.geocities.com /pathways2eden/Olfactory.html   (525 words)

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