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Topic: Ontology


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In the News (Sun 14 Jan 18)

  
  What is an Ontology?
In such an ontology, definitions associate the names of entities in the universe of discourse (e.g., classes, relations, functions, or other objects) with human-readable text describing what the names mean, and formal axioms that constrain the interpretation and well-formed use of these terms.
Formally, an ontology is the statement of a logical theory.
In short, a commitment to a common ontology is a guarantee of consistency, but not completeness, with respect to queries and assertions using the vocabulary defined in the ontology.
www-ksl.stanford.edu /kst/what-is-an-ontology.html   (900 words)

  
 Ontology. A resource guide for philosophers
Ontology as a domain is the outcome or subject matter of ontology as a discipline.
Applied scientific ontology construed as an existence domain can be further subdivided as the theoretical commitment to a preferred choice of existent entities, or to the real existent entities themselves, including the actual world considered as a whole, also known as the extant domain.
Ontology as a theoretical domain is thus a description or inventory of the things that are supposed to exist according to a particular theory, which might but need not be true.
www.formalontology.it   (3193 words)

  
  CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Ontology
Ontology is not a subjective science as Kant describes it (Ub.
Ontology is therefore the fundamental science since it studies the basal constituents and the principles presupposed by the special sciences.
Ontology is thus reduced to the types which the
www.newadvent.org /cathen/11258a.htm   (935 words)

  
  Ontology (computer science) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ontologies are used in artificial intelligence, the semantic web, and software engineering as a form of knowledge representation about the world or some part of it.
Ontologies vary on whether classes can contain other classes, whether a class can belong to itself, whether there is a universal class (that is, a class containing everything), etc. Sometimes restrictions along these lines are made in order to avoid certain well-known paradoxes.
An upper ontology (or foundation ontology) is a model of the common objects that are generally applicable across a wide range of domain ontologies.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ontology_(computer_science)   (1718 words)

  
 Ontology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It is in this latter sense that ontology is applied to such fields as theology, library science and artificial intelligence.
The concept of ontology is generally thought to have originated in early Greece and occupied Plato and Aristotle.
The first occurrence in English of "ontology" as recorded by the OED appears in Bailey’s dictionary of 1721, which defines ontology as ‘an Account of being in the Abstract’.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ontology   (1222 words)

  
 CMS Wiki : Ontology
The SemanticWeb is an Ontology (or a web of interdependent ontologies) that uses WebOntologyLanguage to define all resources identified by a URI by means of statements about their relations to other resources.
Ontologies, because they are machine-readable, aim to move the complexity of the system into how the information is organized rather then the application that processes that information.
In computer science, an ontology is the attempt to formulate an exhaustive and rigorous conceptual schema within a given domain, a typically hierarchical data structure containing all the relevant entities and their relationships and rules (theorems, regulations) within that domain.
www.cmswiki.com /tiki-index.php?page=Ontology   (699 words)

  
 Ontology Encyclopedia Article @ AlienArtifacts.com (Alien Artifacts)   (Site not responding. Last check: )
More precisely, ontology concerns determining what categories of being are fundamental and asks whether, and in what sense, the items in those categories can be said to "be".
However, Descartes was very religious in his philosophy, and indeed argued that "cogito ergo sum" proved the existence of God.
It is the study of being and existence as well as the basic categories thereof.
www.alienartifacts.com /encyclopedia/Ontology   (1065 words)

  
 Virtual Travelog | Judging the likely Success of an Ontology
General purpose ontologies capable of self definition have existed for a century at the most and have only had any practical application outside mathematics and philosophy since the widespread adoption of the computer in the 1960's and 70's.
In choosing an ontology specification language it should be remembered the relational data model and SQL have been the default choice for the past 25 years.
To reduce the risk of failure in the early stages of specification the various components of the ontology should be assessed individually and collectively in terms of their ability to support required use cases for operational activity data.
www.virtualtravelog.net /entries/000057.html   (3622 words)

  
 What is an ontology and why we need it
Developing an ontology is akin to defining a set of data and their structure for other programs to use.
This ontology can then be used as a basis for some applications in a suite of restaurant-managing tools: One application could create wine suggestions for the menu of the day or answer queries of waiters and customers.
If the ontology we are designing will be used to assist in natural-language processing of articles in wine magazines, it may be important to include synonyms and part-of-speech information for concepts in the ontology.
protege.stanford.edu /publications/ontology_development/ontology101-noy-mcguinness.html   (8924 words)

  
 Ontologies
Ontologies are used by people, databases, and applications that need to share domain information (a domain is just a specific subject area or area of knowledge, like medicine, tool manufacturing, real estate, automobile repair, financial management, etc.).
Ontologies include computer-usable definitions of basic concepts in the domain and the relationships among them (note that here and throughout this document, definition is not used in the technical sense understood by logicians).
SENSUS is a 90,000-node concept thesaurus (ontology) derived from WordNet (built at Princeton University in the mid-1990's by George Miller and colleagues), and rearranged and subordinated to the Penman Upper Model at ISI by Kevin Knight.
www.aaai.org /AITopics/html/ontol.html#good   (3060 words)

  
 ONTOLOGY WORKS INC.
Ontology is the science of what is, of the kinds and structures of objects, properties, events, processes and relations in every area of reality.
In the IODE, the ontologies are actually extensions of an existing body of knowledge, which is the fruit of the discipline of ontology.
Ontologies can be used to support AI systems, by providing a deeper and more robust representation of the domain on which one wishes to reason and solve problems.
www.ontologyworks.com /what_is_ontology.php   (677 words)

  
 Ontology
The product of such a study, called an ontology, is a catalog of the types of things that are assumed to exist in a domain of interest D from the perspective of a person who uses a language L for the purpose of talking about D.
Large ontologies often use a mixture of definitional methods: formal axioms and definitions are used for the terms in mathematics, physics, and engineering; and prototypes are used for plants, animals, and common household items.
To keep the system open-ended, the KR ontology is not based on a fixed hierarchy of categories, but on a framework of distinctions, from which the hierarchy is generated automatically.
www.jfsowa.com /ontology   (1250 words)

  
 Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind - ontology   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Although the term terms "ontology" and "metaphysics" are far from being univocal and determinate in philosophical jargon, an important distinction seems often enough to be marked by them.
In effect, one’s ontology is one’s list of entities, while one’s metaphysics is an explanatory theory about the nature of those entities.
For example, a philosopher might include in her ontology quarks, people, substances, and institutions, while her metaphysics might include such claims as: quarks are necessarily such that they obey thus and such physical laws; people are essential rational beings; substances are by nature indestructible; institutions are essentially conventional entities; and so on.
www.artsci.wustl.edu /~philos/MindDict/ontology.html   (1914 words)

  
 Ontology, introduction
Ontology (the "science of being") is a word, like metaphysics, that is used in many different senses.
It is sometimes considered to be identical to metaphysics, but we prefer to use it in a more specific sense, as that part of metaphysics that specifies the most fundamental categories of existence, the elementary substances or structures out of which the world is made.
Ontology will thus analyse the most general and abstract concepts or distinctions that underlie every more specific description of any phenomenon in the world, e.g.
pespmc1.vub.ac.be /ONTOLI.html   (239 words)

  
 John Bateman; ontology portal root
Ontologies are also increasingly refered to for solving problems concerned with organising information in practical domains, such as medicine, geographical information systems, car parts, and many more.
In such an ontology, definitions associate the names of entities in the universe of discourse (e.g., classes, relations, functions, or other objects) with human-readable text describing what the names mean, and formal axioms that constrain the interpretation and well-formed use of these terms.
Ontology development appears to go in cycles whereby at irregularly reoccuring intervals there are attempts to merge or combine what has been achieved so far.
www.fb10.uni-bremen.de /anglistik/langpro/webspace/jb/info-pages/ontology/ontology-root.htm   (1894 words)

  
 Ontology
An ontology is a classification methodology for formalizing a subject’s knowledge in a structured way (typically for consumption by an electronic database).
In biology-based ontologies the controlled vocabulary terms are arranged in such a way that their placement reflects the known or putative biological associations between the objects represented by the controlled vocabulary terms.
A novel approach in ontology development, involving the more explicit use of ontogenetic and phylogenetic data and concepts in the elucidation and development of ontological relationships, is also being considered.
www.maizemap.org /ontology.htm   (700 words)

  
 ontology
Ontology is a branch of metaphysics which is concerned with being, including theories of the nature and kinds of being.
Pluralistic ontologies hold that there is no unity to Being and that there are numerous kinds of being.
Dualism is a kind of pluralistic ontology, maintaining that there are two fundamental kinds of being: mind and body.
skepdic.com /ontology.html   (100 words)

  
 XML.com: Ontology Tools Survey, Revisited
One ontology building trend not articulated in the survey responses, but highlighted in a dedicated session of the recent WWW 2004 Conference, is support for ontology languages built on RDF and the use of URIs as identifiers for referring to unique entities.
Ontologies for the Semantic Web are characterized as RDF ontologies, and are being built using OWL and other languages based on RDF.
The survey of ontology tools is interesting, but while ontology editing is a profound challenge, perhaps the greater one is showing developers how to easily profit from ontologies in their systems.
www.xml.com /pub/a/2004/07/14/onto.html?page=2   (1631 words)

  
 The Jena 2 Ontology API
Since the ontology model is customisable in a number of different ways, this version uses defaults for all of the various parameters.
Suppose two ontologies, A and B both import ontology C. It would be nice not to have to read C twice when loading A and B. The document manager supports this use case by optionally caching C's model, indexed by C's URI.
In the example camera ontology, the property body is a sub-property of part, and has domain Camera and range Body (that is, it maps from instances of cameras to instances of camera bodies).
jena.sourceforge.net /ontology   (10545 words)

  
 OWL Web Ontology Language Overview
The OWL Web Ontology Language is designed for use by applications that need to process the content of information instead of just presenting information to humans.
The OWL Use Cases and Requirements Document provides more details on ontologies, motivates the need for a Web Ontology Language in terms of six use cases, and formulates design goals, requirements and objectives for OWL.
Ontology developers adopting OWL should consider which sublanguage best suits their needs.
www.w3.org /TR/owl-features   (5652 words)

  
 Gramene Gene, Plant and Trait Ontology Database
The ontology database aims to provide a collective resource for structured controlled vocabularies (Ontologies) for the following knowledge domains and their associations to various objects such as QTL, phenotype gene, proteins and Ensembl rice genes.
Through this effort, the database as member of Gene Ontology Consortium, aims to foster consistency and encourages international usage of these ontologies in the annotation of data objects.
Gramene is collaborating with The Plant Ontology Consortium (POC) to develop a controlled vocabulary for plant structure (anatomy) and growth stages.
www.gramene.org /plant_ontology   (669 words)

  
 Shirky: Ontology is Overrated -- Categories, Links, and Tags
It is a rich irony that the word "ontology", which has to do with making clear and explicit statements about entities in a particular domain, has so many conflicting definitions.
The main thread of ontology in the philosophical sense is the study of entities and their relations.
Ontology is less concerned with what is than with what is possible.
www.shirky.com /writings/ontology_overrated.html   (7157 words)

  
 MGED NETWORK :: Ontology Working Group (OWG)
Welcome to the website of the ontology working group for the MGED project, which is charged with developing an ontology for describing samples used in microarray experiments.
For our purposes, it is a formal and declarative representation which includes the vocabulary (or names) for referring to the terms in that subject area and the logical statements that describe what the terms are, how they are related to each other, and how they can or cannot be related to each other.
Thus, the Ontology will be used directly by investigators annotating their microarray experiments as well as by software and database developers and therefore will be developed with these very practical applications in mind.
mged.sourceforge.net /ontologies/index.php   (576 words)

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