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Topic: Open system (system theory)


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In the News (Wed 26 Sep 18)

  
  Open system (system theory) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The definition of a "system" is arbitrary; a system may be defined as the region of space under study being characterized by a collection of components or elements related in some way.
The definition of an open system assumes that there are supplies of energy that cannot be depleted; in practice, this energy is supplied from some source in the surrounding environment, which can be treated as infinite for the purposes of study.
An example of an open system is the space tether, which uses the ground and the ionosphere as parts of an electrical circuit.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Open_system_(system_theory)   (284 words)

  
 Open system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In management science, an open system (system theory) is a system that takes in (raw materials, capital, skilled labor) and converts them into goods and services (via machinery, human skills) that are sent back to that environment, where they are bought by customers.
Contrarily a closed system is self contained, does not interact with its external environment and risks to experience entropy.
In the physical sciences, an open system (system theory) is a system where matter or energy can flow into and/or out of, in contrast to a closed system, where no energy or matter may enter or leave.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Open_system   (239 words)

  
 Theory Study @ NaturalResearch.org (Natural Research)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
In this sense, a theory is a systematic and formalized expression of all previous observations that is predictive, logical and testable.
This is true of such established theories as special and general relativity, quantum mechanics, plate tectonics, evolution, etc. The fewer which are matched, the less scientific it is; those that meet only several criteria, or none at all, cannot be said to be scientific in any meaningful sense of the word.
In the humanities, theory is often used as an abbreviation for critical theory or literary theory, referring to continental philosophy's aesthetics or its attempts to understand the structure of society and to conceptualize alternatives.
www.naturalresearch.org /encyclopedia/Theory   (1809 words)

  
 Systems Theory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Negandi says that "a system's attributes, which are the interdependence and interlinking of various subsystems within a given system, and the tendency toward attaining a balance, or equilibrium forces one to think in terms of multiple causation in contrast to the common habit of thinking in single-cause terms".
Internal-image systems: systems capable of a detailed awareness of the environment in which information is received and organized into an image or knowledge structure of the environment as a whole, a level at which animals function.
Systems theory suggests that schools be managed more like organizations, where teachers are accountable for their students’ results, curriculum stresses critical thinking skills, and learning is learner-directed learning instead of just lecture format.
www.ed.psu.edu /insys/ESD/systems/theory/SYSTHEO2.htm   (2065 words)

  
 A BRIEF EXPLANATION OF GENERAL SYSTEM THEORY
It is not the analogy of phenomena, nor yet the identity of properties, which signifies the possibility of General System Theory, but the isomorphy of invariant constructs, such as laws of development, structure and self-maintenance, occurring in differentiated form in the manifold realms of nature.
The term "system", "systems approach", and "systems theory" are all currently recognized as legitimate scientific concepts, We must be sure we do not construe these disciplines as part of the subject of this thesis, We are interested in theories of complex systems as subdisciplines of General System Theory.
As Mesarovic put it, "General System Theory uses the weakest mathematical structure which is compatible with the intuitive meaning of the concept." This is opposed to "Systems Theory", which is a deductive principle of mathematics.
www.geocities.com /~n4bz/gst/gst1.htm   (569 words)

  
 Mary Spencer   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
System analysis, the study of the organization in terms of the interrelatedness of its parts is part of modern organization theory, according to Scott.
The use of innovation is dependent on several factors including the systems ability to supply potential solutions, the member’s ability to recall historical solutions, flexibility of the formal organization, and the ability of the system to cognitively restructure.
Modern organization theory and general system theory examine the organization as a whole but the emphasis of modern theory is the human organization.
cstl-cla.semo.edu /walling/scottbymary.htm   (872 words)

  
 Open - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Open (sport) - A type of competition in tennis and golf (among others) where entry is open to all qualifiers regardless of age
In science, where an open system (system theory) means a system in which matter or energy can flow into and/or out of the system, in contrast to a closed system in which no energy or matter may enter or leave the system
In computing, where an open system (computing) is a computer operating system that provides interoperability, portability or both, particularly Unix systems
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Open   (183 words)

  
 Orgs as Systems
System theory: A system is a set of objects or entities that interrelate with one another to form a whole.
An open system is a set of objects w/ attributes that interrelate in an environment.
Interactional systems then, shall be two or more communicants in the process of, or at the level of, defining the nature of their relationship.
w3.palmer.edu /murray/OrgCommunics/orgsystems.html   (1478 words)

  
 What is Systems Theory?
Systems theory was proposed in the 1940's by the biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy (
Systems analysis, developed independently of systems theory, applies systems principles to aid a decisIon-maker with problems of identifying, reconstructing, optimizing, and controlling a system (usually a socio-technical organization), while taking into account multiple objectives, constraints and resources.
Systems theory is closely connected to cybernetics, and also to system dynamics, which models changes in a network of coupled variables (e.g.
pespmc1.vub.ac.be /SYSTHEOR.html   (422 words)

  
 Systems Theory
Systems theory was introduced by biologist L. von Bertalanffy in the 1930s as a modeling devise that accommodates the interrelationships and overlap between separate disciplines.
Entropy is a measure of the degree of disorder in a system.
A system boundary may be thought of as the point at which data flows (perhaps as output) from one system to another (perhaps as input).
www.cs.unb.ca /profs/fritz/cs3503/system35.htm   (909 words)

  
 Open system (system theory): Encyclopedia topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
This type of system is sometimes referred to as "radiant energy (radiant energy: Energy that is transmitted in the form of (electromagnetic) radiation; energy that exists in the absence of matter) ".
Some open system have forms of the energy that can be received from space (space: An area reserved for some particular purpose) via vacuum energy (vacuum energy: vacuum energy is an underlying background energy that exists in space even when devoid...
Open systems can occur in suspended circuits, in which the conductor (conductor: The person who leads a musical group) has no ground and uses the environment to complete a circuit.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /reference/open_system_system_theory   (328 words)

  
 Botany online: Cybernetics
Systems that live in a continuous exchange with their environment are called open systems.
All living systems are open and in a steady state.
The single system elements can be grouped together to depict a system in a block diagram since block diagrams are instructive aids for the understanding of the nature of the system's elements and their combinations.
www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de /b-online/e15/15.htm   (1524 words)

  
 SYSTEMS THEORY
Open systems are seen as highly complex, interdependent, and characterized by an expectation of change and uncertainty and change, internally and externally.
"Open systems theory can be defined as a theory of organization that views organizations not as simple "closed" bureaucratic structures separate from their surroundings, but as highly complex entities, facing considerable uncertainties in their operations and constantly interacting with their environment.
Systems theory is not a very complicated subject once it is studied and analyzed.
www.iejs.com /Management/systems_theory.htm   (1838 words)

  
 Namsoo's Purpose of School   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
System thinking theory is a discipline for seeing systems as a whole, understanding pattern and interrelationships in a system, and learning how to structure those interrelationships in a more effective, efficient way (Senge, 1991).
In general, school systems that are regarded as open systems are open, organic, pluralistic and complex.
School systems may be readily influenced from other systems such as business, family, religion, etc. In contrast of the nature of school systems, the design approach that we have conducted treats school systems as closed systems rather than open systems on the basis of system thinking theory.
www.ed.psu.edu /insys/ESD/systems/changeagents/NH_Agents.html   (1057 words)

  
 family system theory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
To enter the system (become a part of the class), you must be admitted as a UWMC student, must pay your tuition, must sign up for and be accepted into this specific class, must attend during the first week (else you will be dropped administratively from the class roster), and so forth.
Systems can be classified in terms of the permeability of two kinds of boundaries: external boundaries (those that lie between the system and the outside world, between iinsidersi and ioutsidersi), and internal boundaries (those that separate one person from another within the system).
Systems with highly permeable internal boundaries are said to be enmeshed: there is very little privacy within the system, everyone is highly involved with othersi ibusinessi, and independent action within the system is difficult or impossible (anything one member does sends iripple effectsi throughout the entire system).
www.saraswatiyoga.com /PeterFox/family_systems.htm   (3350 words)

  
 Meatball Wiki: SystemTheory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The largest developed specific system theory seems the "system theory" by Niklas Luhmann which comes as a general theory but is in fact a "social system theory".
This "no system without boundary" also it feels uncomfortable for a community founder, because he likes to think of his system as an open system, where anyone may walk in, start writing and become part of the community.
Systems are everywhere in the natural sciences and in technology and they are typically dealt with using causal and mathematical models.
www.usemod.com /cgi-bin/mb.pl?SystemTheory   (799 words)

  
 Dialectics in Duality   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
According to the systems view, systems are divided into closed system and open system with respect to their relation to the environment.
In short, the characteristics of closed system are not different from that of the duality and open systems are not different from that of the dialectics.
This means that we might need a system having two modes of systems at the same time-we need to shuttle between the cooling and fueling system (the closed system of duality) and the firing and propelling system (the open system of dialectics).
www.meaning.ca /articles/dialectic_duality_lee_july03.htm   (1625 words)

  
 Ludwig von Bertalanffy: General System Theory (1968)
It seems therefore that a general system theory of systems would be a useful tool providing, on the one hand, models that can be used in, and transferred to, different fields, and safeguarding, on the other hand, from vague analogies which often have marred the progress in these fields.
General system theory is, in principle, capable of giving exact definitions for such concepts and, in suitable cases, of putting them to quantitative analysis.
An open system is defined as a system in exchange of matter with its environment, presenting import and export, building-up and breaking-down of its material components.
www.panarchy.org /vonbertalanffy/systems.1968.html   (2352 words)

  
 Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1901--1972)
eveloped a kinetic theory of stationary open systems and the General System Theory, was one of the founding fathers and vice-president of the Society for General System Theory, and one of the first who applied the system methodology to psychology and the social sciences...
For it, he developed the kinetic theory of open systems characteristics of which are equifinality and steady state.
As opposed to the mathematical system theory, it describes its models in a qualitative and non-formalized language.
www.isss.org /lumLVB.htm   (2037 words)

  
 Theory of Atoms in Molecules: Quantum Mechanics of a Proper Open System
There is no such thing as an isolated system, and all systems are open systems that experience varying degrees of interaction through their shared zero-flux surfaces.
Thus the statement of the principle of stationary action for a proper open system is simply a generalization of quantum mechanics that applies to all physical systems.
The operational statement of this theory is most elegantly and simply stated using the language of field theory.
www.chemistry.mcmaster.ca /faculty/bader/aim/aim_4.html   (914 words)

  
 System Safety's Open Loops   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
In system theory, a feedback loop is conceived as the information flow from the system output back to the system.
No system safety plan we found required that analyses be tested during accident investigations, or updated by new information from an accident When this has been done during investigations, however, the results have been significant, as will be discussed shortly.
This open loop has cascading effects on a system’s performance as risks continue to be overlooked, escape evaluation and produce serious consequences.
members.cox.net /lbjr99/papers/openloop.html   (2788 words)

  
 Objectivism, Chapter 5 of Truth and Toleration
In an open system, however; these limits are set by fundamental Principles: the system is defined by the essential tenets that distinguish it from other viewpoints.
Her theory of rational egoism eliminates the breach between interest and idealism: our happiness is to be achieved by fidelity to moral absolutes that are grounded in mans nature as a living being.
If Objectivism is to survive and flourish as a system of thought, it must attract philosophers who will build on Ayn Rand's discoveries, using them as a base for an assault on specific problems in philosophy and drawing out their implications for other disciplines such as economics, psychology, or literary theory.
www.objectivistcenter.org /articles/dkelley_objectivism-chapter5-contested-legacy.asp   (9893 words)

  
 Donald Armel, Ph.D.
The Open System Theory suggests that the relationship of living systems to their environment is similar to the r elationship of organizational systems to their environment (social, business and technical) (Scheim, 1985).
Approaching organizations from a systems point of view means that they will be seen as arrangements of interrelated parts open to influence from the outside world.
Using the Open System Theory, improvement and changing the arrangements should not be limited to the internal structure, but should also be made in the way the organization relates to its external environment.
www.saintmarys.edu /~psmith/armel97.html   (887 words)

  
 Beyond Open Systems Table - Boje Sept 2004
It is important to understand the history of various approaches to system theory, especially if we want to fulfill Lou Pondy’s dream of going beyond open system theory, we need to understand the various types of open system theory and what lies beyond.
Net-centric adopts the logic of systems theory, where the parts are fragmented integrated by relations, all without spiritual sentimentality.
The monological gaze of rational-empiricism, now wed to systems theory, is countered by a call to reenchant the denatured world, which leads us to the emergence of the next stage of becoming GlobalAware.
cbae.nmsu.edu /~dboje/655/open_system_types_table.htm   (3093 words)

  
 AHP Perspective
In human social systems, this nucleus is the system’s central organizing principle, its reason for being, its purpose.
The key issue to remember is that open systems are alive and active; closed ones drive toward static equilibrium.
In an open social system, the critical partners are aware of their interdependence and any statement of purpose is inclusive; it recognizes benefit to both parties.
www.ahpweb.org /pub/perspective/fearandanxiety.html   (1948 words)

  
 Open - TheBestLinks.com - Computing, Operating system, Science, Unix, ...
Open - TheBestLinks.com - Computing, Operating system, Science, Unix,...
Open, Computing, Operating system, Science, Unix, Open system (computing), Open...
This is a disambiguation page, i.e., a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title.
www.thebestlinks.com /Open.html   (162 words)

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