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Topic: Operation Fortitude


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  Operation Fortitude - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Operation Fortitude was the codename for the deception operations used by the Allied forces during World War II in connection with the Normandy landings.
Fortitude was NOT devised or developed either by the London Controlling Section, the key deception planning element for the British Chiefs of Staff, or by the "Twenty (XX) Committee".
Fortitude North was devised, and its conduct supervised, by a section of Eisenhower's SHAEF operations staff known as "Ops (B)." Fortitude South was devised, and its conduct supervised, by Colonel David Strangeways, the chief deception officer for General Montgomery's 21st Army Group, which was to carry out the actual invasion of Normandy.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Operation_Fortitude   (1011 words)

  
 Operation Fortitude
Operation Fortitude was the collective codename for a number of the deception operations used by the Allied forces during World War II prior to and following the Normandy landings.
Fortitude had two forms: Fortitude North, which was to instill in Hitler and the German generals a fear of an amphibious landing in Norway[?], and, more significantly, Fortitude South.
The principal aim of Fortitude South was to trick the German high command into believing that the landings would take place in the Pas de Calais rather than the Normandy beaches.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/op/Operation_Fortitude.html   (357 words)

  
 Operation Quicksilver - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Operation Quicksilver (WWII) was a WWII plan by the Allies that was a sub-plan of Operation Fortitude
Operation Quicksilver (1978) was a American nuclear test series of eighteen blasts conducted at the Nevada Test Site in 1978 and 1979.
Operation Quicksilver (1990s) was a plan to reduce the size of the United States Army in the early 1990s as a result of the end of the Cold War.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Operation_Quicksilver   (159 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Operation Fortitude
Fortitude was this later plan During World War 2, Operation Bodyguard (Allies 1943) was the overall Allied deception plan in Europe for 1944.
Fortitude North, which was to instill in Hitler and his generals fear of an amphibious landing in Norway.
Fortitude South, which was to trick the German High Command into believing that the landings would take place in the Pas de Calais rather than on the Normandy beaches.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Operation-Fortitude   (816 words)

  
 The Deception Plan - Operation Fortitude   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
This aimed to suggest that the Allied plan was for a limited invasion sailing from Scotland to liberate southern Norway, followed by main landings across the Dover Straits to liberate the rest of Europe.
Operation Fortitude North involved the display of a build-up of dummy aircraft on Scottish airfields - there were more than enough real ships in the Scottish ports not to need dummies.
The idea was to simulate the assembly of an invasion fleet in East Anglia and its gradual move down the coast to Dover and Folkestone in readiness for the final assault on Calais.
www.mod.uk /aboutus/dday60/fortitude.htm   (1104 words)

  
 Iraq Pacification Operations
(January to December 2004)
Operation Iron Saber focused heavily in the area south of Baghdad, in particular the cities of Najaf, Diwaniyah, Al Kut and Karbala where the Mahdi army was the strongest.
Operation Vigilant Justice began on or about April 5, 2004 (some reports put the date as early as April 4) in an around the Al Anbar Province and was designed to pacify violent elements in the area.
Operation Iron Fury was designed to reduce the influence of the Madhi Army in Sadr City and provide a stable environment for residents and secure working conditions for civil-military operations.
webpages.charter.net /wisconsinlegion-7thdistrict/Iraq_ongoing_mil_ops2.htm   (10799 words)

  
 Summa Theologica
Now it belongs to fortitude of the mind to bear bravely with infirmities of the flesh, and this belongs to the virtue of patience or fortitude, as also to acknowledge one's own infirmity, and this belongs to the perfection that is called humility.
Hence it belongs to fortitude to strengthen the mind against dangers of death, not only such as arise in a general battle, but also such as occur in singular combat, which may be called by the general name of battle.
And fortitude is directed to evils of the body, as contraries which it withstands, and to the good of reason, as the end, which it intends to safeguard.
www.ccel.org /a/aquinas/summa/SS/SS123.html   (6466 words)

  
 Operation Quicksilver   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Operation Quicksilver can refer to at least 3 military operations:In World War II, Operation Quicksilver (Allies, 1944) was a sub-plan of Operation Fortitude, the 1944 deception plan.
Operation Quicksilver (United States, 1978 - 1979) was a nuclear test series of eighteen blasts conducted at the Nevada Test Site in 1978 and 1979.
Operation Quicksilver (United States, 1990s) was a plan to reduce the size of the United States Army in the early 1990s as a result of the end of the Cold War.
www.termsdefined.net /op/operation-quicksilver.html   (324 words)

  
 Deception: The other ‘D’ in D-Day - The Abrams Report - MSNBC.com
Operation Bodyguard was an elaborate scheme giving the illusion of five fake offenses designed by the Allies to distract and divert German forces away from Normandy, where the real invasion would occur.
Operation Bodyguard included a number of smaller operations, including Operation Fortitude, which was created to deceive the Germans about where the D-Day invasion would occur.
Fortitude North planned a phony invasion of Norway through Scotland—the Allies rigged the Swedish stock market to make it look like Norway would soon be liberated, and radio chatter sent signals about soldiers obtaining winter gear supplies.
www.msnbc.msn.com /id/5139053   (536 words)

  
 USNews.com: The D Is For Deception (8/26/02)
Operation Fortitude had caused them to so greatly overestimate Allied strength (the Germans believed there were 89 divisions in Great Britain, instead of the actual 47) that they were certain the Normandy attack was a mere diversion.
Being taken in by Operation Fortitude was, in the words of Hitler's Chief of Staff Alfred Jodl, the Nazis' "fatal strategic error." But the Wehrmacht was hardly the first army to fall for a clever ruse.
Yet Operation Fortitude set a benchmark for acts of military cunning; indeed, many of the tactics used in the weeks before D-Day are still taught to young officers.
www.usnews.com /usnews/culture/articles/020826/archive_022383_2.htm   (731 words)

  
 Fourteenth Army
Fortitude North was designed to make the Germans believe that an Anglo-American invasion of Norway was planned, in cooperation with a Soviet offensive designed to knock Finland out of the Axis camp and effect a link-up.
This deception was named "Operation Quicksilver." This was the largest, most elaborate, most carefully-planned, most vital, and most successful of all the Allied deception operations.
During Operation Fortitude changes were made in the composition of FUSAG in order to mislead German intelligence as to future Allied intentions.
www.globalsecurity.org /military/agency/army/14army.htm   (1270 words)

  
 Saving Private Ryan: Operation Overlord
Operation Overlord was the code name used for the Allied attack on German-occupied Northern France in the summer of 1944.
Among the many tools used by Fortitude were double agents, fake radio traffic and inflatable vehicles and craft designed to convince the Germans that the buildup of forces were intended to strike at Norway and/or the Pas-de-Calais region of France.
The seaborne aspects of Operation Overlord were known as Operation Neptune, and involved the embarkation of the troops, their transport across the English Channel, and their landings at Normandy.
www.sproe.com /o/overlord.html   (1401 words)

  
 Operation Fortitude   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Operation Fortitude was the collective codename for a number of the deception operations used by the Allied forces during World WarII prior to and following the Normandy landings.
Fortitude had two forms: Fortitude North, which was to instill in Hitler and his generals fear of an amphibious landing in Norway, andFortitude South, which was to trick the German high command into believing that the landings would take place in the Pas de Calais rather than on the Normandy beaches.
These ranged from the building of artificial airfields with papier-mâchéaircraft in East Anglia to radio traffic deception by a specially briefed outfit which drove around the southern coast of Englandsimulating an army maneuvering, to the broadcasting of misleading messages from secret agents who had effectively been 'turned'by the Double Cross System, such as Garbo.
www.therfcc.org /operation-fortitude-162871.html   (397 words)

  
 Operation Overlord: Utah Beach
Operation Overlord was the allied campaign in northwest Europe from 1944 until 1945 that was subdivided into Operation Neptune, the naval assault phase; the landing; and Operation Fortitude, the cover plan This section will focus on the landing segment of Operation Overlord; more specifically, the landing at the American codenamed Utah Beach.
Utah beach was the most westerly of the five assault beaches, and therefore was the first to receive the incoming tide as it advanced up the English Channel.
The first attacks by the American assault forces came from the naval and aerial segment of Operation Overlord.
cghs.dade.k12.fl.us /normandy/operationoverlord/utah_beach   (906 words)

  
 Rommel And Patton Bios
In 1942, Patton was given command of the Western Task Force of the US Army as a part of Operation Torch.
While Operation Overlord (D-Day) was being planned, Patton was incharge of Operation Fortitude.
Operation Fortitude was a false operation used to deceive German intellegience into thinking that the Allies were planning to land at Calais.
sirdog.1hwy.com /photo2.html   (677 words)

  
 Smoke and Mirrors: The United States, Iraq and Deceptions
The operational and tactical levels of the war now appear to be clearer than the ultimate goal.
Because of Operation Fortitude, the Germans knew that an invasion was coming and roughly when the invasion would occur -- but they were so wrong about where it would take place that they held their armor in reserve to protect the Pas de Calais, rather than hurl it at the attackers in Normandy.
The operational and tactical levels of the war appear to be clearer than the war's strategic shape or even its purpose.
www.freerepublic.com /focus/news/828782/posts   (2462 words)

  
 Fortitude South - D-Day Deception
While each deception operation had a degree of success, FORTITUDE SOUTH was the key deception of when and where the D-Day invasion would actually occur.
FORTITUDE SOUTH used all of these means to "paint the picture" the Allies wanted the Germans to see.
FORTITUDE SOUTH was an important aspect of the synergistic effect that had an unquantifiable, yet very positive affect on the D-Day invasion.
www.fas.org /irp/agency/army/tradoc/usaic/mipb/1996-2/meeks.htm   (1344 words)

  
 HyperWar: Administrative History of U.S. Naval Forces in Europe, 1940-1946
This new combined Operations Organization was charged not only with the organization and training of "Commando" Striking Forces for raids on German-held Europe, but also with the joint planing of amphibious operations.
The general idea was that it would not be possible to undertake land operations on a large scale in Europe until the Germans showed signs of cracking, and then the governing factor in the size of the forces to be maintained would be transportation and maintenance.".
Development of subsequent phases of the operation would depend on the seizure of sufficient aerodromes and the acquisition of the major ports of Le Havre, Rouen, and Cherbourg, which were to be made operative at the earliest practicable date.
www.ibiblio.org /hyperwar/USN/rep/Normandy/ComNavEu/ComNavEu-51.html   (6688 words)

  
 Summa Theologica (SS_Q123_A9)
ii) that "fortitude is the deliberate facing of danger, and bearing of toil." Therefore fortitude does not deal chiefly with sudden happenings.
Therefore the operation of fortitude is not concerned with sudden happenings.
Yet is it possible for a person even without the habit of fortitude, to prepare his mind against danger by long forethought: in the same way as a brave man prepares himself when necessary.
www.ccel.org /ccel/aquinas/summa.SS_Q123_A9.html   (303 words)

  
 Operation Fortitude North
This deception operation, named Fortitude North, was co-ordinated from Edinburgh Castle and consisted of a number of different schemes which, put together, would give the impression of the assembling of a large invasion force training for a Scandinavian campaign.
Several books have criticised Fortitude North, claiming that it was ineffective and failed to convince the Germans to send reinforcements to Norway.
The arrival of such units in the early weeks of the landings might have crucially tipped the balance against the Allies, and thus Fortitude North, and the radio deception work carried out from Macmerry, was of considerable importance to the success of the Allies in the Second World War.
www.eastlothianatwar.co.uk /operationfortitudenorth.htm   (552 words)

  
 Foreign Affairs - Book Review - Hoodwinking Hitler: The Normandy Deception - William B. Breuer   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Operation Fortitude was the Allied deception plan to fool the Germans as to the location and time of the 1944 invasion of France.
Operation Fortitude deserves a good book, but this is not it: the research is inadequate, the errors far too many, the breathless writing inappropriate to the subject.
A pity that the author, a D-Day veteran himself, did not take as much care in writing about Operation Fortitude as the men who executed the operation in doing their work.
www.foreignaffairs.org /19930601fabook5342/william-b-breuer/hoodwinking-hitler-the-normandy-deception.html?mode=print   (164 words)

  
 Articles - Battle of Normandy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Two preliminary proposals were drawn up: Operation Sledgehammer for an invasion in 1942, and Operation Roundup for a larger attack in 1943, which was adopted and became Operation Overlord, although it was delayed until 1944.
Operation Overlord was the codename for the Allied invasion of northwest Europe.
The 82nd (Operation Detroit) and 101st Airborne (Operation Chicago) were less fortunate in quickly completing their main objectives.
www.topron.com /articles/Battle_of_Normandy   (6241 words)

  
 BBC News | UK | Double cross ensured D-Day success
The system's greatest triumph was Operation Fortitude, which involved convincing the Germans that the Normandy landings (Operation Neptune) were just a diversion for a major attack further north.
The documents show that he sent a message to German intelligence three days after the start of the Allies' offensive, suggesting that the real invasion force was still being held in reserve in England.
He suggested that the landings were meant "to draw the maximum of our reserves to the area of operation, to retain them there so as to be able to strike a blow somewhere else with assured success.
news.bbc.co.uk /1/hi/uk/449829.stm   (434 words)

  
 1st Infantry Division News   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The mission was to establish and occupy FOB Duke (located south of Fallujah) and cordon-off the Muslim holy city of An Najaf, which is controlled by the cleric Al Sadr and his insurgent supporters.
This operation required coordination with many different units and long lines of communication, all while occurring at a time when the supply lines of the theater were already stretched to the limits.
Supporting the operation required a lot of effort and was a great challenge and a great learning experience for all involved.
www.1id.army.mil /1id/News/May/Article_23/Article_23.htm   (1122 words)

  
 ipedia.com: Battle of Normandy Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The Battle of Normandy in 1944, codenamed Operation Overlord, was the invasion of Nazi-occupied Western Europe by the Allies.
Rundstedt and Guderian had the bulk of their command experience when the Luftwaffe controlled the skies over the battlefield or, in the vast expanses of the Eastern Front, where neither side was able to claim air superiority over the entire front when these two commanders last had a combat command.
June 25–June 29 Operation Epsom, an offensive to the west of Caen, was repulsed by the German defenders.
www.ipedia.com /battle_of_normandy.html   (4821 words)

  
 Operation Fortitude   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
It was conceivably one of the largest and most successful deception operations of the 20th century.
This one message had a tremendous operational impact on the movement of German Panzer reinforcements in the critical few days after D-Day.
In a well-timed message sent just hours before the launch of D-Day and designed to halt whatever movements the Germans had started toward Normandy, GARBO stated that he viewed it as a diversion, and the primary target was Pas de Calais.
www.firebird.cn /wiki/Operation_Fortitude   (886 words)

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