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Topic: Operation Linebacker

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In the News (Tue 19 Mar 19)

  Operation Linebacker - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Operation Linebacker was the name of a United States military operation during the Vietnam War.
Operation Linebacker began with the mining of seven North Vietnamese harbors at 0800 local time May 9, 1970, by A-6 and A-7 aircraft from the Coral Sea.
Linebacker missions included the first widespread use of precision-guided munitions, the electro-optical guided bomb and the laser-guided bomb.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Operation_Linebacker   (1168 words)

 Operation Linebacker II - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Operation Linebacker II was a United States military operation during the Vietnam War.
Operation Linebacker II was a resumption of the Linebacker bombings conducted from May to October, except that the emphasis would be on massive attacks by B-52s rather than fighter aircraft.
Privately, the administration knew that politically the Christmas Bombings could not continue indefinitely; the operation was intended to convince South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu that the United States was willing to exert maximum pressure on Hanoi to defend the South.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Operation_Linebacker_II   (1794 words)

 Analyzing Operation Linebacker II: An Untypical Example of Air Coercion In Vietnam War   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The Nixon administration learned the flaw of their Freedom Train strategy and quickly adopted the interdiction strategy for the successful Linebacker I. Linebacker I’s military objectives were to destroy and prevent the flow of war material already in Vietnam and interdict the flow of troops and materiel from North to South Vietnam (31).
The operation employed strategic and tactical air power to the fullest to destroy important targets such as radio stations, railroads, POL and power plants, and airfields located in the Hanoi/Haiphong areas and to mine Haiphong port.
Although Linebacker II was overall successful, it had some serious problems in the execution of the operation, especially in the area of tactical strategy.
www.vietnam.ttu.edu /vietnamcenter/events/2002_Symposium/2002Papers_files/linebacker.htm   (6129 words)

 Operation Linebacker II
Operation Linebacker II Operation Linebacker II operations were initiated on 18 December 1972 and were directed by the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) to continue until further notice.
The primary objective of the bombing operation would be to force the North Vietnamese government to enter into purposeful negotiations concerning a cease-fire agreement.
The operation employed air power to its maximum capabilities in an attempt to destroy all major target complexes such as radio stations, railroads, power plants, and airfields located in the Hanoi and Haiphong areas.
www.globalsecurity.org /military/ops/linebacker-2.htm   (1028 words)

In March 1968 Operation Rolling Thunder was suspended after the North agreed to negotiate in the aftermath of the Tet Offensive.
The Pentagon told President Johnson on November 27, 1965, that if planned major sweep operations needed to neutralize Viet Cong forces during the next year were to succeed, the number of US troops in Vietnam needed to be increased from 120,000 to 400,000.
In retrospect it appears the PAVN was using the battle to draw U.S. attention away from other operations being developed, but this position appears difficult to support considering the loss of about one-third of the attacking force KIA alone.
brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/v/vi/vietnam_war.html   (12336 words)

 Operation Freedom Train / Operation Linebacker I
The increase was due to the preemptive operations by allied forces in preparation for an expected large-scale enemy offensive during Tet which did not materialize.
Operation Freedom Train involved Navy tactical air sorties against military and logistic targets in the southern part of North Vietnam which were involved in the invasion of SVN.
The operating area in North Vietnam was initially limited to between 17th and 19th parallel.
www.globalsecurity.org /military/ops/linebacker-1.htm   (1644 words)

 Mrs. Ruland's US History Class Project -- Timeline of the Vietnam Conflict   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Operation Linebacker II begins, which is commonly referred to as the "Christmas Bombings".
Operation Homecoming started bringing the prisioners of war back into safety upon their realease from North Vietnam.
Operation Frequent Wind was the US evacuation of South Vietnam in the final days.
home.comcast.net /~mruland/stugallery/USHist/vietnam/1972-1975.htm   (190 words)

 Air Power:Linebacker II Bombing Raids
Operating from Andersen AFB, Guam and later U-Tapao Royal Thai Air Base, the B-52 was a major component of many operations including Linebacker and Linebacker II.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki symbolized America’s nuclear might to the Soviet Union, Linebacker II was to impress the Communist nations with America’s strength.
Because of the operation’s size and the lengthy flights, the last planes from Day One were landing back at Guam as the first planes for Day Two were taking off.
www.centennialofflight.gov /essay/Air_Power/Linebacker/AP41.htm   (1534 words)

 Texas Governor Rick Perry - Border Security Plan for Texas   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Operation Linebacker was conceived by the Texas Border Sheriff's Coalition as a means to integrate law enforcement resources along the border to increase both public safety and national security between points of entry.
To ensure a stronger law enforcement presence throughout the border region, additional local law enforcement initiatives that are singularly focused on the reduction of violent border crime are needed.
The Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) gang is now operating in Texas and is engaged in violent crime on both sides of the border.
www.governor.state.tx.us /priorities/other/border/border_security   (1716 words)

 Middle East Newsline -
U.S. officials said Operation Phantom Linebacker has comprised of thousands of U.S. and Iraqi soldiers as well as armored combat vehicles, unmanned air vehicles and helicopters in an effort to stem the flow of insurgents, funds and weapons from Syria into Iraq.
The officials said the operation came in wake of a determination that the Sunni insurgency, including support for Abu Mussib Al Zarqawi, was coming mainly from Saddam Hussein loyalists who have fled to Syria.
Officials said the operation was the largest by the United States to stop weapons from Syria.
www.menewsline.com /stories/2004/august/08_05_1.html   (196 words)

 ipedia.com: Vietnam War Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Bound up with the lack of official war status was the concept of escalation, which used the analogy of an escalator rising slowly but steadily to facilitate gradual entry into warfare as opposed to the traditional declaration of war with its attendant widescale mobilization and straightforward hostilities.
The United States Congress continued to vote appropriations for war operations, and the Johnson Administration claimed these actions as a proxy, along with Tonkin, for the Constitutionally mandated requirement that Congress retain war power.
Politically, the advantage of escalation to those who wanted to be engaged in the war was that no individual instance of escalation dramatically increased the level of U.S. involvement, so the U.S. populace was led to believe that the most recent escalation would be sufficient to "win the war" and therefore would be the last.
www.ipedia.com /vietnam_war.html   (7263 words)

 Linebacker and the Law of War   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Because Linebacker I operations were planned and executed with a conscious consideration of the law of war, the North Vietnamese were was unsuccessful in manipulating international public opinion against the bombing through allegations of indiscriminate bombing.
Inasmuch as the defenses faced in Linebacker II have been described as among the most intense in air power history and accepting the critics’ choices for comparison, the accompanying chart provides testimony to the adherence of Linebacker II forces to the law of war in the execution of their assigned missions.
Linebacker I and Linebacker II were conducted with myriad advantages over Rolling Thunder: improved weapons, weapon systems, targeting, operational flexibility, tactics, and, undoubtedly most important, with the will on the part of the nation’s leaders to utilize military force as necessary to achieve campaign objectives.
www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil /airchronicles/aureview/1983/jan-feb/parks.html   (10994 words)

 Naval Aviation 1970-80
June strike operations were under the influence of the southwest monsoons with attendant clouds and rain.
31--Constellation and Enterprise operated on Yankee Station together during the month until 10 December when the latter was unexpectedly directed to transit to the Indian Ocean where she operated as flagship for the newly formed TF-74 for the possible evacuation of U.S. citizens from East Pakistan in connection with the Indian-Pakistani war.
Operation Homecoming, the repatriation of U.S. POWs between 27 January and 1 April, began and NVN and the Viet Cong released 591 POWs.
www.history.navy.mil /branches/avchr10.htm   (21376 words)

 PARAMETERS, US Army War College Quarterly - Winter 1996-97
The operation boomeranged by producing a hostile congressional reaction and the subsequent reduction of funds for the war effort.[42] To better evaluate the effects of the 1970 Cambodian operation, it is helpful to consider it in a broader context, in the events that unfolded in 1972.
The purpose of Linebacker was to destroy the ability of the NVA to continue its attack into the territory of the South.
Operation Linebacker 2, the heaviest bombing of the war, led to the final cease-fire agreement on 29 January 1973.[59] Dave Palmer again applauded Nixon's action, calling it "a classic example of the overwhelming use of military might to achieve a political end quickly."[60]
carlisle-www.army.mil /usawc/Parameters/96winter/cerami.htm   (5139 words)

 Operation Linebacker II: An Analysis in Operational Design - Storming Media
Abstract: Linebacker 2, an eleven day air operation during the Vietnam War whose objective was to force the government of Hanoi back to the negotiations table.
Although Linebacker 2 is universally considered to have been a successful operation, this case study highlights the problems associated when operational planners failed to adequately apply proper operational design.
The paper's emphasis is on the planning and execution of the bombing operation.
www.stormingmedia.us /28/2805/A280523.html   (173 words)

 Linebacker II   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
During Linebacker II, many of the policy constraints were lifted allowing for greater military influence upon the military strategy.
In spite of deficiencies in the doctrine of the time, Linebacker II was more firmly rooted in best practices than had been Rolling Thunder.
The Linebacker II and Rolling Thunder Operations demonstrate the consequences of not having a sound doctrine in executing military strategy.
www.iwar.org.uk /military/resources/aspc/text/strategy/lb2.htm   (238 words)

As it turned out, one of the valuable side effects of Linebacker II was the boost in morale it brought prisoners as they saw their Communist captors tremble at the explosions and realized that at long last, the United States was fighting the war as it always should have been fought.
As Linebacker II operations unfolded, a number of critical elements played a role in the execution of the attacks, including routes, spacing, altitudes, bomb loads, and basing.
The result of Linebacker II was exactly what had been predicted by those who had advocated full application of airpower against North Vietnam: a military victory.
www.afa.org /magazine/Nov1997/1197lineback.asp   (2912 words)

 GUAM REMEMBERS LOST VIETNAM AIRMEN - December 20, 2004   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Operation Linebacker II turned Andersen Air Force Base into a bustling military camp in December 1972, as thousands of soldiers and 155 B-52 Bomber air crafts prepared for the largest bombing campaign of the war.
Operation Linebacker II ended Jan. 27, 1973, after agreements were reached between South Vietnamese communist forces and the North Vietnam, South Vietnam and the U.S. governments.
As a specialist IV in the U.S. Army, Baza was involved in intelligence operation and almost lost his own life after he was nearly left buried alive in a North Vietnamese tunnel.
pidp.eastwestcenter.org /pireport/2004/December/12-20-14.htm   (406 words)

 Gov. Perry Awards $3.8 Million More for Border Security - Government Technology
"Operation Linebacker is increasing our law enforcement presence along the border, making life more difficult for those trying to smuggle drugs, weapons and people into Texas," Perry said.
Perry noted that Operation Linebacker played a key role last week in thwarting an attempt by drug smugglers to bring three SUVs loaded with illegal drugs across the border in Hudspeth County.
The Linebacker funds will be distributed in the coming weeks through the governor's Criminal Justice Division, after each county's Commissioner's Court approves the grant contracts.
www.govtech.net /magazine/channel_story.php/98431   (648 words)

 Wikinfo | Vietnam War   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The event was labeled the "Gulf of Tonkin incident" by reporters and the next day Operation Pierce Arrow was launched in retaliation; aircraft from the USS Ticonderoga and USS Constellation bombed North Vietnam.
The U.S. Senate then approved the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution on August 7, 1964, which gave broad support to President Johnson to escalate U.S. involvement in the war.
Then on August 18, 1965 Operation Starlite began as the first major American ground battle of the war when 5,500 US Marines destroyed a Viet Cong stronghold on the Van Tuong peninsula in Quang Ngai Province.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Vietnam_War   (4102 words)

 Vietnam Ceasefire 30 Mar 1972 - 28 Jan 1973
Operation Linebacker I commences with U.S. jets laying mines in Haiphong harbor.
According to U.S. reports, Operation Linebacker I damages North Vietnam's ability to supply NVA troops engaged in the Eastertide Offensive.
Operation Linebacker II ends the most intensive bombing campaign of the entire war with over 100,000 bombs dropped on Hanoi and Haiphong.
www.ichiban1.org /html/history/1969_1973_vietnamization/17_vietnam_cease_fire_1972_1973.htm   (1434 words)

 Operation Linebacker II: Encyclopedia topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The North Vietnamese fired most if not all of their SAM missiles and at least 15 Air Force B-52s were shot down in the operation.
The administration knew that only way to bring North Viet Nam back to the peace talks was to attack them in their homeland.
Operation Linebacker II commenced on December 18 and ended on December 29, but sorties were only flown on 11 of these days; bombing continued until December 29th, 1972.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /reference/operation_linebacker_ii1   (554 words)

 "12/72", Stories From Linebacker II - Original Programming by The Teleproduction Group   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
He showed me books - one of which was Karl Eschmann's Linebacker - The Untold Story of the Air Raids Over North Vietnam - and a video that he was involved in which piqued my interest, and then he passed away without the chance to explore further.
The operation known as Linebacker II was about to begin.
During the first three days of the operation, the North Vietnamese downed nine of the B-52s, shocking not only to crewmembers, but to staff and planners as well.
www.teleproductiongroup.com /12_72.html   (674 words)

 "12/72" - Operation Linebacker II - Triumph and Tragedy at 30,000 Feet
Operation Linebacker II - Triumph and Tragedy at 30,000 Feet
We need photographs - especially of those crew members who lost their lives during the operation - and of the crews who flew the missions.
The History of Operation Linebacker II and "12/72"
www.teleproductiongroup.com /12_72-main.html   (210 words)

 Operation Linebacker I   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
A Clausewitzian evaluation of the three American air campaigns against North Vietnam (Rolling Thunder March 1965--October 1986; Linebacker I, May-- October 1972; and Linebacker II, December 1972) reveals that they differed significantly in their effectiveness as political instruments.
Further, the report assesses the two Linebacker operations from a political and military view, including their planning, execution, and impact on the North Vietnamese government.
Failure of the use of airpower; Detractors of the military strategy 'phased escalation'; Effects of 'Operation Linebacker' air campaigns on the North Vietnamese.
www.au.af.mil /au/aul/school/asbc/line1.htm   (519 words)

 Operation LINEBACKER II Day 1
Operation LINEBACKER II began on December 18, 1972, 3,000 sorties, 11 days, and 40,000 tons of bombs penetrated the most concentrated air defense of the war.
As a result of this order Operation LINEBACKER II was executed.
During the first evening of Operation LINEBACKER II the North Vietnamese launched 164 SAMs at the B-52 bombers.
members.aol.com /dpoole1272/home/day1.htm   (1392 words)

 Bio, Simpson, Richard T.
On the first day of Linebacker II, December 18, 129 B52s arrived over Hanoi in three waves, four to five hours apart.
It was the first casualty of the LINEBACKER II operation, and its fate would be shared by fourteen other crews in the next eleven nights of combat.
Although the crew of Charcoal 01 is accounted for, many others involved in the LINEBACKER operations are not.
www.pownetwork.org /bios/s/s212.htm   (818 words)

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