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Topic: Opioid

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In the News (Mon 15 Jul 19)

  eMedicine - Opioid Abuse : Article by William J Meehan, MD, PhD
Opioid tolerance usually does not develop in patients with cancer who are being treated for pain; the need for increasing doses in those patients typically is due to an increasing level of pain.
Opioids are theorized to help the ego in managing painful effects such as anxiety, guilt, and anger.
Gene polymorphisms for dopamine receptors/transporters, opioid receptors, serotonin receptors/transporters, proenkephalin, and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) all appear to be associated with vulnerability to opioid dependence.
www.emedicine.com /med/topic1673.htm   (7302 words)

  Opioid information - Search.com   (Site not responding. Last check: )
There are four broad classes of opioids: endogenous opioid peptides, produced in the body; opium alkaloids, such as morphine (the prototypical opioid) and codeine; semi-synthetic opioids such as heroin and oxycodone; and fully synthetic opioids such as pethidine and methadone that have structures unrelated to the opium alkaloids.
The pharmacodynamic response to an opioid depends on which receptor it binds, its affinity for that receptor, and whether the opioid is an agonist or an antagonist.
Opioids decrease the proliferation of macrophage progenitor cells and lymphocytes, and affect cell differentiation.
c10-ss-1-lb.cnet.com /reference/Opioid?redir=1   (2709 words)

 Molecular Modeling of Opioid Analgesics
Since the time naturally occurring opioids were first used as painkillers (analgesics), the search for compounds with minimal adverse side effects has led to the synthesis and study of many opioid-like compounds.
There is already evidence that nonselective ligands with different combinations of agonist and antagonist activities at each of the three opioid receptors (Table 1) can act as behaviorally selective analgesics—binding to more than one opioid receptor but producing the desired physiological effects.
Because of this promising result, we set out to design and discover novel, nonselective opioid ligands with different combinations of agonist and antagonist activities at the three opioid receptors and to determine which combination of these activities results in the most promising analgesic with the least adverse side effects.
pubs.acs.org /hotartcl/mdd/99/dec/loew.html   (2021 words)

 NCADI: Matching Treatment to Patient Needs in Opioid Substitution Therapy
Opioid substitution therapy is appropriate for persons with chronic opioid dependence and addiction who have a history of repeated relapse, persons who live in environments that do not support a life-style free of substance use, and those who repeatedly engage in criminal behavior related to their chronic opioid use.
Opioid substitution therapy is appropriate for persons with chronic opiate dependence (addiction) who have a history of repeated relapse, persons who live in environments that do not support a lifestyle free of substance use, and persons who repeatedly engage in criminal behavior related to their chronic opiate use.
Opioid substitution therapy may be considered for adolescents, but admission depends on the patient's having tried and failed two prior treatment interventions before he or she is eligible for admission.
ncadi.samhsa.gov /govpubs/bkd168/20d.aspx   (10482 words)

 Pain Management - Opioid Side Effects - M. D. Anderson Cancer Center
Opioid medications work on specific receptors in the brain to decrease the sensation of pain.
"Opioid pain medications can either inhibit or excite the CNS," says Driver, "although inhibition is more common." Patients with depressed CNS functions may feel varying levels of drowsiness, lightheadedness, euphoria or dysphoria, or confusion.
Perhaps the two biggest patient concerns are that they might develop a tolerance to opioids and the pain is no longer controlled, or worse, they might become addicted.
www.mdanderson.org /topics/paincontrol/display.cfm?id=C51CC50C-FDC8-4D7E-B40ED49B77130859&method=displayFull   (689 words)

 Opioid switching to improve pain relief and drug tolerability
Opioid switching is the term given to the clinical practice of substituting one strong opioid with another, in an attempt to achieve a better balance between pain relief and side effects.
Opioids are increasingly used for non-cancer pain, but the practice of opioid switching does not yet appear to be established in this group of patients.
Randomised trials that assessed opioid rotation, switching, or substitution in adults or children with acute or chronic pain were sought through electronic databases and by handsearching relevant journals.
www.cochrane.org /reviews/en/ab004847.html   (599 words)

 Analgesics, opioid   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Opioid analgesics, also known as narcotic analgesics, are pain relievers that act on the central nervous system.
Opioid analgesics are used to relieve pain from a variety of conditions.
Opioids are also given to relieve the pain of terminal cancer, diabetic neuropathy, lower back pain, and other chronic diseases or disorders.
www.lifesteps.com /gm/Atoz/ency/analgesics_opioid.jsp   (1698 words)

 Opioid Rules
LandI or self-insurer may pay for oral opioids for the treatment of chronic, non-cancer pain caused by an accepted condition when that treatment is proper and necessary.
The physician must use a Opioid Progress Report form or a substantially equivalent form, to document the patient's improvement in pain intensity and functional levels.
Opioid treatment for chronic, non-cancer pain past the first three months of such treatment without documentation of substantial improvement is presumed to be not proper and necessary.
www.lni.wa.gov /ClaimsIns/Providers/Treatment/Presc/Policy/Opioid/default.asp   (647 words)

Opioid responsiveness: neuropathic pain has been regarded as “opioid resistant” but it has now been found that it can respond provided that high enough doses are used.
Cross-tolerance with other opioids: this means that if one drug, say, morphine, is changed to another, say oxycodone, then there will be some tolerance to effects such as nausea, sedation etc. but this is not a complete tolerance and the differing strengths of the drugs must also be borne in mind.
Short-acting opioids should not be given chronically on a daily basis in most cases as there is a higher incidence of side-effects and development of tolerance.
www.arachnoiditis.info /content/opioid_medication/opioid_medication.html   (6183 words)

 Opioid withdrawal (Treatment Guide)
by: (1) the cessation or abrupt reduction in dosage of an opioid; or (2) the administration of an opioid antagonist.
TOXIC CAUSES Administration of an opioid antagonist including: Naloxone Naltrexone Nalorphine For this reason, in opioid-dependent individuals, opioid antagonists should be used with caution.
If symptoms and signs of opioid withdrawal do not respond to the use of clonidine and/or benzodiazepines, then the use of propantheline (for stomach cramps) or atropine (for diarrhoea) may be considered.
www.intox.org /databank/documents/treat/treate/trt38_e.htm   (592 words)

 Opioid Systems   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Opioid studies were enhanced by the discovery of endogenous opiate peptides, which function as classical neurotransmitters or hormones just as acetylcholine, norepinephrine or histamine.
Opioid peptides are found in areas known to be involved in pain perception (periaqueductal gray matter, spinal chord, cerebral cortex and thalamus) as well as in other areas of brain including the limbic system (hippocampus) and striatum.
The opioid peptides appear to mediate all of the processes induced by morphine, including analgesia, dependence (physiological/psychological need for the drug) and tolerance (the need for increasing doses of drug to produce the same effect) although claims for an endogenous morphine-like compound have been made.
www.neurosci.pharm.utoledo.edu /MBC3320/opioids.htm   (1311 words)

 Principles of opioid use in chronic noncancer pain -- Gardner-Nix 169 (1): 38 -- Canadian Medical Association Journal
initial opioid may be based on the approaches outlined in Table 3.
Use of opioid analgesics for the treatment of chronic noncancer pain - a consensus statement and guidelines from the Canadian Pain Society.
McNamara P. Opioid switching from morphine to transdermal fentanyl for toxicity reduction in palliative care.
www.cmaj.ca /cgi/content/full/169/1/38   (2729 words)

 Drug Addiction and Treatment Glossary of Terms
Opioids that are produced naturally in the body which have analgesic properties to make us better able to tolerate pain.
An opioid antagonist, similar to naltrexone, that works by blocking opioid receptors in the brain, thereby blocking the effects of opioid agonists (e.g., heroin, morphine).
Opioid receptors are molecules on the surfaces of cells to which opioid compounds attach and through which they exert their effects.
www.naabt.org /glossary.cfm   (6179 words)

 Kappa-opioid agonist in Salvia Divinorum plant reduces addiction -- references.
Opioids mimic the effects of ‘morphine-like’ substances called endorphins, which are normally produced by the body as a natural defence against pain.
Opioid agonists (stimulators) such as morphine and other drugs exert their activity mainly at the mu receptor; you might call it the main addiction receptor.
Mu and delta 1 opioid receptor agonists activate the mesolimbic dopamine system to induce a rewarding effect, whereas the rewarding effect of delta 2 opioid receptor agonists may be produced through a non-dopaminergic system.
members.shaw.ca /duncancrow/salvia_kappa_opioid.html   (1230 words)

 Cancer Pain Relief: A guide to opioid availability
Opioid availability is discussed in the context of the problem of cancer pain and international efforts to address it.
Opioid abuse is a reality, and health care workers must cooperate in the campaign to prevent diversion.
Health care workers may be reluctant to prescribe, stock or dispense opioids if they feel that there is a possibility of their professional licences being suspended or revoked by the governing authority in cases where large quantities of opioids are provided to an individual, even though the medical need for such drugs can be proved.
www.medsch.wisc.edu /painpolicy/publicat/cprguid.htm   (4213 words)

 BioMed Central | Full text | Pharmacological profiles of opioid ligands at Kappa opioid receptors
Opioid ligands possess a variety of physiological activities and medical uses, with the most prominent being in the treatment of pain.
Numerous opioid ligands have been synthesized with the promise of effective analgesia and minimal side-effects; however this goal has yet to be realized.
A well established method for assessing G-protein activation by opioid receptors and characterizing activity of opioid ligands is measuring the extent of inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity [14-19].
www.biomedcentral.com /1471-2210/6/3   (3516 words)

 ACP Observer, December 2004 - Routes of opioid administration
The opioid may be administered via a dedicated portable pump to deliver the drug intravenously or subcutaneously.
Calculate the conversion ratio as the equianalgesic dose of the current opioid (or route) divided by the equianalgesic dose of the alternative opioid (or route).
For moderate or severe pain, titrate the opioid dose upward by 50% to 100% until the pain is relieved.
www.acponline.org /journals/news/dec04/pain/routes.htm   (1197 words)

OPIOID withdrawal is NOT fatal, person won't die; but with barbiturates, withdrawal can be fatal
withdrawal from OPIOID is called going cold turkey (goose bumps on skin) and also called kicking the habit due to leg motions
The Use of Opioids in the treatment of chronic pain
www.med.howard.edu /pharmacology/handouts/Opioid98.htm   (1492 words)

Opioid dependence is one of the fastest growing diseases in the United States today, yet less than 25% of this population receives any form of treatment.
Helping healthcare professionals to become more familiar with opioid dependence and its treatment is the first step in bringing this care back into the medical mainstream and ensuring that every patient who wants help for dependence can receive it.
This website provides information for healthcare professionals about the biological basis of opioid dependence, the addictive potential of opioids, and advances in treatment for patients who suffer from this chronic disease.
www.opioiddependence.com /hcp   (335 words)

 Opioid Addiction -- familydoctor.org   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Opioids (say: oh-pee-oyds) are a kind of drug that are often used for pain control.
You can become addicted to opioids, especially if they are not taken as directed by your doctor or if they are taken illegally.
The trouble may be with your health, with money, with work or school, or with your relationships with family or friends.
www.familydoctor.org /889.xml   (395 words)

 NIDA - Research Report Series - Prescription Drugs: Abuse and Addiction
pioids act on the brain and body by attaching to specific proteins called opioid receptors, which are found in the brain, spinal cord, and gastrointestinal tract.
Opioids can produce drowsiness, nausea, constipation, and, depending upon the amount of drug taken, depress respiration.
Opioid drugs also can induce euphoria by affecting the brain regions that mediate what we perceive as pleasure.
www.drugabuse.gov /ResearchReports/Prescription/prescription2.html   (628 words)

 Office-Based Opioid Addiction Treatment   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Physicians who consider office-based treatment of opioid addiction must be able to recognize the condition of drug or opioid addiction and be knowledgeable about the appropriate use of opioid agonist, antagonist, and partial agonist medications.
Generally, to prescribe and dispense Schedules III-V opioid medications for the treatment of opioid addiction under DATA, the physician must be licensed in the state, have a valid DEA controlled substances registration and identification number, comply with federal and state regulations applicable to controlled substances, and have a current waiver issued by SAMHSA.
Opioid Treatment Program (OTP) (sometimes referred to as a methadone clinic or narcotic treatment program): Opioid treatment program means a licensed program or practitioner engaged in the treatment of opioid addicted patients with approved Scheduled II opioids (methadone and/or LAAM).
www.docboard.org /ia/Opiod2.htm   (4030 words)

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