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Topic: Opioid analgesic

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  Opioids : past, present and future
Yet the therapeutic implications of a recognition that dysfunctional endogenous opioid systems underlie a spectrum of anxiety-disorders and depression are too radical - at present - for the medical establishment to contemplate.
Opioid users are frequently forced into crime to pay for pharmacotherapies that should be cheaply and safely available; and damned for seeking a state of mind which will one day be their birthright: invincible happiness.
For one of our three major endogenous opioid families is implicated in profoundly dysphoric psychological effects: a cruel negative-feedback system exists between the mu and kappa systems that "corrects" any "excess" tendency to well-being.
www.opioids.com   (2111 words)

  Opioid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
There are four broad classes of opioids: endogenous opioid peptides, produced in the body; opium alkaloids, such as morphine (the prototypical opioid) and codeine; semi-synthetic opioids such as heroin and oxycodone; and fully synthetic opioids such as pethidine and methadone that have structures unrelated to the opium alkaloids.
Opioids are widely used in medicine as strong analgesics (pain relievers).
Opioids decrease the proliferation of macrophage progenitor cells and lymphocytes, and affect cell differentiation.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Opioid_analgesic   (1488 words)

 Opioid Receptors
-receptor was subsequently proposed to explain the profile of activity in vitro of the enkephalins (the first endogenous opioid peptides), and on the basis of the relative potency of the non-selective opioid antagonist naloxone to reverse endogenous opioid peptide inhibition of the nerve-evoked contractions of the mouse vas deferens.
The opioid receptor family, in common with the somatostatin receptor family, is somewhat unusual in that all of the cloned opioid receptor types belong to the G
With the benefit of hindsight, it is possible to conceive an evolution of those opioid analogues, with a progressive simplification of chemical structure from the epoxymorphinans (nalorphine, nalbuphine) through the morphinans such as levorphanol, and the benzomorphans such as pentazocine, to the phenyl-piperidines including pethidine and the 4-anilino-piperidines as exemplified by fentanyl (Figure 1).
opioids.com /receptors   (5011 words)

 Patent RE38,407
The amount of the opioid analgesic agent or drug to be included in the liposomal preparation is not, per se, critical and can vary within wide limits depending inter alia on the particular agent, the intended application and the lipid used.
Suitable active ingredients are opioid analgesic agents including such opioid agents as alfentanil, anileridine, codiene, diamorphine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, meperidine (pethidine), morphine, oxycodone, oxymorphone, propoxyphene and sufentanil and the opioid agonists and antagonists pentazocine and nalbuphine.
The liposome-encapsulated opioid analgesic agents normally are administered to a human patient in an amount to provide an accepted and necessary level of therapeutic postoperative analgesic plasma concentration, commonly agreed to be in the range of 0.2 to 1.2 ng/ml.
pharmcast.com /Patents100/Yr2004/Jan2004/012704/RE38407_Pain012704.htm   (1597 words)

 Book Excerpt: Principles of Pharmacology for Athletic Trainers
Opioid analgesics are drugs that have pharmacological activity similar to morphine, which is the prototype for this drug category.
Opioid analgesics affect the cough center in the medulla to cause cough suppression.
Opioid analgesics are often combined with acetaminophen, or sometimes with aspirin or ibuprofen, because the combination of an opioid and nonopioid analgesic provides a synergistic effect, which enhances the analgesia without adding to the adverse effects of either drug.
www.slackbooks.com /excerpts/45945/45945.asp   (7480 words)

Oxycodone is an opioid agonist of the morphine-type.
Opioid analgesics have a narrow therapeutic index in certain patient populations, especially when combined with CNS depressant drugs, and should be reserved for cases where the benefits of opioid analgesia outweigh the known risks of respiratory depression, altered mental state, and postural hypotension.
Opioid antagonists should not be administered in the absence of clinically significant respiratory or circulatory depression secondary to oxycodone overdose.
www.fda.gov /cder/foi/label/2001/20553s022lbl.htm   (7226 words)

 May 2003 CDA Journal - Feature Article, Copyright 2003 Journal of the California Dental Association   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Analgesic and respiratory depressant effects are similar to those elicited by morphine in normal clinical doses; however, a ceiling effect limits these responses in overdose.
Opioid analgesics are problematic in patients with impaired respiration, as may accompany advanced emphysema or poorly controlled myasthenia gravis.
Opioids -- generally combined with acetaminophen for prescribing convenience -- may also be used as a supplement to an NSAID for additional pain relief if needed (for example, if the analgesic effectiveness of the NSAID is shorter in duration than the dosing interval).
www.cda.org /cda_member/pubs/journal/jour0503/huynh.htm   (4250 words)

 Volume IX
The higher opioid requirements of highly tolerant patients treated for pain increase the likelihood of unpleasant nonanalgesic side effects due to greater circulating concentrations of opioids and potentially toxic opioid metabolites.
Morphine is metabolized to morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), an analgesically inactive metabolite, and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G), a potent analgesic.
Thus, it is plausible that clinical analgesic tolerance to morphine may, at least in part, result from an increasing accumulation of M3G in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid relative to morphine and M6G.
www.iasp-pain.org /PCU01-5.html   (2414 words)

 PHAR 653   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
E. If an opioid is to be started in a patient who is not opioid-naive, the dose equianalgesic to the previous opioid should be estimated.
Or, for patients on high opioid doses, calculate the 24 hour opioid dose, convert this dose to parenteral (morphine) and then divide by 24 to determine the hourly dose.
Twycross states that tolerance to the analgesic effect is not a clinical problem when opioids are used in chronic pain in cancer patients.
www.uic.edu /pharmacy/courses/phar653s02/week1b.htm   (3204 words)

 [No title]
A number of opioid analgesics are essential drugs, such as codeine and morphine, and have been included in the WHO three-step analgesic ladder.
Opioid analgesics such as codeine and morphine are considered the cornerstone of analgesic therapy for cancer pain.
Opioid analgesics are very heavily restricted by the government which allocates distribution to different institutions.
www.medsch.wisc.edu /painpolicy/publicat/monograp/latin.htm   (5868 words)

 Analgesics, opioid
Opioid analgesics, also known as narcotic analgesics, are pain relievers that act on the central nervous system.
Opioid analgesics are used to relieve pain from a variety of conditions.
Opioids are also given to relieve the pain of terminal cancer, diabetic neuropathy, lower back pain, and other chronic diseases or disorders.
www.lifesteps.com /gm/Atoz/ency/analgesics_opioid.jsp   (1698 words)

 Oxycontin® Abuse - Find Help for Oxycontin® Abuse
Opioids are commonly prescribed because of their effective analgesic or pain relieving properties.
Opioids act by attaching to specific proteins called opioid receptors, which are found in the brain, spinal cord, and gastrointestinal tract.
Opioids may interact with other drugs and are only safe to use with other drugs under a physician's supervision.
www.oxycontinabuse.com   (803 words)

 The Double Effect of Pain Medication
Although a review of the medical literature reveals that the risk of respiratory depression from opioid analgesic is more myth than fact and that there is little evidence that the use of medication to control pain hastens death, the belief in the double effect of pain medication remains widespread.
Furthermore, using the PDE to justify using opioids to treat pain in dying patients contributes to the belief in the double effect of pain medication, which in turn leads to fear of hastening death and the undertreatment of pain.
It is ironic that an ethical principle that is used to justify adequate opioid analgesics contributes to the undertreatment of pain.
www.hospicecare.com /Ethics/fohrdoc.htm   (7822 words)

 Progress in Opiate Pharmacology
Until recently, all clinically used opioid analgesics were considered pharmacologically equivalent to morphine with respect to both analgesic mechanisms and side effects, differing only in potency, duration of action, or oral availability.
Opioid receptors have been classified by their selectivity in binding and pharmacological assays (Tables 1 and 2) and, more recently, through a series of selective antagonists (Table 3).
Examination of the involvement of supraspinal and spinal mu and delta opioid receptors in analgesia using the mu receptor deficient CXBK mouse.
www.painresearch.utah.edu /cancerpain/ch08.html   (5018 words)

 MedlinePlus Drug Information: Narcotic Analgesics For Surgery and Obstetrics (Systemic)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Narcotic analgesics (nar-KOT-ik an-al-JEE-zicks) are given to relieve pain before and during surgery (including dental surgery) or during labor and delivery.
When a narcotic analgesic is used for surgery or obstetrics (labor and delivery), it will be given by or under the immediate supervision of a medical doctor or dentist, or by a specially trained nurse, in the doctor's office or in a hospital.
Narcotic analgesics and other medicines that may be given with them during surgery may cause some people to feel drowsy, tired, or weak for up to a few days after they have been given.
www.nlm.nih.gov /medlineplus/druginfo/uspdi/202391.html   (1174 words)

The selection of the appropriate analgesic therapy is based on the interplay of the intensity of each patient's pain and current analgesic therapy.
If a patient has mild-to-moderate pain despite taking a nonopioid analgesic, the dose of the nonopioid analgesic should be maximized and a step 2 opioid analgesic (a "mild" opioid such as codeine, hydrocodone or oxycodone) should be added.
Patients who have moderate-to-severe pain despite therapy with step 2 opioids require an increase in the dose of the opioid or, if that is not feasible, a change to a step 3 opioid (a "major" opioid such as morphine, hydromorphone or fentanyl).
www.fmscommunity.org /opiod.htm   (1265 words)

 Analgesic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Analgesic nephropathy is a type of kidney damage resulting from taking painkillers every day for several years.
analgesic The main effect of an analgesic is to reduce or eliminate pain without causing loss of consciousness or altering sensory perception.
Analgesic drugs include the nonnarcotics such as the salicylates, an example is the urinary tract analgesic phenazzopyridine (Pyridium).
pain-relief.sitesarea.com /q/pain-relief-analgesic.htm   (984 words)

 Figure 3   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
An opioid analgesic contract is often used to emphasize this concept.
The signed opioid analgesic contract should be copied twice, with a copy of these guidelines printed on the back of the contract before the patient leaves the office.
Any illegal activities related to opioid analgesic use (selling doses of medications, distributing them to others, altering or forging prescriptions, etc.) are grounds for immediate dismissal from the practice.
www.familypractice.com /journal/1999/v12.n04/1204.05/fig3-1204.05.htm   (471 words)

 Wisconsin physicians' knowledge and attitudes about opioid analgesic regulations
There were 17 factual questions about regulations including multiple choice questions about opioid schedule and number of refills; true/false questions of the ability to prescribe an emergency supply of Schedule II drugs by telephone and the ability of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to have a physician's license revoked.
For analysis of opioid prescribing practice the data was collapsed into two groups; physicians prescribing five or fewer prescriptions per month, and those who prescribe six or more.
Despite the lack of significant regulatory impediments to opioid prescribing in Wisconsin, the results of this survey suggest that Wisconsin physicians are concerned about regulatory scrutiny and that they have poor knowledge of controlled substance regulations.
www.medsch.wisc.edu /painpolicy/publicat/91wmj.htm   (2790 words)

 Schedule III Medications
Norco is an Opioid analgesic and has actions similar to that of Codeine.
Vicoprofen is an opioid analgesic which combines hydrocodone and ibuprofen.
Zydone is an opioid analgesic with actions similar to codeine.
www.painlab.com /schedule_3_drugs.htm   (332 words)

The PROMISE™ initiative consists of practical clinical information, educational resources, and patient support tools—all focused on ensuring the appropriate use of opioid analgesics and minimizing the inherent risks of misuse, abuse, and diversion of these medications.
to improving patient care and the appropriate clinical use of opioid analgesics through access to treatment and a proactive approach to managing the potential risks inherent in opioid therapy.
PROMISE™ is one more example of Endo’s ongoing collaboration with patients, caregivers, health care professionals and government agencies to ensure patients have appropriate medical access to opioid analgesics for pain relief while also having the means to minimize the potential inherent risks of these medications.
www.endopromise.com   (189 words)

Oxycodone is a very powerful and potentially addictive opioid analgesic medication synthesized from thebaine.
Abusers crush the tablets to defeat the time-release mechanism, and have been reported to snort or inject the resulting powder to achieve rapid absorption into the bloodstream.
It was once felt that "combination" opioids (those that contain one or more additional, non-narcotic ingredients) would be less subject to abuse, since, for example, the amount of acetaminophen present in large overdoses of Percocet would cause stomach upset and liver damage.
encycl.opentopia.com /term/Oxycodone   (593 words)

 A substance P-opioid chimeric peptide as a unique nontolerance-forming analgesic -- Foran et al. 97 (13): 7621 -- ...
The neuropeptide substance P (SP) and endogenous opioids are intimately involved in the regulation of acute and chronic pain
Ordinal values represent the analgesic response as expressed by the AUC (means ± SEM; n = 3 for 1 µg of ESP7; n = 5 for 1 µg of NTX control) for each day of analgesic testing.
Clinically, opioids are widely used to alleviate both acute and chronic pain symptoms (34).
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/97/13/7621   (4889 words)

 Opioid Analgesic Guidelines Strike Delicate Balance -- Bender 39 (19): 27 -- Psychiatric News
Opioid Analgesic Guidelines Strike Delicate Balance -- Bender 39 (19): 27 -- Psychiatric News
in using opioid analgesics such as morphine and oxycodone for
issues such as how opioid analgesics are used to treat chronic
pn.psychiatryonline.org /cgi/content/full/39/19/27   (507 words)

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